Bone marrow lesions in the knee are associated with increased local bone density

Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
Arthritis & Rheumatology (Impact Factor: 7.76). 09/2005; 52(9):2814-21. DOI: 10.1002/art.21290
Source: PubMed


Bone marrow lesions are associated with pain and compartment-specific progression of joint space narrowing in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Bone marrow lesions occur in regions under increased loading, and excess loading produces increased bone mineral density (BMD). The ratio of BMD in the medial tibial plateau compared with that in the lateral tibial plateau (M:L BMD ratio) reflects loading in the knee. Therefore, we hypothesized that a higher M:L BMD ratio would be associated with medial bone marrow lesions, and that lower ratios would be associated with lateral bone marrow lesions.
Participants in the Framingham Osteoarthritis Study underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), measurement of bone mineral density (BMD), and knee radiography between 2002 and 2004. MRI was used to define medial and lateral bone marrow lesions in the medial and lateral tibiofemoral compartments, respectively. We performed a logistic regression analysis with medial bone marrow lesions as the outcome, testing M:L BMD ratio groups as predictor variables. We adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and systemic BMD, using generalized estimating equations to adjust for correlations between knees. An identical analysis evaluating lateral bone marrow lesions was performed.
Medial bone marrow lesions were strongly associated with a high M:L BMD ratio. The odds ratios (ORs) for prevalent medial bone marrow lesions, for the lowest to the highest quartile of M:L BMD ratios, were 1.0 (referent), 1.3, 5.0, and infinity (P for trend < 0.0001). Lateral bone marrow lesions were strongly associated with low M:L BMD ratios (the ORs for prevalent lateral bone marrow lesions, for the highest to the lowest quartile, were 1.0 [referent], 3.0, 26.8, and 54.0 [P for trend < 0.0001]).
Medial bone marrow lesions occur in knees with relatively higher local medial tibial bone density, and lateral bone marrow lesions occur in knees with relatively higher lateral tibial bone density, supporting the hypothesis that local BMD reflects loading within the knee. Our findings emphasize the importance of loading in the pathophysiology of OA.

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Available from: Michael P Lavalley, Sep 23, 2014
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    • "Bone marrow lesions (BMLs) are common magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings among knees with osteoarthritis. BMLs are characterized as ill-defined regions of high-signal intensity within the subchondral bone on fluid-sensitive MR images that are associated with altered bone quality (for example, increased bone volume fraction [1-3], increased periarticular bone mineral density (paBMD) [4], decreased mineral content [2], fibrosis [3], and edema [5]). BMLs are clinically meaningful because they are associated with knee pain and disease severity (for example, cartilage damage) as well as predictive of changes in knee pain and structural progression (for example, cartilage loss) [6,7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the associations between bone marrow lesion (BML) volume change and changes in periarticular bone mineral density (paBMD) as well as subchondral sclerosis to determine whether BML change is associated with other local bone changes. The convenience sample comprised participants in the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) with weight-bearing posterior-anterior knee radiographs and magnetic resonance images (MRIs) at the 24- and 48-month visits and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the 30-/36-month and 48-month visits. The right knee was assessed unless contraindicated for MRI. We used knee DXA scans to measure medial tibia paBMD and medial/lateral paBMD ratio (M:L paBMD). Knee radiographs were scored for sclerosis (grades 0 to 3) in the medial tibia. Two raters determined BML volume on sagittal fat-suppressed MRI by using a semiautomated segmentation method. To focus on knees with only medial tibia BML changes, knees with lateral tibial BMLs were excluded. Medial tibial BML volume change was classified into three groups: BML regression (lowest quartile of medial tibial BML volume change), no-to-minimal change (middle two quartiles), and BML progression (highest quartile). We used proportional odds logistic regression models to evaluate the association between quartiles of changes in medial paBMD or M:L paBMD ratio, as outcomes, and BML volume change. The sample (n = 308) included 163 (53%) female subjects, 212 (69%) knees with radiographic osteoarthritis, and participants with a mean age of 63.8 ± 9.3 years and mean body mass index of 29.8 ± 4.7 kg/m(2). We found an association between greater increases in medial tibia paBMD and BML regression (OR = 1.7 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1 to 2.8)) and a similar trend for BML progression (OR = 1.6 (95% CI = 1.0 to 2.6]). We also detected associations between greater increase in M:L paBMD and BML regression (OR = 1.6 (95% CI = 1.0 to 2.7]) and BML progression (OR = 1.8 (95% CI = 1.1 to 3.0)), although BML regression had borderline statistical significance. The frequency of sclerosis progression in the medial tibia (n = 14) was greater among knees with BML progression or regression compared with knees without BML change (P = 0.01 and P = 0.04, respectively). BML regression and BML progression are characterized by concurrent increases in paBMD and sclerosis, which are characteristic of increased radiographic osteoarthritis severity. At least during 24 months, BML regression is not representative of improvement in other periarticular bone measures.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Arthritis Research & Therapy
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    • "Advanced osteoarthritis is visualized by thickening of subchondral bone and synovium, bone spurs at the joint periphery, and feathering/full thickness defects in the articular surface [37, 38]. However, by this stage of OA advancement, reversal is unlikely. "
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    ABSTRACT: Many musculoskeletal disorders (MDs) are associated with irreversible bone and cartilage damage; this is particularly true for osteoarthritis (OA). Therefore, a clinical need exists for modalities which can detect OA and other MDs at early stages. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an infrared-based imaging, currently FDA approved in cardiology and ophthalmology, which has a resolution greater than 10 microns and acquisition rate of 120 frames/second. It has shown feasibility for imaging early OA, identifying changes prior to cartilage thinning both in vitro and in vivo in patients and in OA animal models. In addition, OCT has shown an ability to identify early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and guide tendon repair, but has the potential for an even greater impact. Clinical trials in OA are currently underway, as well as in several other MDs.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013
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    • "Importantly, although longitudinal studies reveal that the bone marrow lesions may come and go, their presence correlates overall with the severity of joint pain and with progression of OA cartilage and bone changes [Felson et al. 2001, 2007; Hernandez-Molina et al. 2008; Hunter et al. 2006; Lo et al. 2005; Reichenbach et al. 2008; Roemer et al. 2010; Taljanovic et al. 2008; Tanamas et al. 2010]. The correspondence of the sites of bone marrow lesions with regions of bone and cartilage damage strongly supports a primary role for a mechanical and traumatic etiology for the subchondral bone marrow changes [Bennell et al. 2011; Eriksen and Ringe, 2011]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The articular cartilage and the subchondral bone form a biocomposite that is uniquely adapted to the transfer of loads across the diarthrodial joint. During the evolution of the osteoarthritic process biomechanical and biological processes result in alterations in the composition, structure and functional properties of these tissues. Given the intimate contact between the cartilage and bone, alterations of either tissue will modulate the properties and function of the other joint component. The changes in periarticular bone tend to occur very early in the development of OA. Although chondrocytes also have the capacity to modulate their functional state in response to loading, the capacity of these cells to repair and modify their surrounding extracellular matrix is relatively limited in comparison to the adjacent subchondral bone. This differential adaptive capacity likely underlies the more rapid appearance of detectable skeletal changes in OA in comparison to the articular cartilage. The OA changes in periarticular bone include increases in subchondral cortical bone thickness, gradual decreases in subchondral trabeular bone mass, formation of marginal joint osteophytes, development of bone cysts and advancement of the zone of calcified cartilage between the articular cartilage and subchondral bone. The expansion of the zone of calcified cartilage contributes to overall thinning of the articular cartilage. The mechanisms involved in this process include the release of soluble mediators from chondrocytes in the deep zones of the articular cartilage and/or the influences of microcracks that have initiated focal remodeling in the calcified cartilage and subchondral bone in an attempt to repair the microdamage. There is the need for further studies to define the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the interaction between subchondral bone and articular cartilage and for applying this information to the development of therapeutic interventions to improve the outcomes in patients with OA.
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