Ca2+ release from host intracellular stores and related signal transduction during Campylobacter jejuni 81–176 internalization into human intestinal cell
Laboratory of Enteric and Sexually Transmitted Diseases, FDA-Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, 29 Lincoln Drive, Bldg 29/420 HFM440, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.Microbiology (Impact Factor: 2.56). 10/2005; 151(Pt 9):3097-105. DOI: 10.1099/mic.0.27866-0
Campylobacter jejuni is the leading bacterial cause of human diarrhoeal disease in many parts of the world, including the USA. The ability of C. jejuni to invade the host intestinal epithelium is an important determinant of virulence. A common theme among pathogenic invasive micro-organisms is their ability to usurp the eukaryotic cell-signalling systems both to allow for invasion and to trigger disease pathogenesis. Ca(2+) is very important in a great variety of eukaryotic cell-signalling processes (e.g. calmodulin-activated enzymes, nuclear transcriptional upregulation, and cytoskeletal rearrangements). This study analyses the effects of Ca(2+) availability on invasion of human INT407 intestinal epithelial cells by C. jejuni strain 81-176. The ability of C. jejuni to invade INT407 cells was not blocked by chelation of any remaining extracellular Ca(2+) from host cells incubated in Ca(2+)-free, serum-free media. In contrast, C. jejuni invasion was markedly reduced either by chelating host intracellular Ca(2+) with 1,2-bis-(2-)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA, AM) or by blocking the release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores with dantrolene or U73122. Moreover, Bay K8644, a plasma-membrane Ca(2+)-channel agonist, was observed to stimulate C. jejuni invasion, presumably by increasing host intracellular free Ca(2+) levels. Measurement of host-cell cytosolic Ca(2+) via spectrofluorimetry and fluorescence microscopy revealed an increase in Ca(2+) from 10 min post-infection. Monolayer pretreatment with either a calmodulin antagonist or a specific inhibitor of protein kinase C was found to cause a marked reduction in C. jejuni invasion, suggesting roles for these Ca(2+)-activated modulators in signal-transduction events involved in C. jejuni invasion. These results demonstrate that C. jejuni induces the mobilization of Ca(2+) from host intracellular stores, which is an essential step in the invasion of intestinal cells by this pathogen.
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- "Carbachol was used as a muscarinic agonist that mimics the stimulating action of the enteric nervous system on enterocyte functions which rely on [Ca 2+ ] i . Among those functions are the activation of intracellular enzymes, upregulation of nuclear transcription , and cytoskeletal rearrangement (Hu et al. 2005). A role of an increase in intracellular calcium has also been demonstrated in rotavirus and HIV virus pathogenesis where it is essentially implicated in the inhibition of SGLT-1 (Maresca et al. 2003; Ousingsawat et al. 2011). "
ABSTRACT: Although a high number of chickens carry Campylobacter jejuni, the mechanistic action of colonization in the intestine is still poorly understood. The current study was therefore designed to investigate the effects of C. jejuni on glucose uptake, amino acids availability in digesta, and intracellular calcium [Ca(2+)]i signaling in the intestines of broiler chickens. For this, we compared: control birds (n = 60) and C. jejuni-infected birds (n = 60; infected orally with 1 × 10(8) CFU of C. jejuni NCTC 12744 at 14 days of age). Our results showed that glucose uptake was reduced due to C. jejuni infection in isolated jejunal, but not in cecal mucosa at 14 days postinfection (dpi). The decrease in intestinal glucose absorption coincided with a decrease in body weight gain during the 2-week post-infectious period. A reduction in the amount of the amino acids (serine, proline, valine, leucine, phenylalanine, arginine, histidine, and lysine) in ileal digesta of the infected birds at 2 and/or 7 dpi was found, indicating that Campylobacter utilizes amino acids as a carbon source for their multiplication. Applying the cell-permeable Ca(2+) indicator Fluo-4 and two-photon microscopy, we revealed that [Ca(2+)]i was increased in the jejunal and cecal mucosa of infected birds. The muscarinic agonist carbachol induced an increase in [Ca(2+)]i in jejunum and cecum mucosa of control chickens, a response absent in the mucosa of infected chickens, demonstrating that the modulation of [Ca(2+)]i by Campylobacter might be involved in facilitating the necessary cytoskeletal rearrangements that occur during the bacterial invasion of epithelial cells. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the multifaceted interactions of C. jejuni with the gastrointestinal mucosa of broiler chickens. For the first time, it could be shown that a Campylobacter infection could interfere with intracellular Ca(2+) signaling and nutrient absorption in the small intestine with consequences on intestinal function, performance, and Campylobacter colonization. Altogether, these findings indicate that Campylobacter is not entirely a commensal and can be recognized as an important factor contributing to an impaired chicken gut health.
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- "For instance, intracellular free calcium ion (Ca2+), an important intracellular messenger with multiple physiological functions, is increased when cells are infected with some bacterial pathogens . Thus, Helicobacter pylori or Campylobacter jejuni cause an elevation of intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) through Ca2+ release and/or influx mechanisms in gastric mucous epithelial cells or in intestinal epithelial cells during infection , . The high [Ca2+]i in macrophages caused by infection with Listeria monocytogenes or Brucella abortus are involved in bacterial invasion and escape from phagocytotic vesicles for intracellular replication , . "
ABSTRACT: Leptospira-induced macrophage death has been confirmed to play a crucial role in pathogenesis of leptospirosis, a worldwide zoonotic infectious disease. Intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) elevation induced by infection can cause cell death, but [Ca(2+)]i changes and high [Ca(2+)]i-induced death of macrophages due to infection of Leptospira have not been previously reported. We first used a Ca(2+)-specific fluorescence probe to confirm that the infection of L. interrogans strain Lai triggered a significant increase of [Ca(2+)]i in mouse J774A.1 or human THP-1 macrophages. Laser confocal microscopic examination showed that the [Ca(2+)]i elevation was caused by both extracellular Ca(2+) influx through the purinergic receptor, P2X7, and Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum, as seen by suppression of [Ca(2+)]i elevation when receptor-gated calcium channels were blocked or P2X7 was depleted. The LB361 gene product of the spirochete exhibited phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C (L-PI-PLC) activity to hydrolyze phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) into inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), which in turn induces intracellular Ca(2+) release from endoplasmic reticulum, with the Km of 199 µM and Kcat of 8.566E-5 S(-1). Secretion of L-PI-PLC from the spirochete into supernatants of leptospire-macrophage co-cultures and cytosol of infected macrophages was also observed by Western Blot assay. Lower [Ca(2+)]i elevation was induced by infection with a LB361-deficient leptospiral mutant, whereas transfection of the LB361 gene caused a mild increase in [Ca(2+)]i. Moreover, PI-PLCs (PI-PLC-β3 and PI-PLC-γ1) of the two macrophages were activated by phosphorylation during infection. Flow cytometric detection demonstrated that high [Ca(2+)]i increases induced apoptosis and necrosis of macrophages, while mild [Ca(2+)]i elevation only caused apoptosis. This study demonstrated that L. interrogans infection induced [Ca(2+)]i elevation through extracellular Ca(2+) influx and intracellular Ca(2+) release cause macrophage apoptosis and necrosis, and the LB361 gene product was shown to be a novel PI-PLC of L. interrogans responsible for the [Ca(2+)]i elevation.
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- "). Invasion of human intestinal epithelial cells by C. jejuni in vitro requires release of Ca 2+ from intracellular stores and inhibition of calmodulin using a calmodulin agonist inhibits C. jejuni intracellular epithelial cell invasion in vitro (Hu et al. 2005). This finding suggests there may be a relationship with the association observed surrounding the T-cadherin gene, although no correlation between SNP genotypes from the two regions was found. "
ABSTRACT: The enteropathogen Campylobacter jejuni is a major worldwide health and economic burden, being one of the leading causes of bacterial gastroenteritis and commonly linked to postinfectious onset of autoimmune disease. Chickens are a major vector for human infection and even though variation in avian colonization level is heritable, no previous studies have identified regions of the genome associated with colonization resistance. We performed a genome-wide association study of resistance to C. jejuni colonization in the avian intestine, controlling for population structure which revealed a risk locus with genome-wide significance spanning the T-cadherin (CDH13) gene. A second possible risk locus was also identified close to calmodulin (CALM1), a calcium-activated modulator of cadherin function. In addition, gene expression analysis of mRNA sequencing profiles revealed that the relative expression of the two genes is significantly associated with colonization resistance. Functional studies have previously demonstrated involvement of cadherins and calmodulin in C. jejuni intracellular invasion and colonization of human intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. Consistent with this, our analysis reveals that variation surrounding these genes is associated with avian colonization resistance in vivo and highlights their potential as possible targets for control of the bacterium in avian and human populations.
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