Low Part per Trillion Determination of Reactive Alkanethiols in Wastewater by in Situ Derivatization-Solid-Phase Microextraction Followed by GC/MS
Analytical Chemistry Department, I.I.A.A. Faculty of Chemistry, Santiago de Compostela University, Avda das Ciencias s/n, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain.Analytical Chemistry (Impact Factor: 5.64). 10/2005; 77(18):6012-8. DOI: 10.1021/ac050685r
A solid-phase microextraction (SPME) procedure for the simultaneous determination of volatile alkanethiols (i.e., methane-, ethane-, propanethiol) and dihydrogen sulfide in aqueous samples as stable thioethers followed by GC/MS determination was developed. Accordingly, N-ethylmaleimide as derivatization reagent in the aqueous phase was used for the first time, improving the analyte stability and method sensitivity in comparison to the determination of free forms. Thus, pH of the aqueous medium, reaction time, and derivatization reagent concentration have been evaluated, and the main parameters affecting the SPME process (i.e., coating selection, extraction mode and time profile, extraction and desorption temperatures) optimized. At the selected derivatization and extraction conditions, the proposed method provided no matrix effect either in the derivatization reaction or in the microextraction steps. RSD values were lower than 11% and LODs from 0.74 to 5.2 ng L(-1). The developed procedure was successfully applied to different water and wastewater samples, where dihydrogen sulfide and some of the target alkanethiols were identified at low-microgram per liter concentrations.
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ABSTRACT: In this paper the most recent developments in the microextraction of polar analytes from aqueous environmental samples are critically reviewed. The particularities of different microextraction approaches, mainly solid-phase microextraction (SPME), stir-bar-sorptive extraction (SBSE), and liquid-phase microextraction (LPME), and their suitability for use in combination with chromatographic or electrically driven separation techniques for determination of polar species are discussed. The compatibility of microextraction techniques, especially SPME, with different derivatisation strategies enabling GC determination of polar analytes and improving their extractability is revised. In addition to the use of derivatisation reactions, the possibility of enhancing the yield of solid-phase microextraction methods for polar analytes by using new coatings and/or larger amounts of sorbent is also considered. Finally, attention is also focussed on describing the versatility of LPME in its different possible formats and its ability to improve selectivity in the extraction of polar analytes with acid-base properties by using separation membranes and buffer solutions, instead of organic solvents, as the acceptor solution.
Article: SPME in environmental analysis[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recent advances in the use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) in environmental analysis, including fiber coatings, derivatization techniques, and in-tube SPME, are reviewed in this article. Several calibration methods for SPME, including traditional calibration methods, the equilibrium extraction method, the exhaustive extraction method, and several diffusion-based calibration methods, are presented. Recent developed SPME devices for on-site sampling and several applications of SPME in environmental analysis are also introduced.
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ABSTRACT: A fiber coating from polyaniline (PANI) was electrochemically prepared and employed for solid phase microextraction (SPME) of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from water samples. The PANI film was directly electrodeposited on the platinum wire surface in sulfuric acid solution using cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique. The applicability of this coating was assessed employing a laboratory-made SPME device and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the extraction of some PAHs from the headspace of aqueous samples. Application of wider potential range in CV led to a PANI with more stability against the temperature. The homogeneity and the porous surface structure of the film were examined by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The study revealed that this polymer is a suitable SPME fiber coating for extracting the selected PAHs. Important parameters influencing the extraction process were optimized and an extraction time of 40 min at 40 degrees C gave maximum peak area, when the aqueous sample was added with NaCl (20%, w/v). The synthesis of the PANI can be carried out conveniently and in a reproducible manner while it is rather inexpensive and stable against most of organic solvents. The film thickness of PANI can be precisely controlled by the number of CV cycles. The resulting thickness was roughly 20 microm after 20 cycles. At the optimum conditions, the relative standard deviation (RSD) for a double distilled water spiked with selected PAHs at ppb level were 8.80-16.8% (n = 3) and detection limits for the studied compounds were between 0.1-6 pg mL(-1). The performance of PANI was, also, compared with a commercial solid coated-based SPME fiber, carbowax/divinylbenzene (CW/DVB), under similar experimental conditions.
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