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The Relationship Between Employee Job Change and Job Satisfaction: The Honeymoon-Hangover Effect.

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Abstract

Recent research suggests that the turnover process is not fully captured by the traditional sequential model relating job dissatisfaction to subsequent turnover. The present study contributes to this research by modeling within-individual job satisfaction as a function of job change patterns to determine if individual work attitudes change systematically with the temporal turnover process. Specifically, the authors hypothesized that low satisfaction would precede a voluntary job change, with an increase in job satisfaction immediately following a job change (the honeymoon effect), followed by a decline in job satisfaction (the hangover effect). Though this pattern is suggested in the literature, no prior research has integrated and tested this complete temporal model within individuals. Findings based on a sample of managers supported the proposed honeymoon-hangover effect.

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... There is evidence that newcomers' job satisfaction increases in the first year after a job change (Boswell et al., 2005;Dunford et al, 2012) due to the contrast experienced between the new job and previous one (the honeymoon effect, Boswell et al., 2005). However, soon after organizational entry, job satisfaction starts to decline as the negative aspects of the new job, which less noticeable immediately after entry, become more apparent -the so-called hangover effect (Boswell et al., 2005;Boswell, Shipp, Payne, & Culbertson, 2009;Chadi & Hetschko, 2017;Georgellis, & Yusuf, 2016). ...
... There is evidence that newcomers' job satisfaction increases in the first year after a job change (Boswell et al., 2005;Dunford et al, 2012) due to the contrast experienced between the new job and previous one (the honeymoon effect, Boswell et al., 2005). However, soon after organizational entry, job satisfaction starts to decline as the negative aspects of the new job, which less noticeable immediately after entry, become more apparent -the so-called hangover effect (Boswell et al., 2005;Boswell, Shipp, Payne, & Culbertson, 2009;Chadi & Hetschko, 2017;Georgellis, & Yusuf, 2016). ...
... There is evidence that newcomers' job satisfaction increases in the first year after a job change (Boswell et al., 2005;Dunford et al, 2012) due to the contrast experienced between the new job and previous one (the honeymoon effect, Boswell et al., 2005). However, soon after organizational entry, job satisfaction starts to decline as the negative aspects of the new job, which less noticeable immediately after entry, become more apparent -the so-called hangover effect (Boswell et al., 2005;Boswell, Shipp, Payne, & Culbertson, 2009;Chadi & Hetschko, 2017;Georgellis, & Yusuf, 2016). After the hangover period, learning processes start, which, according to COR theory (Hobfoll, 1989), can result in resource gains (e.g., knowledge, skills, social relationships) and raise job satisfaction. ...
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Well-being plays an important role in organizational entry and exit processes. However, longitudinal research on the relationship between voluntary job change and well-being is still sparse, and focuses on rather short time intervals (max. three years). Using 12 waves of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey, the present study extends previous research by examining whether and how well-being is affected by a voluntary external job change, and vice versa. We tested cross-lagged effects between voluntary job change and well-being (job satisfaction, vitality, sense of belonging) with a sample of 2565 workers, and between job change and work-family conflicts as another indicator for well-being with a sample of 1574 working parents. Results of continuous time modeling revealed that job change predicted decreased job satisfaction and vitality and increased work-family conflicts. Job change had no significant effect on sense of belonging. The strongest relations between job change and well-being were observed in the first five years after an organizational entry (job satisfaction one year two months; vitality four years four months; work-family strains three years five months; sense of belonging three years eight months). Job change had no significant effect on sense of belonging. We also found partial support for reverse effects: increased job satisfaction made a job change less likely (strongest effect after two years) and higher work-family conflicts more likely (strongest effect after four years). Thus, the results indicate when it is especially important to support newcomers to improve adjustment and prevent quitting.
... Related to our analysis evaluating tenure's effect on the intention to leave, our results support the honeymoon-hangover effect (Boswell et al., 2005). This model suggested that employees' satisfaction will be higher in the initial period (honeymoon) and tend to be decreased as the tenure increase and vice versa for the turnover intention. ...
... Last, our study confirms the effect of tenure on the intention to leave, supporting the honeymoon effect (Boswell et al., 2005). This model indicated that employee satisfaction would be greater during the initial phase (honeymoon) and decline as tenure increases, and inversely for turnover intent. ...
... Our results revealed that satisfaction with the physical working condition, included as extrinsic job satisfaction, has the most significant effect compared to other facets of job satisfaction. In addition, our result confirms the notion of the honeymoon-hangover effect (Boswell et al., 2005) that the turnover will be higher as the tenure grows, and the turnover will drop as the employees reach their mid-career in the organization. However, our result does not support several prior studies (e.g., Andrade et al., 2021;Hijaziet al., 2021;Moslehpour et al., 2019), supervision has no significant influence on ITL. ...
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Purpose: This study aims to find the relationship between the most influencing employee satisfaction factor toward intention to leave and examine the curvilinear effect of tenure to intention to leave. Design/methodology/approach: This study is based on quantitative analysis using Structural Equation Modelling Partial Least Square (SEM-PLS), which aims to examine and identify the factors influencing the intention to leave. Findings: The result showed that physical work conditions, promotional opportunities, and pay are the highest significantly affect ITL in the public sector in Mongolia. However, supervision has no significant influence on ITL. Hence, to decrease the ITL in Mongolia’s public sector, physical work conditions, promotional opportunities, and may need to be enhanced and well designed to improve job satisfaction. Originality/value: The research findings contribute to a better understanding of intent to leave and job satisfaction for public employees and provide empirical evidence on the factors influencing the intention to leave.
... Theoretical background and hypothesis development Job satisfaction and changing to self-employment Job satisfaction is commonly defined as the extent to which people like their job (Mill an et al., 2013); in a broad sense, it reflects the general feelings that people have about their jobs (Carless and Arnup, 2011), or the emotional state determined by their appraisal of work experience (Boswell et al., 2005). It is an attitudinal reaction to, and an affective judgment regarding, the nature and conditions of work, which not only represents individuals' work accomplishments but also their career prospects (Boswell et al., 2005;Grube et al., 2008). ...
... Theoretical background and hypothesis development Job satisfaction and changing to self-employment Job satisfaction is commonly defined as the extent to which people like their job (Mill an et al., 2013); in a broad sense, it reflects the general feelings that people have about their jobs (Carless and Arnup, 2011), or the emotional state determined by their appraisal of work experience (Boswell et al., 2005). It is an attitudinal reaction to, and an affective judgment regarding, the nature and conditions of work, which not only represents individuals' work accomplishments but also their career prospects (Boswell et al., 2005;Grube et al., 2008). ...
... The career change and job satisfaction literature has identified a common pattern of lower job satisfaction before a career change, and a rise in the job satisfaction level following the change (e.g. Boswell et al., 2005Boswell et al., , 2009Zhou et al., 2017). These findings indicate that dissatisfying experiences from the previous job may be the reason for career change. ...
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Purpose – While researchers have discussed the association between career change to self-employment and job satisfaction, few have considered how the association is achieved. Therefore, in this study, the authors aim to explain this relationship from the perspective of job quality. The authors build on job design theory to propose and empirically test how fluctuations in job satisfaction as associated with the transition to self-employment can be explained by changes in job quality. Design/methodology/approach – The authors tested their propositions using a longitudinal, nationally representative database from Australia for the 2005–2019 period. The final sample included 108,384 observations from 18,755 employees. Findings – In line with the literature, the authors found that job incumbents experienced low job satisfaction in the years prior to their career change to self-employment and that their job satisfaction improved after the transition. More importantly, the authors found the same change pattern for job quality – measured as job autonomy and skill variety – and the statistical results demonstrated that job quality was the key determinant of job satisfaction during the process. Practical implications – This study advocates the importance of job quality in managing employee wellbeing and facilitating retention. Originality/value – The authors contribute to the literature by uncovering how job quality, represented by skill variety and job autonomy, can explain fluctuations in job satisfaction during individuals’ career change from paid employment to self-employment.
... In this vein, a series of studies find a negative relationship between job satisfaction and labor turnover (see e.g. Clark et al., 1998;Boswell et al., 2005;Chen et al., 2011), absenteeism (Hammer et al., 1981), and error rates (Petty and Bruning, 1980). Consequently, this chapter analyses whether dissatisfied workers are willing to invest into job-related training. ...
... Most noteworthy, job dissatisfaction is a profound predictor of both quit intention as well as subsequent labor turnover (see e.g. Spencer and Steers, 1981;Lance, 1988;Clark et al., 1998;Boswell et al., 2005 The remainder of this paper is structured as follows: Section 4.2 introduces the theoretical framework and hypotheses. The utilized data is introduced in Section 4.3, followed by the empirical strategy, main results and robustness in Section 4. 4 ...
... As Boswell et al. (2005) point out "a firm's intellectual capital is increasingly critical for sustained competitiveness" (p.882). Thus, keeping the skills of workers up-to-date in the face of the continuously evolving labor market is a key goal for firms and their workers. ...
Thesis
This thesis offers insights into the process of workers decisions to invest into work-related training. Specifically, the role of personality traits and attitudes is analysed. The aim is to understand whether such traits contribute to an under-investment into training. Importantly, general and specific training are distinguished, where the worker’s productivity increases in many firms in the former and only in the current firm in the latter case. Additionally, this thesis contributes to the evaluation of the German minimum wage introduction in 2015, identifying causal effects on wages and working hours. Chapters two to four focus on the work-related training decision. First, individuals with an internal locus of control see a direct link between their own actions and their labor market success, while external individuals connect their outcomes to fate, luck, and other people. Consequently, it can be expected that internal individuals expect higher returns to training and are, thus, more willing to participate. The results reflect this hypothesis with internal individuals being more likely to participate in general (but not specific) training. Second, training can be viewed either as a risky investment or as an insurance against negative labor income shocks. In both cases, risk attitudes are expected to play a role in the decision process. The data point towards risk seeking individuals being more likely to participate in general (but not specific) training, and thus, training being viewed on average as a risky investment. Third, job satisfaction influences behavioral decisions in the job context, where dissatisfied workers may react by neglecting their duties, improving the situation or quitting the job. In the first case, dissatisfied workers are expected to invest less in training, while the latter two reactions could lead to higher participation rates amongst dissatisfied workers. The results suggest that on average dissatisfied workers are less likely to invest into training than satisfied workers. However, closer inspections of quit intentions and different sources of dissatisfaction paint less clear pictures, pointing towards the complexity of the job satisfaction construct. Chapters five and six evaluate the introduction of the minimum wage in Germany in 2015. First, in 2015 an increase in the growth of hourly wages can be identified as a causal effect of the minimum wage introduction. However, at the same time, a reduction in the weekly working hours results in an overall unchanged growth in monthly earnings. When considering the effects in 2016, the decrease in weekly working hours disappears, resulting in a significant increase in the growth of monthly earnings due to the minimum wage. Importantly, the analysis suggests that the increase in hourly wages was not sufficient to ensure all workers receiving the minimum wage. This points to non-compliance being an issue in the first years after the minimum wage introduction.
... Fixed effects regression analyses, including lag and lead variables, showed that the work ability of participants, who changed between 2011 and 2014, initially improved following the change and then considerably deteriorated while staying with the new employer. This phenomenon is called a honeymoon-hangover effect (Boswell, Boudreau, & Tichy, 2005). ...
... Today a large body of research on employee turnover exists, however, the employer changes of older workers have rarely been investigated. Research often focuses on younger workers (e. g., Nouri & Parker, 2013), deliberately excluding older workers because their changes are assumed to follow different patterns (e. g., Adams, 2004), or include all age groups (e. g., Boswell et al., 2005). Yet, many psychological and practical obstacles for changing employer at higher working age are discussed (e. g., Bailey & Hansson, 1995). ...
... Some studies showed that the positive effects found following the employer change faded over time (Boswell et al., 2005;Boswell, Shipp, Payne, & Culbertson, 2009;Chadi & Hetschko, 2014). Boswell et al. (2005) called this phenomenon the honeymoon-hangover effect (HHE). ...
Thesis
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In the context of extended working lives, strategies that have the potential to increase the employment participation of older workers gain in importance. One strategy proposed is an employer change at higher working age, which may improve the fit between older workers and their work regarding working conditions, motivation, work ability and health - and therefore to extend the personal working life. By changing on their own initiative, older workers have the opportunity to leave unsuitable and psychologically or physically demanding jobs. However, voluntary employer changes are not an opportunity for every older worker as diverse obstacles such as employer provided pension systems, assured income, job security, or poor health prevent such changes. The group of older workers characterized by the personal inability to change or the lack of alternatives, although they would prefer to change, constitutes more of a risk group to employment participation. Therefore, the aim of the present thesis is to shed light on actual and desired employer changes among older workers, their proportion, antecedents and consequences on work, health and work ability. The model on motivational states of staying and leaving by Hom, Mitchell, Lee, and Griffeth (2012) form a theoretical basis for this thesis as four groups of workers were distinguished: The enthusiastic leavers who want to and can leave, the reluctant leavers who have to leave because they are forced to, the reluctant stayers who do not change although they would prefer to and the enthusiastic stayers, who want to stay and feel no external pressure to leave. This thesis consists of three studies published in international peer-reviewed journals. All studies are based on data from the German lidA Cohort Study, which is a representative cohort study of socially insured older employees in Germany born in either 1959 or 1965. The analyses included data from the first three waves of the study, 2011 (n=6585), 2014 (n=4244) and 2018 (n=3586). Study I gives an overview on the topic of occupational change at higher working age including frequencies, reasons for actual and desired changes and characterizations of the four change groups. Changes of employer are differentiated from two other forms of occupational change: the change of work tasks and the change of profession. The analyses are based on data from the second and third wave of the lidA-study. The results showed that the most common occupational changes were changes of work tasks (45.1%), followed by changes of employer (13.4%) and profession (10.5%). Multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that enthusiastic leavers, reluctant leavers and reluctant stayers differ from the enthusiastic stayers in terms of socio-demographic factors, health measures, and job factors. Study II focuses on employer changes and the short-term consequences of voluntary, involuntary and desired changes for health, work ability and several psychosocial working conditions. The analyses are also based on data from the second and third wave of the lidA-study. Repeated Measures ANOVAs revealed that the groups differ significantly in terms of health, work ability, and psychosocial work factors. While enthusiastic leavers reported significant improvements in mental health, work ability, leadership quality, work-family conflict, possibilities for development and quantitative demands, reluctant stayers reported deteriorations while staying with their employer. Reluctant leavers reported, on the one hand, improvements in work ability, leadership quality and support from colleagues, and on the other hand, deteriorations in influence at work. In study III, the long-term consequences of voluntary employer changes on the older workers´ work ability were investigated. With data from the first three waves of the lidA-study, changers and stayers were tracked and compared over seven years. Fixed effects regression analyses, including lag and lead variables, showed that the work ability of participants, who changed between 2011 and 2014, initially improved following the change and then considerably deteriorated while staying with the new employer. This phenomenon is called a honeymoon-hangover effect (Boswell, Boudreau, & Tichy, 2005). Overall, the three studies showed that employer changes at higher working age help to maintain health and work ability and can significantly improve adverse psychosocial working conditions. Although a honeymoon-hangover effect for work ability was investigated and found, long-term consequences for a higher employment participation are to be expected. Older workers who do not want to stay with the employer are a risk group for adverse working conditions, poor health, low work ability, and early exit from work. Consequences on an organizational and national level can be derived from the results. More research is needed on the long-term consequences of voluntary and involuntary staying and leaving at higher working age on employment participation and on the obstacles which keep older workers at undesired workplaces.
... While detachment and adaptation in the context of job changes can be studied in various ways, we focus on the dynamics of job satisfaction and turnover intention because they represent the two most frequently studied reactions to job changes (Rubenstein et al., 2018;Tett & Meyer, 1993). Indeed, changes in satisfaction over time have attracted considerable theoretical and empirical attention regarding adaptation to meaningful life events (e.g., a job change; Boswell et al., 2005), whereas the development of turnover intention still represents the strongest indicator of employees' voluntary detachment from a current employer (Rubenstein et al., 2018). In their article on hedonic adaptation, Brickman and Campbell (1971) argued that individuals are trapped in a hedonic treadmill as they adapt to positive life changes. ...
... While this idea has received empirical support with regard to job changes (Boswell et al., 2005), research on how job satisfaction changes with tenure has yielded conflicting evidence (Bedeian et al., 1992;Dobrow Riza et al., 2018). Thus, some scholars have argued that people may react differently to job changes and that the pattern of adaptation and detachment following a job change may be more nuanced than previously understood (e.g., Zhou et al., 2021). ...
... Building on research on job satisfaction dynamics (Bedeian et al., 1992;Boswell et al., 2005;Dobrow Riza et al., 2018), we propose that individuals with self-centered career orientations show a pronounced pattern of hedonic adaptation (e.g., Headey & Wearing, 1992;Lykken & Tellegen, 1996). Self-centered employees may be quicker to notice the pleasant aspects of a new job because they are more willing and able to adjust to new work environments (Gubler et al., 2014;Hall, 2002). ...
Article
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Joining a new organization to change jobs is an influential event in an employee’s career. Thus, inter‐organizational job changes have sparked growing scholarly interest, especially in the temporal dynamics involved in detaching from organizations and adapting to new ones. While it is widely accepted that employees adapt differently to job changes, the influence of employees’ career orientations on changes in job attitudes have not yet been considered. This is surprising given that a key difference between self‐centered and organization‐centered career orientations is a positive attitude toward job changes. Building on hedonic adaptation, we examined how career orientations influence changes in job satisfaction and turnover intention throughout a job change. We compared self‐ and organization‐centered employees using random coefficient modeling on two longitudinal data sets with voluntary job changers. Our results illustrate that self‐centered career orientations foster a stronger decline in job satisfaction with the new employer, as well as a larger increase in turnover intention, than organization‐centered career orientations. In contrast, employees with organization‐centered career orientations experienced an upward trend in job satisfaction toward the end of the first year. Our findings offer important implications for research on the determinants of job attitude trajectories when individuals join a new organization.
... However, job changes do not always lead to higher levels of individual job satisfaction in the long run. Previous studies have shown that in general, job changes mainly increase job satisfaction only for a short time, before it gradually falls back to similar levels as before (Boswell et al., 2005(Boswell et al., , 2009Chadi & Hetschko, 2018;Luhmann et al., 2012;Zhou et al., 2020). Consequently, the phenomenon was deemed to show a honeymoon-hangover pattern (Boswell et al., 2005). ...
... Previous studies have shown that in general, job changes mainly increase job satisfaction only for a short time, before it gradually falls back to similar levels as before (Boswell et al., 2005(Boswell et al., , 2009Chadi & Hetschko, 2018;Luhmann et al., 2012;Zhou et al., 2020). Consequently, the phenomenon was deemed to show a honeymoon-hangover pattern (Boswell et al., 2005). Several factors were found to affect the pattern's characteristics, such as prior job satisfaction, personality traits, employment status, upward-downward social mobility, changing jobs by choice, as well as a perceived fulfilment of organisational commitments (e.g., Boswell et al., 2009;Chadi & Hetschko, 2018;van der Zwan et al., 2018;Zhou et al., 2020). ...
... In addition, studies have examined the extent to which job satisfaction changes over time after a job change (Bentein et al., 2005;Chadi & Hetschko, 2015Kammeyer-Mueller et al., 2005;Zhou et al., 2020). Boswell et al. (2005) focused on the connection between job change and job satisfaction and found a curvilinear relationship which was called the honeymoon-hangover pattern: After a job change, job satisfaction typically peaks at first (the honeymoon period), before it gradually falls back to the baseline level (the hangover period). Boswell et al. (2009) did not provide a theoretical framework for this phenomenon, but nevertheless attempted to explain the pattern by using the concepts of post-decision dissonance and rationalisation: Individuals who commit themselves to a new job show a tendency to view the consequences of their decision positively. ...
Article
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Job satisfaction is a major driver of an individual’s subjective well-being and thus affects public health, societal prosperity, and organisations, as dissatisfied employees are less productive and more likely to change jobs. However, changing jobs does not necessarily lead to higher job satisfaction in the long run. Previous studies have shown, instead, that changing jobs only increases job satisfaction for a short period of time before it gradually falls back to similar levels as before. This phenomenon is known as the ’honeymoon–hangover’ pattern. In our study, we identify an important new moderator of the relation between job change and job satisfaction: the job–education match of job changes. Based on relative deprivation theory, we argue that job changes from being overeducated in a job lowers the likelihood of negative comparisons and thus increases the honeymoon period, lessens the hangover period, and increases long-term job satisfaction. We use data from the Socio-Economic Panel ranging from 1994–2018 and focus specifically on individual periods of employees before and after job changes (n = 134,404). Our results confirm that a change to a job that requires a matched education has a stronger and longer-lasting effect on job satisfaction, and that this effect is slightly lower for respondents born abroad.
... Thus, the rural-urban migrate workers make up the largest group in workers of China. The number of rural migrant workers in China slightly decreased in 2020 due to the coronavirus pandemic (COVID- 19), but soon rebounded again in 2021 and reached 292.5 million which comprises more than one third of the Chinese labor. Researchers have distinguished two generations of migrant workers, that is, the first-generation migrant workers who were born before 1980 and the new-generation migrant workers who were born in 1980 or thereafter (Qin and Huang, 2011) [1]. ...
... In addition, job mobility could increase job satisfaction. Previous literature revealed that job satisfaction typically peaks initially following a job change but subsequently falls back to the baseline level over time (Boswell et al., 2005;Chadi and Hetschko, 2018) [19,20]. With 12,140 participants, Swaen et al. (2002) [21] found that changing jobs had a positive effect on employees with respect to job perception and job satisfaction. ...
... In addition, job mobility could increase job satisfaction. Previous literature revealed that job satisfaction typically peaks initially following a job change but subsequently falls back to the baseline level over time (Boswell et al., 2005;Chadi and Hetschko, 2018) [19,20]. With 12,140 participants, Swaen et al. (2002) [21] found that changing jobs had a positive effect on employees with respect to job perception and job satisfaction. ...
Article
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New-generation migrant workers refers to those born in 1980 or thereafter, who become the majority of rural–urban migrants. New-generation migrant workers in Chinese cities are struggling with a lack of urban resources, which may lead to low well-being. On the basis of a questionnaire survey of 203 new-generation migrant workers, we used a multiple regression analysis to study new-generation migrant workers’ well-being and the mechanism underlying the effect of job mobility on well-being. The job mobility scale, interpersonal trust scale, and Affect Balance Scale were used. Results showed that job mobility was positively correlated with new-generation migrant workers’ subjective well-being and interpersonal trust, and interpersonal trust was positively correlated with subjective well-being. Interpersonal trust mediated the effect of job mobility on subjective well-being. In conclusion, job mobility can bring some benefits to new-generation migrant workers, that is, job mobility may increase their subjective well-being by increasing their interpersonal trust.
... En effet, le premier jour de l'emploi ne constitue pas forcément le début de la carrière professionnelle. Les nouveaux arrivants peuvent avoir des antécédents professionnels qui fournissent un contexte à leur nouvel emploi (Boswell et al., 2005 ;). ...
... Celles-ci soulignent qu'une fois les liens rompus avec la précédente organisation, les attentes envers la nouvelle sont généralement élevées (Griffeth et Horn, 2001 ;Lance et al., 2000). L'enthousiasme, la bonne volonté ou l'implication des nouveaux entrants sont alors assimilés à une période de « lune de miel » (Boswell et al., 2005 ;Fichman et Levinthal, 1991). Fichman et Levinthal (1991) tenues (Boswell et al., 2005). ...
... L'enthousiasme, la bonne volonté ou l'implication des nouveaux entrants sont alors assimilés à une période de « lune de miel » (Boswell et al., 2005 ;Fichman et Levinthal, 1991). Fichman et Levinthal (1991) tenues (Boswell et al., 2005). La dégradation du lien entre l'organisation et le salarié résulte également d'évènements critiques (Bentein et al., 2005), de mauvaises expériences professionnelles (Irving et Meyer, 1994), ou de l'affaiblissement de la relation avec le supérieur (Jokisaari et Nurmi, 2009). ...
Thesis
Ce travail doctoral propose de décloisonner les disciplines en rapprochant la littérature sur l’implication organisationnelle de celle en neuropsychologie sur la mémoire autobiographique. Un état de l’art sur l’implication organisationnelle a révélé l’insuffisante prise en compte du caractère heurté des carrières contemporaines. Or, ce n’est pas parce que le salarié change d’organisation qu’il fait table rase de son passé. Des traces mnésiques de son implication dans sa précédente organisation subsistent et continuent à produire des effets au présent. L’ambition de cette recherche est de tester l’hypothèse générale de l’existence d’un lien entre les implications organisationnelles rétrospective et actuelle. Les données empiriques collectées auprès de 385 salariés révèlent qu’un lien significatif existe entre ces deux implications. Ce lien n’est altéré ni par les différences des caractéristiques respectives des deux organisations, ni par les conditions de rupture, le temps de transition entre les deux emplois, l’ancienneté chez l’ancien ou le nouvel employeur. Ce lien est en revanche renforcé lorsque le salarié se met psychologiquement à distance de son souvenir. Ces résultats peuvent être expliqués par les connaissances tenues pour acquises au sujet de la mémoire autobiographique. Puisque le salarié ne peut modifier son passé, il reconstruit le souvenir qu’il en garde à chaque évocation au présent afin de maintenir à la fois une cohérence avec son self actuel et un sentiment de continuité de lui-même dans le temps. En offrant une relecture continue des événements passés à la lumière du présent, le salarié limite les effets dissonants qui pourraient éventuellement apparaître. Ces résultats inédits montrent, au niveau théorique, l’importance de la prise en compte du fonctionnement de la mémoire du salarié à l’heure des carrières moins linéaires. Sur le plan managérial, ils débouchent sur des préconisations d’action en particulier lorsque la mémoire du futur est intégrée. La mémoire autobiographique n’est en effet pas uniquement tournée vers le passé. Les souvenirs et les connaissances de ses expériences passées fournissent au salarié un socle autobiographique qui lui permet d’ajuster son comportement dans le présent et de prendre des décisions pour son avenir. Le présent englobe une partie du passé et une anticipation du futur. Sur le plan méthodologique, ils révèlent que lorsque les études questionnent le passé, ce n’est pas la réalité vécue qui est rapportée mais un souvenir reconstruit. Enfin, puisque la mémoire autobiographique individuelle est aussi tributaire de la mémoire collective, l’ensemble du phénomène ne peut être capturé qu’en les rapprochant. Nous avons inséré la mémoire autobiographique dans notre étude afin de compléter la littérature sur l’implication organisationnelle. En procédant ainsi, nous proposons un programme de recherche d’envergure.
... Tenure research suggests that the length of time an employee spends in a position is tied to work attitudes, with the newest employees bringing with them increased positive attitudes and motivation. Referred to as the honeymoon effect, the newest employees are more satisfied (Bebenroth and Berengueres, 2020) and less likely to indicate an intention to leave their jobs (Boswell et al., 2005). After a period of time (see Boswell et al., 2009), employees experience a hangover effect where the initial positive attitudes that come with the honeymoon period begin to wane (Boswell et al., 2005). ...
... Referred to as the honeymoon effect, the newest employees are more satisfied (Bebenroth and Berengueres, 2020) and less likely to indicate an intention to leave their jobs (Boswell et al., 2005). After a period of time (see Boswell et al., 2009), employees experience a hangover effect where the initial positive attitudes that come with the honeymoon period begin to wane (Boswell et al., 2005). The decline in positive attitude comes, in part, with the realisation of unmet or unrealistic expectations (see Feldman, 1976;Louis, 1980;Wanous et al., 1992). ...
... For the time of the last job mobility, similar findings were reported by Swaen et al. [17], Kondratuk et al. [16], and Equeter et al. [14] that the external mobility in the past year, in the last 18 months, and in the last 3 years, respectively, could significantly improve employees' work commitment in the new organization relative to the former organization and to other non-job movers; however, Kalleberg et al. found that external mobility in the last 5 years significantly lower the work commitment of employees in their new organizations relative to the former workplace [18]. These above findings, as well as the evidence of negative association between overall experience of external job mobility and work commitment, brought us to the honeymoon-hangover effect found by Boswell et al. [27,28], and they reported that job satisfaction would reach a peak following job mobility and decrease thereafter. The honeymoon-hangover pattern might also exist in the associations of different times of RHWs' last job mobilities with their work commitment. ...
... Besides, the significant positive associations of lateral or upward mobilities in the last 3 years with a high-level work commitment could be the consequences of entering a new healthcare institution with all the excitingly new aspects that this entails [14]. A honeymoon effect therefore may explain our results that refer to the trend whereby work commitment decreases substantially before job mobility and increase after it [27,28,37]; moreover, the results may be affected the cognitive dissonance, i.e., RHWs who have changed their jobs may tend to legitimize the job changes by reporting a more positive description of the new job in the initial period of time [17]. However, the positive effects of job change may disappear with adaption and normalization taking place for a while after the job mobility, and work commitment returns progressively to its initial level or even lower, which could be called the hangover effect [14,17,27]. ...
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Background Rural healthcare workers (RHWs) are the core of the rural health system. The antecedents of turnover of RHWs have been well studied, but little is known about the consequences of job mobilities among RWHs. This study aimed to identify the association between job mobility and the work commitment of RHWs in China. Methods Based on a three-stage random sampling method, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 11 western provinces in China. A total of 3783 RHWs, consisting of 2245 doctors and 1538 nurses, were included in our study. Confirmatory factor analysis, Pearson’s chi-squared test, one-way ANOVA, linear regression analysis, and binary logistic regression analysis were performed for data analyses. Results 46.3% of RHWs reported the experience of job mobility in the past. Work commitment of RHWs was not very high; specifically, the mean scores of pride in, concern for, and dedication to work were 3.54, 3.81, and 3.61 (out of a maximum of 5), respectively, and 29.9% presented turnover intent. RHWs’ overall experience of job mobility in the past was significantly associated with an increased odds of having the turnover intent. With respect to the last job mobilities of RHWs, the last job changes that occurred in the last 3 years, especially these lateral (i.e., job changes between two healthcare institutions at the same hierarchical level) and upward (i.e., job changes from a healthcare institution at a lower hierarchical level to current institution) mobilities, were significantly associated with a high level of work commitment (i.e., pride in, concern for, and dedication to work) among RHWs. However, the lateral mobilities in the last four to 5 years and the downward mobilities (i.e., job changes from a healthcare institution at a higher hierarchical level to current institution) 6 years ago or more significantly increased the odds of having turnover intent among RHWs, and RHWs whose last job changes were other mobilities (i.e., job changes from a non-healthcare institution to a healthcare institution) in the last four to 5 years reported had a significantly low level of pride in and concern for work and an increased odds of having the turnover intent. Conclusions The study suggests that the overall experience of job mobility in the past is a threat to RHWs’ work commitment to their current healthcare institutions. The honeymoon-hangover pattern exists in the association between a single job change and RHWs’ work commitment. Managers of rural healthcare institutions should pay more attention to these RHWs with the experience of job mobility to enhance their work commitment.
... As noted, we expect the daily onslaught of moderate work demands to result in a gradual decline in affective commitment on average, but this decline is likely to differ as a function of experience, with newcomers experiencing a more gradual decline. The honeymoon and hangover effect (Boswell, Boudreau, & Tichy, 2005, Boswell, Shipp, Payne, & Culbertson, 2009 suggests that when starting a new job newcomers have an initial and brief period of elevated job attitudes (honeymoon; similar to our observation period) followed by a gradual decline (hangover). The subsequent decline is thought to result from newcomers' accumulated experiences which reveal the realities-the good and the bad-of the job over the months and years following their onboarding. ...
... The subsequent decline is thought to result from newcomers' accumulated experiences which reveal the realities-the good and the bad-of the job over the months and years following their onboarding. In contrast, experienced members are likely to experience a general decline (Boswell et al., 2005). Theory suggests that individuals' resources deplete as they cope with stressors over time (Hobfoll, 1989). ...
Article
This study responds to calls to conceptualize resilience as a dynamic process by examining individual trajectories of emotional exhaustion and affective commitment over time in the face of ongoing role demands. In contrast to research conceptualizing resilience as a dispositional trait, we conceptualize resilience in terms of patterns of between-individual variation in response trajectories (dynamic resilience). In a longitudinal study spanning three months and 12 observational periods, we show that individuals high in emotional stability had more static affective commitment trajectories and that organizational newcomers had less pronounced emotional exhaustion trajectories in response to ongoing demands. Both the patterns shown for those with high emotional stability and newcomers are indicative of greater dynamic resilience. Furthermore, we found that affective commitment trajectories were significant predictors of actual retention through the mediating mechanism of intent to remain. We discuss how our approach offers opportunities to study resilience in dynamic settings.
... On the other hand, Steel [36] found that "no other single domain of work has had as much influence on turnover research as attitude theory does". Boswell et al. [37] claimed that work attitudes consistently emerge as important factors in predicting exit. Based on the views mentioned above, this study proposes that studying work-related wellbeing as a potential mediator could provide a new significant understanding of the effects of prosocial motivation on entrepreneurial exit. ...
... Work-related wellbeing is an umbrella term to explain an attitude (positive or negative) towards ranking their job or job situation [68][69][70][71]. Work-related wellbeing was conceptualized as a pervasive and persistent attitude and affective and cognitive state in three dimensions: job satisfaction, work burnout, and work anxiety [14,[37][38][39][72][73][74][75][76]. The three dimensions seem interrelated, but they can be independent of each other [77]. ...
Article
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Why does social entrepreneurship tend to live so shortly? A range of studies tried to answer this question, although very few delved into the “inner layer” (psychological status) to unveil how social entrepreneurs decide to quit. Accordingly, focusing on prosocial motivation of social entrepreneurs and its impact on their work-related wellbeing and then their business exit intention, we conducted this empirical research. Furthermore, gender differences are involved based on relevant calls for in-depth investigation. With a sample of 301 respondents in China, deploying the partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM), we found prosocial motivation decreases entrepreneurs’ work-related wellbeing, which in turn, increases entrepreneurial exit intention. Furthermore, adopting the multi-group analysis (MGA) technique, we uncovered that the impact of prosocial motivation on work-related wellbeing largely is stronger for males. Our research thus contributes to the growing research and knowledge on social entrepreneurship in terms of individual personality traits and how they impact a social entrepreneur’s psychological status and thus their intention of exiting the social business. This study’s further theoretical and practical implications, as well as its limitations and thus future research directions, are discussed at the end.
... Indeed, as mentioned above, the present results suggest that the decreases in autonomous motivation trajectories observed at the end of the training program may explain these learning declines over time. Trainees may experience decreases in autonomous motivation over time as they find themselves performing more repetitive tasks (e.g., the honeymoon-hangover effect; Boswell et al., 2005), explaining the decline in learning that occurs at later stages of training. ...
... Finally, we found an average satisfaction trajectory characterized by initially high levels, by a slight decrease early in the training program, and finally by marked increases starting 1.02 month after the beginning of the training program. Indeed, after beginning a professional training program, employees may show a trend of decline in satisfaction referred to as the Hangover effect in the organizational socialization literature (Boswell et al., 2005). One prominent explanation for the emergence of this effect is the contrast experienced between a new training and a previous one, or between one's high expectations and the reality (Solinger et al., 2013). ...
Article
The present study examines the shape, determinants, and outcomes of autonomous and controlled motivation trajectories over the course of aprofessional training program. Asample of 43 employees completed the measures on four occasions over the course of a14-week professional training program. This study also relies on aburst design, whereby employees completed each measure twice (with ahalf-day interval) at each measurement occasion to achieve amore accurate representation of occasion-specific ratings. Results from three-level growth analyses (with the two bursts at Level 1, four occasions at Level 2, and participants at Level3) showed that autonomous motivation, negative affect, learning, and satisfaction appeared to follow curvilinear trajectories, whereas autonomy support and positive affect followed linear trajectories. In contrast, controlled motivation, fatigue, and engagement levels remained stable over time, consistent with an intercept-only model. Furthermore, higher levels of autonomy support were associated with higher levels of autonomous motivation, and lower levels of controlled motivation over time. Finally, higher initial levels of autonomous motivation predicted higher levels of positive affect, learning, satisfaction, and engagement, and lower levels of fatigue over time, whereas higher initial levels of controlled motivation predicted higher levels of fatigue over time.
... Employee retention is an effort that is both important and continuous (Boswell et al., 2005). Managers thus have the accountabilities in producing and preserving an environment that promotes retention with the comprehension that staffs need reinforcement, direction and acknowledgement in order that they could grow and have satisfaction towards their positions (Boswell et al., 2005). ...
... Employee retention is an effort that is both important and continuous (Boswell et al., 2005). Managers thus have the accountabilities in producing and preserving an environment that promotes retention with the comprehension that staffs need reinforcement, direction and acknowledgement in order that they could grow and have satisfaction towards their positions (Boswell et al., 2005). ...
... This issue is complex because before signing, both parties show their best side to the other. Although we know that uncertainty during change can affect employees' expectations negatively (Lattuch and Young, 2011), Boswell et al. (2005) argued that the acquiring organization likely creates an overly optimistic picture of itself to the target, thereby motivating them to join and promote the change. In particular, Fichman and Levinthal (1991, p. 444) argued that "initial stocks of assets" coming with the new relationship, including financial resources, goodwill, or trust (Lind and Lattuch, 2021), can help encourage initial commitment, creating a honeymoon period in which the connection is temporally preserved from unfavorable outcomes in the new organizational coupling (Boswell et al., 2005). ...
... Although we know that uncertainty during change can affect employees' expectations negatively (Lattuch and Young, 2011), Boswell et al. (2005) argued that the acquiring organization likely creates an overly optimistic picture of itself to the target, thereby motivating them to join and promote the change. In particular, Fichman and Levinthal (1991, p. 444) argued that "initial stocks of assets" coming with the new relationship, including financial resources, goodwill, or trust (Lind and Lattuch, 2021), can help encourage initial commitment, creating a honeymoon period in which the connection is temporally preserved from unfavorable outcomes in the new organizational coupling (Boswell et al., 2005). However, the high failure rate of transactions indicates a decline in employee satisfaction (hangover effect) following the decision for a deal. ...
Article
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Purpose. Mergers & acquisitions (M&As) can be an effective way to expand into new markets or business opportunities. Yet, a considerable number of failed M&As can be attributed to disregarded human resource (HR) concerns. In particular, an organization’s leadership tends to hail the advantages of a merger or acquisition during the early stages, raising employees’ expectations (honeymoon effect). Many documented failures in such corporate transactions indicate organizational members’ declining satisfaction following a deal (hangover effect). Design/methodology/approach. Drawing on in-depth interviews with senior M&A experts at a global big-four accountancy firm and focus group sessions with their respective clients, this study investigates in two cases the interplay between HR issues and M&A transactions and infers effective risk management actions. Findings. A honeymoon hangover after a transaction may appear in organizations if HR issues are neglected. Study results provide notable implications for HR departments and HR professionals facing a merger or acquisition. These implications include (1) focusing on HR risks, (2) involving HR executives to manage the HR due diligence efforts, (3) setting up transition teams that communicate well, (4) creating policies for learning and knowledge sharing, (5) developing new competencies for the NewCo, (6) being sensitive to cultural differences and (7) considering legal aspects. Originality/value. Although M&As have been much researched, relatively little has been written on practical managerial adaptation from a human resource perspective and its implications for organizational learning. This article helps address this imbalance by providing a people-oriented approach for effectively managing M&As from beginning to integration.
... Tenure research suggests that the length of time an employee spends in a position is tied to work attitudes, with the newest employees bringing with them increased positive attitudes and motivation. Referred to as the honeymoon effect, the newest employees are more satisfied (Bebenroth and Berengueres, 2020) and less likely to indicate an intention to leave their jobs (Boswell et al., 2005). After a period of time (see Boswell et al., 2009), employees experience a hangover effect where the initial positive attitudes that come with the honeymoon period begin to wane (Boswell et al., 2005). ...
... Referred to as the honeymoon effect, the newest employees are more satisfied (Bebenroth and Berengueres, 2020) and less likely to indicate an intention to leave their jobs (Boswell et al., 2005). After a period of time (see Boswell et al., 2009), employees experience a hangover effect where the initial positive attitudes that come with the honeymoon period begin to wane (Boswell et al., 2005). The decline in positive attitude comes, in part, with the realisation of unmet or unrealistic expectations (see Feldman, 1976;Louis, 1980;Wanous et al., 1992). ...
... Once new employees are initially socialized to organizational norms, behavioral expectations, and operational knowledge (Sturman, 2003), a honeymoonhangover effect could follow. That is, the job change produces an increase in job satisfaction and performance, but this effect decreases over time (Boswell et al., 2005;Woodrow & Guest, 2020). ...
... We may understand that moderately-tenured employees shared higher levels of organizational culture, norms, and climate than new and long-tenured employees, implying an inverted U-shaped influence of organizational tenure on performance. It means newcomer comes to understand the norms, values, and expected behaviors necessary for an organizational role, and the effect of socialization will be most evident early in one's tenure (Bauer et al., 2007;Chatman, 1991;Louis, 1980), however, the honeymoon-hangover effect would occur for workers with longer tenures as they become increasingly familiar with organizational norms, practices, and policies in their organization whose impact subsequently decreases over time (Boswell et al., 2005;Woodrow & Guest, 2020). ...
Article
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This study examines the relationship between public employees’ organizational tenure and perceived performance in US federal agencies. Using the US Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey and Fedscope from 2010 to 2018 and panel Fixed Effect analysis, we found that the organizational tenure of US federal employees has an inverted U-shaped relationship to performance. The research results also show that gender and minority status moderate the effect of organizational tenure on performance in US federal agencies. Our findings offer important insights regarding how organizational tenure works in public organizations.
... Perhaps, up until this point, team members shared the anticipated credence of PS. Enthusiasm at the start as a kind of initial ignition and its reduction over time appears not to be unusual for teamwork (see also, e.g., the romance of teams or the honeymoonhangover effect from research on newcomers' job satisfaction, Allen and Hecht, 2004;Boswell et al., 2005). ...
Article
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Psychological safety (PS) is a shared belief among team members that it is safe to take interpersonal risks. It can enhance team learning, experimentation with new ideas, and team performance. Considerable research has examined the positive effects of PS in diverse organizational contexts and is now shifting its focus toward exploring the nature of PS itself. This study aims to enhance our understanding of PS antecedents and development over time. Based on the model of team faultlines and research on team diversity, we examined the effects of demographic faultlines, team member personality, and member competencies on the development of PS. Over 5 months, 61 self-managed teams ( N = 236) assessed their PS at the beginning, midpoint, and end of a research project. Results of a multilevel growth curve model show that PS decreased from project beginning to end. Initial levels of PS were especially low when teams had strong demographic faultlines and when team members differed in neuroticism. PS decreased more strongly over time when team members were diverse in agreeableness and assessed their task-related competencies to be relatively high. Our study identifies time and team composition attributes as meaningful predictors for the development of PS. We present ideas for future research and offer suggestions for how and when to intervene to help teams strengthen PS throughout their collaboration.
... Turnover results in increased job satisfaction in the next job (Grund, 2013;Latzke, Kattenbach, Schneidhofer, Schramm, & Mayrhofer, 2016) and higher wages (Grund, 2013;Latzke et al., 2016;Schmelzer, 2012). However, job satisfaction improvements after a move tend to wane quickly (Chadi & Hetschko, 2018;Matiaske & Mellewigt, 2001), a result that replicates the honeymoon effect found, for example, in Boswell, Boudreau, and Tichy (2005). ...
... Research on employee turnover has shown that job satisfaction is negatively related to intentions to quit (i.e., turnover intentions), which in turn are positively associated with actual turnover (Boswell et al., 2005;Chen et al., 2011; for meta-analyses, see Griffeth et al., 2000;Tett and Meyer, 1993). Similarly, studies on turnover among IT professionals have indicated that job satisfaction is a key factor for turnover of these professionals (e.g., Chen, 2008;Niederman and Sumner, 2004). ...
Article
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The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether employee job satisfaction is associated with the congruence between desired and perceived job attributes. The desired and perceived levels of 30 job attributes were measured on employees from a large Information Technology (IT) company based in Romania. Results indicate that employees who experience congruence between desired and perceived job attributes have higher levels of overall job satisfaction, confirming the assumptions of the value congruence theory. In addition, the results of this study show that employee job satisfaction is associated with both intrinsic and extrinsic factors i.e., job attributes. This indicates that extrinsic factors can also be a source of job satisfaction, the same as intrinsic factors, which is contrary to what Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory assumes.
... Vancouver, Wang, & Li (2018) show that non-stationary self-regulatory systems produce unstable behaviors that are inconsistent with field observations of performance. Likewise, prior research offers some indication that performance converges to stability over time (Thoresen et al., 2004;Boswell, Boudreau & Tichy, 2005;Chen, 2005). We therefore predict that both sales/results and effort will be stationary. ...
Article
Two consistent predictors of salesperson job performance include goals and leadership. Much of the research related to these domains, however, has two limitations. First, it is removed from an understanding of how effects operate when performance is viewed as a dynamic system, or a construct with inherent feedback loops and a tendency to ebb and flow over time. Second, it focuses on leadership behaviors rather than leadership changes (i.e., experiencing a change in one’s supervisor), even though employees in today’s workforce often experience the event of having a leader replaced. We extend this literature by establishing and testing a theory of performance system dynamics such that key principles of dynamics regarding performance over time are integrated and tested. Moreover, these two predictors, salesperson goals and leadership changes, are represented as exogenous inputs or shocks. Repeated measures data on sales employees obtained over six months provide evidence of performance system dynamics, reflecting not only patterns of consistency but also responses to external forces. Findings also reveal that company-assigned goals (i.e., quotas) are a significant predictor of effort and performance beyond the employees’ typical behavior and nullify any potential negative impact of leadership changes. The paper concludes with implications for both research and practice.
... Although we focus on the transference of harmful effects of psychological contract violation, victims of violation may also be more cautious and engage in reflection at the new organization (Liao et al., 2021). Moreover, during job transition, there may be contrasting or honeymoon effects (Boswell et al., 2005(Boswell et al., , 2009Van den Bos et al., 2005). Employees may experience short-term favorable affective and psychological processes and thus less deviance immediately after changing their jobs. ...
Article
This study examines the role of psychological contract violation at a previous organization in explaining employees’ deviant behaviors in a new organization. Drawing on the social-cognitive model of transference, we hypothesize that past psychological contract violation is associated with employees’ present psychological ownership and job insecurity. These adverse transference effects can be buffered by institutionalized socialization tactics in the new organization. Furthermore, we hypothesize that past psychological contract violation is associated with employees’ present deviant behaviors through psychological ownership and job insecurity in the new organization. These indirect effects are weaker when the new organization uses more (vs. less) institutionalized socialization tactics. The results across two field studies provide consistent and robust support for our hypothesized model. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our findings on the transference effects of psychological contract violation and how to attenuate these harmful effects.
... Vroom's (1964) expectancy theory is an in teresting example that predicts that employees' perception of efforts, performance, reward and personal goals is strong and will maximize the performance (Robbins, 2001). Another way of psychologically empowering the employees is to change their job characteristics and tasks-the challenge of new tasks improves job satisfaction (Boswell, Boudreau, & Tichy, 2005;Herzberg, 1987). ...
Article
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This study investigates the four psychological empowerment dimensions (competence, impact, meaning, and self-determination) and how they impact job satisfaction. Employee empowerment innovatively boosts the performance and capabilities of the organizations. This study is significant in the background of the Libyan banking sector working under uncertain conditions since the start of the Libyan civil war. This study proposed a theoretical framework with four hypotheses that established a relationship between competence, impact, meaning, self-determination, and job satisfaction. The study used a quantitative design to test the theoretical model using the psychological empowerment model of Spreitzer (1995) and job satisfaction with the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ). Five hundred thirty (530) questionnaires were distributed to 25 branches of banks in Libya and received 333 responses, out of which 327 were valid for the analysis. The data analysis was conducted using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) using Partial Least Squares (PLS), aided by Smartpls 3 software. The results indicated that competence was insignificant with job satisfaction and all other three dimensions were positive and significant with job satisfaction even in the bureaucratic organizational structures. It is also interesting to note that lower and middle-level managers have the self-belief to contribute despite influencing the strategies.
... One of the first studies on hedonic adaptation was on recent lottery winners by Brickman et al. [35], who found that after 18 months these individuals had returned to a happiness level that was not significantly different than those who had not experienced a large windfall. Subsequent research on topics ranging from marriage [36] to employment decisions [37] have found similar results. The subjects of the present study expressed this same sentiment when prompted to reflect on lessons learned while scaling their business. ...
Conference Paper
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Advances in information technology have led to the emergence of a digital workforce comprised of several types of workers, one such being the digital nomad. There is an opportunity in to expand the IS literature by investigating the entrepreneurial side of digital nomadism. Digital nomad entrepreneurship (DNE) is a growing phenomenon and distinctive approach to life and entrepreneurship. Previous research has tended to focus on either the lifestyle or business-level aspects of DNE. This study uses grounded theory method to investigate the merger of lifestyle and business factors that combine to form how an individual becomes a digital nomad entrepreneur. The findings reveal a model called the "Digital Nomad Entrepreneurship & Lifestyle Design Process", which is comprised of four conceptual sub-categories.
... At the time of the study, employees in the three countries had been working from home for four to five months, beginning in March 2020 with the first lockdowns. Therefore, this timing was appropriate to avoid capturing the initial honeymoon-hangover effects associated with novelty (Boswell et al., 2005). ...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has precipitated a massive adoption of high-intensity work-from-home (WFH), a form of work organization that is expected to persist. Yet, little is known about the predictors and mechanisms underlying employees’ successful adjustment to high-intensity WFH. Drawing on signaling theory, we identify psychological climate for face time (i.e., an employee’s perception that their organization values physical presence in the office) as an antecedent of WFH adjustment. We argue that when WFH employees perceive that their organization encourages face time, they may view availability as a signal of their dedication to work, replacing visibility. Consequently, they feel expected to be extensively available (e.g., check emails outside of regular working hours). In turn, these perceived expectations predict lower adjustment to WFH. We further explore whether this process differs in the US and two European countries, France and Spain, given different employment protection and right to disconnect legislations, and different meanings attached to work ethics. In a two-wave study on a sample of 532 full-time WFH employees, structural equation modeling analyses show that perceptions of availability expectations mediate the negative relationship between psychological climate for face time and WFH adjustment, and that this process is accentuated in the US.
... Mostly, work-related wellbeing includes three dimensions: job satisfaction, work burnout, and work anxiety (57)(58)(59)(60)(61)(62)(63)(64)(65), indicating an attitude (positive or negative) to rank one's job or job situation (47)(48)(49)(50). The three dimensions seem interrelated, but they can be independent of each other (66). ...
Article
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In the context of a transitional economy, there are much more studies with a heroic characterization of social entrepreneurs, whereas there is limited exploration of their less positive stories. A range of studies tried to address this issue, although very few delved into the “inner layer” (work-related mental health) to unveil the mechanism of how social entrepreneurs develop their intention to quit their businesses. With a sample of 196 social business owners from China, this research focuses on the prosocial motivation of social entrepreneurs as well as its impacts on their work-related wellbeing and thus their business exit intention. With the partial least squares structural equation modeling, this research finds that prosocial motivation decreased entrepreneurs' partial work-related wellbeing, increasing their exit intention, and the mediating effects among the three components of work-related wellbeing were different. Furthermore, this research finds that work-related wellbeing's impact on exit intention was largely stronger for the social entrepreneurs without political connections.
... learning dimensions), despite the still incipient adoption of I4.0 base technologies. A parallel may be drawn with the "honeymoon" effect reported in change management studies (e.g., Linstead and Chan 1994;Boswell et al. 2005;Zhou et al. 2021), which suggests that early experiences tend to be particularly positive. Such positive perception contributes to high expectations, often leading to a more accepting initial in adoption levels of more advanced technologies, i.e., the adoption level identified when analyzing the complete sample is not entirely clear in the beginners cluster. ...
Article
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In this paper, we examine the impact of adopting Industry 4.0 (I4.0) base technologies on the development of seven learning dimensions used as proxies for organization learning capabilities. We conducted a grounded theory approach in which 129 practitioners from different manufacturing companies were surveyed, and their responses analyzed through multivariate techniques. Findings allowed us to raise a theoretical framework for explaining learning development in organizations undergoing I4.0 adoption. We identified three clusters of adopters: (i) beginners, (ii) in-transition, and (iii) advanced. We found an ascending learning trend in clusters (i) and (iii) and a stationary learning pattern in (ii). Our study advances the understanding of how learning capabilities are affected as organizations advance I4.0 adoption. Our findings also gauge expectations regarding the effects of I4.0 base technologies' adoption on learning capabilities, helping academics and practitioners anticipate potential issues and develop countermeasures accordingly.
... The second collection was set to 9 months after the beginning of the first one so that there would be a lapse of time so that there was no individual experiencing the period called "honeymoon." That is, that period that follows the hiring of the individual, which is characterized by fascination, enthusiasm, euphoria, optimism (Fichman & Levinthal, 1991;Boswell et al., 2005;Chang & Choi, 2007;Jokisaari & Nurmi, 2009;Solinger et al., 2013) and the high commitment to the organ-ization (Chang & Choi, 2007), resulting from this initial excitement, which can last from a few days to 6 months (Chang & Choi, 2007;Jokisaari & Nurmi, 2009). Such initial excitement could bias the results of this study. ...
Article
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Purpose This study analyzes the influence of the perception of self-efficacy on the commitment, entrenchment, and consent bonds that the individual will establish with the employing organization. Design/methodology/approach This is a longitudinal panel-type survey composed of two data collections: one applied before the individual joined the organization, and the other applied nine months after joining the contracting company. Findings The main results show the commitment established by individuals, with the contracting organization, can be predicted by the perceived self-efficacy of the individual measured before joining the organization. This suggested that the organization gives preference, at the time of hiring, to individuals with greater self-efficacy, as they will tend to develop higher commitment bond when compared to workers with lower self-efficacy. Besides the dispositional factors, other aspects arising from the individual/organization relationship will be involved in the development of the bond, and will be up to the company’s people management team to ensure adequate conditions for the building of a strong affective bond. Research limitations/implications To better understand future linkage, other variables need to be tested to verify what are the main antecedents of the future linkage of the individual. A gap left here is the absence of data collection through interviews, which would enrich quantitative data, as well the addition of new variables not tested. Originality/value Inserted in the efforts to predict how the new individual’s future relationship with the employing institution will be, this study relates self-efficacy to future commitment, entrenchment, and consent, something that does not exist in the literature. Keywords: Self-efficacy; Organizational Commitment; Organizational Entrenchment; Organizational Consent
... De la misma manera, se ha comprobado que el fenómeno de la rotación del personal está relacionada con la satisfacción en el trabajo por parte de los empleados (Steel, 2002, Boswell, Boudreau, & Tichy, 2005, no obstante, se reconoce que existen factores tanto internos como externos a las empresas que influyen en la rotación del personal, así aspectos como la edad, el género, el nivel educativo, la antigüedad en el empleo, el apego a la industria, el estatus familiar y la membresía sindical, también juegan un papel importante en este fenómeno. (Morales, 2011) Ante este panorama, es necesario disponer de estudios que permitan conocer las razones por las que los empleados deciden dejar un puesto laboral y que las empresas, organizaciones sindicales e instituciones públicas relacionadas con el mercado del trabajo, puedan diseñar estrategias, incentivos, políticas y llevar a cabo acciones específicas para reducir el efecto negativo de la rotación laboral y hacer más eficientes los mecanismos de estabilización en este mercado, en beneficio tanto de empresas como en la mejora en el bienestar de los trabajadores (Aranibar, et al, 2018). ...
Chapter
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Este artículo nos habla de la consolidación de una empresa local como proveedora en la competitiva industria de los electrodomésticos y automotriz en San Luis Potosí, nos habla de su camino a la internacionalización, sus procesos de gestión y actividades clave. Al mismo tiempo, nos muestra los resultados obtenidos en un diagnóstico para identificar los factores más relevantes que en su empresa afectan el problema que aqueja a esta empresa, y la región centro del país en general; la rotación del personal. Los resultados destacan también el peso que pueden tener las prestaciones superiores como un instrumento para retener a un empleado en su trabajo
... First, the "adaptation process" has to do with fluctuations over time based on the way employees adapt to changes. Changes in the workplace can increase (or decrease) happiness, but after a temporary period, employees tend to return to their original level of happiness (called the "equilibrium state") once they have adapted to the new situation (Boswell et al., 2005;Griffin, 1991). The longitudinal design in these studies made it possible to examine the evolution of happiness at the workplace from the past to the present. ...
... One reason positive activities are thought to have such favorable, longer-lasting effects on individuals' wellbeing is related to a phenomenon called "hedonic adaptation" [68]. Researchers have observed that even after very desirable changes in people's lives, e.g., winning the lottery [69], getting married [70] or starting a new job [71], the initial boost in happiness cannot be maintained. On the contrary, people seem to revert to their individual happiness baseline level, i.e., are as happy as they were before these positive events took place. ...
Article
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In this paper, we introduce a framework that conceptualizes a multi-stage process through which technology can promote sustained wellbeing. Intentional wellbeing-enhancing activities form the centerpiece linking direct product interaction to, ultimately, wellbeing. The framework was developed following a bottom-up–top-down approach by integrating theoretical knowledge from positive psychology, behavioral science and human–computer interaction (HCI)/design with empirical insights. We outline (a) the framework, (b) its five main stages including their multidisciplinary theoretical foundations, (c) relations between these stages and (d) specific elements that further describe each stage. The paper illustrates how the framework was developed and elaborates three major areas of application: (design) research, design strategies and measurement approaches. With this work, we aim to provide actionable guidance for researchers and IT practitioners to understand and design technologies that foster sustained wellbeing.
... At the same time, there are grounds to justify why temporary workers could be as satisfied or more satisfied than permanent employees. Even if temporary jobs are of poorer quality, temporary workers might experience what some authors call the honeymoon-hangover effect (Boswell et al., 2005;Georgellis and Yusuf, 2016). According to this effect, workers' job satisfaction suddenly increases after they take a new job and progressively returns to pre-transition levels after some time. ...
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The consequences of temporary jobs for job satisfaction are not clear. This article examines the effect of two crucial moderators in the association between temporary contracts and job satisfaction: the reason for being a temporary worker and the duration of temporary contracts. Using the ad-hoc module of the 2017 EU Labour Force Survey (EU-LFS), this study examines 27 European countries separately. Results show that involuntary temporary workers (those who wanted a permanent contract but could not find one) tend to be less satisfied than permanent employees. However, voluntary temporary workers (those who prefer temporary over permanent jobs) and temporary workers in apprenticeships or probation periods are generally as satisfied as permanent employees. Shorter contracts frequently exert negative effects on job satisfaction, but only among involuntary temporary workers. Results differ between countries: the differences between temporary and permanent workers are insignificant in Scandinavian countries but large in the post-Socialist states.
... Previous studies also indicated that employees with longer tenure were better to use psychological resources (e.g., self-regulatory resources) rather than job resources (e.g., organizational culture) to mitigate the workrelated burnout such as job content plateau (Jiang et al., 2018). With respect to teachers, studies showed that when teachers were newcomers, their work engagement was predicted primarily by job resources offered by their school (Boswell et al., 2005;Lee et al., 2011), and thus they were more likely to be affected by workplace variables such as perceived school culture. Therefore, the moderating effect of job tenure weakened the direct effect of job resources such as perceived school culture on work engagement. ...
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... This downward trend is also consistent with declining trajectories in variables related to work engagement. For instance, the organizational socialization [74,75] and voluntary turnover literature [76] literature suggests that there may be slow declining trajectories after being very enthusiastic as a newcomer, for instance, due to the accumulation of minor events. Interestingly, our results imply that this downward trend may be compensated for by a high frequency of positive events. ...
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One outgrowth of the person–situation debate has been the use of fit or congruence models to explain work outcomes. In this study, the profile-comparison process, a Q-sort-based technique that provides an isomorphic assessment of job requirements and individual competencies, was used to assess person–job fit in 7 small samples representing a variety of jobs and organizations. The results show that overall person–job fit is strongly related to a number of outcomes, including job performance and satisfaction. Implications for the assessment of persons and jobs are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This longitudinal field study examined the combined effects of dispositions, entry stressors, and behavioral plasticity theory in predicting newcomers' adjustment to work after four and 10 months of organizational entry. Recent graduates completed a questionnaire prior to entry that measured two dispositions (negative affectivity and general self-efficacy), and a questionnaire four months after entry that measured four entry stressors (role conflict, role ambiguity, role overload, and unmet expectations). Measures of work adjustment were taken after four and 10 months. Based on behavioral plasticity theory, it was expected that the effects of the entry stressors would be most negative for the adjustment of newcomers with low general self-efficacy. Limited support was found for behavioral plasticity theory. Those interactions that were significant indicated that increasing levels of role conflict were associated with lower organizational commitment and identification for newcomers with low general self-efficacy. The results also provided weak support for a dispositional theory of work adjustment. The dispositions only predicted three of seven adjustment variables at four and 10 months. However, the entry stressors significantly predicted all seven adjustment measures. The results are discussed in terms of the predominant role played by the organizational setting in predicting newcomers' adjustment to work. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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This study is a follow-up to a study by Vroom 1966 which provided evidence of the phenomenon of post-decision dissonance reduction among graduate students in a school of industrial administration who were engaged in the process of choosing organizations in which to begin their managerial careers. The present study constitutes an examination of the attitudes of those students toward their organizations one year and three and one-half years after graduation. It was found that the changed orientations toward the chosen organization exhibited immediately following choice (i.e., increased attractiveness and greater perceived instrumentality for goal attainment) were no longer in evidence after implementation of the choice. In fact, both the attractiveness of the organization and its perceived instrumentality for the attainment of goals decreased markedly during the first year and remained at a low level for at least the next two and one-half years. This study examines the processes underlying the apparent disillusionment on the part of the subjects. The implications of the results for the phenomenon of post-decision dissonance are also considered.
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A new construct, entitled 'job embeddedness,' is introduced. It includes individuals' (1) links to other people, teams, and groups, (2) perceptions of their fit with job, organization, and community, and (3) what they say they would have to sacrifice if they left their jobs. We developed a measure of job embeddedness with two samples. The results show that job embeddedness predicts the key outcomes of both intent to leave and 'voluntary turnover' and explains significant incremental variance over and above job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job alternatives, and job search. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Academy of Management Journal is the property of Academy of Management and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
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A 12-mo longitudinal study of 88 newly hired nurses and junior accountants (mean age of all Ss 24 yrs) tested a series of assumptions from the authors' investment model concerning the determinants of job satisfaction, job commitment, and turnover. In general, greater job satisfaction resulted from high job rewards and low job costs; whereas strong job commitment was produced by high rewards, low costs, poor alternative quality, and large investment size. Whereas the impact of job rewards on satisfaction and commitment remained relatively constant, job costs seemed to exert an increasingly powerful influence over time. Investment size also exerted greater impact on job commitment with the passage of time. Just prior to their leaving, the job commitment of Ss who left was best predicted by a combination of rewards, costs, and alternatives. Ss who stayed and those who left differed from one another with regard to changes over time in each investment model factor-those who left experienced greater decline in rewards, increase in costs, increase in alternative quality, and decrease in investment size than those who stayed. Turnover appeared to be mediated by a decline over time in degree of job commitment. (28 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record
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Job search typically has been thought of as an antecedent to voluntary turnover or job choice behavior. This study extends the existing literature by proposing a model of the job search process and examining the job search behavior of employed managers. Managers were initially surveyed about their job search activity over the past year. Approximately one year later, the same managers were surveyed to assess whether they had changed jobs since the initial survey, and the circumstances surrounding the job change. This survey data was matched with job, organizational, and personal information contained in the data base of a large executive search firm. Results suggest that dissatisfaction with different aspects of the organization and job were more strongly related to job search than were perceptions of greener pastures. Moreover, although some job search activity does facilitate turnover, a considerable amount of search does not lead to turnover. Thus, it appears that search serves many purposes. Implications of managerial job search on organizations are discussed.
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[Excerpt] The relationship between job performance and voluntary employee turnover was investigated for 5,143 exempt employees in a single firm. As hypothesized, support was found for E. F Jackofsky's (1984) curvilinear hypothesis, as turnover was higher for low and high performers than it was for average performers. Two potential moderators of the curvilinearity were examined in an attempt to explain conflicting results in the performance-turnover literature. As predicted, low salary growth and high promotions each produced a more pronounced curvilinear performance-turnover relationship. Most notably, salary growth effects on turnover were greatest for high performers, with high salary growth predicting rather low turnover for these employees, whereas low salary growth predicted extremely high turnover. Additionally, once salary growth was controlled, promotions positively predicted turnover; with poor performer turnover most strongly affected.
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To investigate how the fit of an employee with his or her organization as a whole is established and maintained and what the consequences are in organizations, this study tracked the early careers of 171 entry-level auditors in eight of the largest U.S. public accounting firms and assessed the congruence of their values with those of the organization. Person-organization fit is shown to be created, in part, by selection (assessments of who the person is when he or she enters the organization) and socialization (how the organization influences the person's values, attitudes, and behaviors during membership. Results show some support for three general hypotheses: First, recruits whose values, when they enter, match those of the firm adjust to it more quickly; second, those who experience the most vigorous socialization fit the firm's values better than those who do not; and third, recruits whose values most closely match the firm's feel most satisfied and intend to and actually remain with it longer.
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There are problems of fit between standard research practices in the domain of turnover research and evolutionary decisional processes like job search. I analyze this problem from methodological, empirical, and conceptual vantage points. Reanalysis of data suggests that the ability to accurately estimate employment opportunity is related to one's temporal positioning within the turnover process. Using cybernetic decision theory as a point of departure, I propose a model conceptualizing employment search processes as a series of decision stages.
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Hom, Griffeth, and Sellaro's (1984) theoretical alternative to Mobley's (1977) turnover model was investigated in two studies. In Study 1, conceptual distinctions among model constructs and operationalizations of those constructs were validated. 206 nurses were surveyed, and constructs were assessed with multiple indicators. Although discriminating most constructs, structural equation modeling (SEM) identified a more parsimonious conceptualization in which a general construct underlies withdrawal cognitions. Other SEM analyses supported the indicators' construct validity and Hom et al.'s structural network. In Study 2, a longitudinal analogue of Hom et al.'s model was tested. A survey of 129 new nurses measured model constructs on three occasions. SEM disclosed that some causal effects in this model materialized contemporaneously, whereas others emerged after a lengthy time. Moreover, these causal effects systematically changed during newcomer assimilation. Implications for future research of turnover models are discussed.
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This article examines how the literatures of dynamic performance and the performance-turnover relationship inform each other. The nonrandom performance-turnover relationship suggests that dynamic performance studies may be biased by their elimination of participants who do not remain for the entire study period. The authors demonstrated that the performance slopes of those who leave an organization differ from the performance slopes of those who remain. This finding suggests that studies of the performance-turnover relationship need to consider employee performance trends when predicting turnover. Replicating and extending the research of D. A, Harrison, M. Virick. and S. William (1996), the authors found that performance changes from the previous month and performance trends measured over a longer time period explained variance in voluntary turnover beyond current performance. Finally, the authors showed that performance trends interacted with current performance in the prediction of voluntary turnover.
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This work reports further theoretical development of Lee and Mitchell's (1994) unfolding model of voluntary turnover, which describes different psychological paths that people take when quitting organizations. Ambiguities in the model were identified, and hypotheses aimed at resolving these ambiguities were tested on a sample of 229 former employees from the "Big 6" public accounting firms. The results provide a theoretical and quantitative extension of an earlier qualitative assessment of the unfolding model. Implications are discussed.
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This article documents changes in the attitudes of police recruits moving through the series of experiences associated with their early careers. The data were obtained from questionnaires which were administered longitudinally to newcomers in a big-city department and cross-checked by the researcher who was a participant-observer in the police training program. The analysis concentrated upon the motivation, commitment, and need satisfaction of patrol officers. The findings indicated that recruits entered the department highly motivated and committed to their newly-adopted organization. However, their motivational attitudes declined swiftly. Evidence is presented which suggests the less motivated patrol officers are perceived by their relevant supervisors as better policemen than their more motivated peers. Commitment attitudes also dropped over time, although expressed commitment remained relatively high compared to several other occupational samples. A positive association was present between superior evaluations of performance and commitment attitudes. Need satisfaction remained fairly constant across time and a positive relationship was detected between evaluations of performance and reported satisfaction. These findings denote the speedy and powerful character of the police socialization process resulting in a final perspective which stresses a "lay low, don't make waves" approach to urban policing. The findings also suggest the beginning of a general theory of organizational socialization.
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Recognizing that not all employees possess knowledge and skills that are of equal strategic importance, we draw on the resource-based view of the firm, human capital theory, and transaction cost economics to develop a human resource architecture of four different employment modes: internal development, acquisition, contracting, and alliance. We use this architecture to derive research questions for studying the relationships among employment modes, employment relationships, human resource configurations, and criteria for competitive advantage.
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There has been renewed interest in dispositional explanations of individual behavior in organizations. We argue that this new stream of dispositional research is flawed both conceptually and methodologically, and we suggest several theoretical and empirical improvements. We conclude by discussing the costs of a dispositional perspective for both organizations and organizational participants.
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This study assessed the changes in the intensity of behavior problems over the course of 12-week hospitalization in 28 children hospitalized on a child psychiatry inpatient service. The results indicated that the symptoms of uncontrolled aggression, misbehavior and excessive dependency were more vivid 60 days post-admission than they had been after 14 days of hospitalization. The results provide some empirical support for the 'honeymoon' effect: behavior difficulties temporarily disappear or decline for a period of days or weeks after admission to an inpatient service, only to emerge full-blown thereafter.
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Critics have argued that the field of human resource management (HRM) lacks a coherent theoreticalframework. This article attempts to further the theoretical development of SHRM through discussing six theoretical models (behavioral perspective, cybernetic models, agencyltransaction cost theory, resource-based view of the firm, power/resource dependence models, and institutional theory) that are usefulfor understanding both strategic and non-strategic determinants of HR practices. Finally, the implications of a stronger theoretical approach to SHRM research and practice are discussed.
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The potential effects of attrition in longitudinal research are addressed and a procedure for assessing its effects is recommended. We recommend that researchers assess the effects of subject attrition on their data by assessing: (1) the presence of non-random sampling using multiple logistic regression, (2) mean differences on the study’s variables between those who responded and did not respond to the subsequent data collection, (3) the restriction or enhancement of variances, and (4) changes in relationships among variables due to attrition. We demonstrate the procedure using data collected from a random sample of employed adults in the US regarding job satisfaction, job characteristics, demographics, and mood. In our data, subject attrition led to non-random sampling, affected the means and variances of some of the variables, but did not affect the relationships among the variables. The effects of subject attrition may be sample specific, but the procedure recommended for assessing its effects may be used in other data sets and substantive areas.
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Correlations between affectivity and job satisfaction measures were examined by cumulating research findings across studies. Correlations between (1) job satisfaction and positive affectivity, (2) job satisfaction and negative affectivity and (3) job satisfaction and affective disposition, were separately analyzed. The mean correlation corrected for coefficient alpha in the two measures correlated were: 0.49 for positive affectivity (N=3326, k=15), −0.33 for negative affectivity (N=6233, k=27) and 0.36 for affective disposition (N=1415, k=7). Results indicated that 10–25% of variance in job satisfaction could be due to individual differences in affectivity. No strong moderator variables were found. Implications for a dispositional and situational source of job satisfaction are discussed.
Article
Organizations use various means of regulating socially undesirable emotions, including normalizing. We define normalizing as institutionalized processes by which extraordinary situations are rendered seemingly ordinary. Four means of normalizing are discussed: (1) diffusing, where undesired emotions are dissipated or their impact is reduced; (2) reframing, where emotions or the situation are recast such that the emotions are forestalled, redefined, or rendered more acceptable; (3) adaptation, where repeated exposure to a situation reduces its emotional impact; and (4) ritualism, where the enactment of standardized procedures provides a sense of control and a momentum of means, thereby reducing emotions. We conclude that because normalizing often has a strong “as if” or pretend quality—requiring ongoing and mutual face-work, often supported by symbolic management—it is an inherently fragile practice that is easier to sustain in groups than as individuals.
Article
Myers and Diener (1995) asked “Who is happy?” but examined the question of who is more and who is less happy In fact, most people report a positive level of subjective well-being (SWB), and say that they are satisfied with domains such as marriage, work, and leisure People in disadvantaged groups on average report positive well-being, and measurement methods in addition to self-report indicate that most people's affect is primarily pleasant Cross-national data suggest that there is a positive level of SWB throughout the world, with the possible exception of very poor societies In 86% of the 43 nations for which nationally representative samples are available the mean SWB response was above neutral Several hypotheses to explain the positive levels of SWB are discussed
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This paper proposes an extension of generalized linear models to the analysis of longitudinal data. We introduce a class of estimating equations that give consistent estimates of the regression parameters and of their variance under mild assumptions about the time dependence. The estimating equations are derived without specifying the joint distribution of a subject's observations yet they reduce to the score equations for niultivariate Gaussian outcomes. Asymptotic theory is presented for the general class of estimators. Specific cases in which we assume independence, m-dependence and exchangeable correlation structures from each subject are discussed. Efficiency of the pioposecl estimators in two simple situations is considered. The approach is closely related to quasi-likelihood.
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The model of employee turnover described in this paper applies constructs and concepts from decision making, statistics, and social psychology to facilitate understanding and to redirect theory development and empirical research. The process of employee turnover is modeled by four distinctive decision paths; each decision path involves distinctive foci, psychological processes, and external events. Further, five specific contributions of the model are suggested, and recommendations for empirical testing and future research are offered.
Article
Critically examines research over the past 10-12 yrs concerning factors related to turnover and absenteeism in work situations. On a general level, overall job satisfaction was consistently and inversely related to turnover. In an effort to break down the global concept of job satisfaction, various factors in the work situation were analyzed as they related to withdrawal behavior. 4 categories of factors, each representing 1 "level" in the organization, were utilized: organization-wide factors, immediate work environment factors, job-related factors, and personal factors. Several variables in each of the 4 categories were found to be related fairly consistently to 1 or both forms of withdrawal. An attempt is made to put the diverse findings into a conceptual framework centering around the role of met expectations. Methodological considerations and future research needs are also discussed. (83 ref.)
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Emphasizing that both general job availability and individual attributes determine actual ease of movement in the job market, I propose a voluntary turnover model that combines aspects of signaling and human capital perspectives with approaches emphasizing job satisfaction and general job availability. Longitudinal data on 5,506 individuals were analyzed via survival analysis with time-dependent covariates and repeated turnover events. Most notably, the effects of job satisfaction and unemployment rate on voluntary turnover were moderated by education, cognitive ability, and occupation-specific training.
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Describes the structure, strengths, and problems associated with quality circles (i.e., a parallel-structure approach to getting employees involved in problem solving). The phases that quality circles typically go through—from very positive to significant disillusionment—where quality circles fit in with employee involvement, and the establishment of task forces and work teams are discussed. Suggestions for creating a supportive work organization for quality circles and a strategy for increasing employee involvement are offered. It is concluded that quality circles are potentially useful but that they have trouble coexisting with traditional management approaches; they ultimately fade or require changes in major features of the organization. (0 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Discusses several matters deemed important to industrial psychologists. It is suggested that, given the intangible character of psychological variables, it would be fruitful to obtain the ideas of ordinary people about the variables that are significant in occupational behavior. Industrial psychologists ought to study organizations as "individuals" rather than just regarding them as social environments. The use of simulated organizations (e.g., mathematical models) would facilitate such investigations. Industrial psychologists should consider the differences among people to be quantitative rather than qualitative. Consequently, they should not devote their time to investigating differences among arbitrary types of people, but rather should direct their attention to the quantitative variables (e.g., social factors) which underlie those qualitatively different categories. The role and nature of theory and the impermanence of facts which emerge from empirical studies are also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This article develops a framework for efficient IV estimators of random effects models with information in levels which can accommodate predetermined variables. Our formulation clarifies the relationship between the existing estimators and the role of transformations in panel data models. We characterize the valid transformations for relevant models and show that optimal estimators are invariant to the transformation used to remove individual effects. We present an alternative transformation for models with predetermined instruments which preserves the orthogonality among the errors. Finally, we consider models with predetermined variables that have constant correlation with the effects and illustrate their importance with simulations.
Article
The purpose of this paper is to shed some light on the asymptotic behavior of a wide class of estimators for a dynamic error components model when only the number of individuals tends to infinity, the number of time periods being kept fixed. In particular, it is shown that this asymptotic behavior is highly dependent on the assumption about the initial observations and that it offers very good approximations to the small sample behavior of the various estimators under consideration.