Usefulness of Left Atrial Volume in Predicting First Congestive Heart Failure in Patients ≥65 Years of Age With Well-Preserved Left Ventricular Systolic Function
Left atrial (LA) volume is a barometer of diastolic dysfunction. Whether it predicts congestive heart failure (CHF) in patients with preserved left ventricular (LV) systolic function is not known. Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents aged > or = 65 years referred for transthoracic echocardiography from 1990 to 1998, who were in sinus rhythm without a history of CHF were followed in the medical records to 2003 (mean follow-up duration 4.3 +/- 2.7 years). Of the 1,495 patients identified, 1,375 (92%) with LV ejection fractions > or = 50% (mean age 75 +/- 7 years; 59% women) constituted the study population, 138 (10%) of whom developed CHF. Baseline LA volume > or = 32 ml/m2 was an independent predictor of first CHF (p <0.001). Of the 138 patients who had first CHF, ejection fractions were assessed within 4 weeks of diagnosis in 98 subjects, 74 (76%) of whom had ejection fractions remaining at > or = 50%, with a mean increase in LA volume of 8 +/- 10 ml/m2 (p <0.001) from baseline. The age-adjusted CHF-free survival rates for LA volume tertiles (< 28, 28 to < or = 37, and > 37 ml/m2) were 95%, 91%, and 83%, respectively (p <0.001). In conclusion, LA volume independently predicted first CHF in an elderly cohort with well-preserved LV systolic function.
Available from: Giovanni Targher
- "Data are expressed as means ± SD or proportions. LAVI was considered abnormally increased if it was ≥32 ml/m 2 ; this cut-off value of LAVI has been shown to be associated with adverse CVD outcomes in both non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic individuals (Poulsen et al., 2013; Takemoto et al., 2005; Tsang et al., 2003). Differences in clinical/ biochemical characteristics and echocardiographic parameters among patients stratified by LAVI (b32 vs. ≥32 ml/m "
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ABSTRACT: We assessed whether left atrial volume index (LAVI) was associated with the presence of microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes, and whether this association was independent of hemodynamic and non-hemodynamic factors.
We studied 157 consecutive outpatients with type 2 diabetes with no previous history of ischemic heart disease, chronic heart failure and valvular diseases. A transthoracic echocardiography and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy were performed in all participants. Presence of microvascular complications was also recorded.
Overall, 51 patients had decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate and/or abnormal albuminuria, 24 had diabetic retinopathy, 22 had lower-extremity sensory neuropathy, and 67 (42.7%) patients had one or more of these microvascular complications (i.e., combined endpoint). After stratifying patients by LAVI, those with LAVI ≥32ml/m(2) had a greater prevalence of microvascular complication, lower left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, higher LV mass index and higher E/e' ratio than those with LAVI <32ml/m(2). Logistic regression analyses revealed that microvascular complications (singly or in combination) were associated with increased LAVI, independently of age, sex, diabetes duration, hemoglobin A1c, hypertension, LV-ejection fraction, LV mass index and the E/e' ratio.
These results indicate that microvascular diabetic complications are associated with increased LAVI in well-controlled type 2 diabetic patients with preserved systolic function and free from ischemic heart disease, independently of multiple potential confounders.
Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "Left atrial (LA) dilatation is found in many conditions, including atrial fibrillation, left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic dysfunction, congestive heart failure, and valvular heart disease [1-4]. Increased maximal LA size measured at LV end systole has been associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in population-based studies, a finding attributed to the detrimental effect of chronically increased LV filling pressure which results in LA remodeling over time [3,5-8]. LA function has three distinct phases during cardiac cycle: a filling phase during ventricular systole, a conduit phase during early diastolic rapid ventricular filling and an active contraction phase during late diastole . "
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ABSTRACT: Left atrial volume (LAV) and emptying fraction (LAEF) are phasic during cardiac cycle. Their relationships to left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) have not been fully defined.
Forty one patients undergoing clinically indicated left heart catheterization were recruited for same day cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). LAV and LAEF were assessed in cine images using biplane area and length method. Three phasic LAV was assessed at LV end systole (LAVmax), LV end diastole (LAVmin) and late LV diastole prior to LA contraction (LAVac). LAEF was assessed as global LAEF (LAEFTotal), passive (LAEFPassive) and active LAEF (LAEFContractile). The relationships of phasic LAV and LAEF to LVEDP were assessed using Receiver operating characteristic comparing areas under the curves (AUC).
The mean age of the patients was 59 years. A history of heart failure was present in 16 (39%) with NYHA functional class III or IV in 8 (20%) patients. Average LV ejection fraction was 49 +/- 16% ranging from 10% to 74% and LVEDP by catheterization 14 +/- 8 mmHg ranging from 4 mmHg to 32 mmHg. LAVmin had the strongest association with LVEDP elevation (>12 mmHg) (AUC 0.765, p = 0.002), as compared to LAVmax (AUC 0.677, p = 0.074) and LAVac (AUC 0.735, p = 0.008). Among three phasic LAEF assessed, LAEFTotal had the closest association with LVEDP elevation (AUC 0.780, p = 0.001), followed by LAEFContractile (AUC 0.698, p = 0.022) and LAEFPassive (AUC 0.656, p = 0.077).
Increased LAVmin and decreased LAEFTotal have the best performance in identifying elevated LVEDP among three phasic LAV and LAEF analyzed. Future studies should further characterize LA phasic indices in clinical outcomes.
Available from: Kazuo Komamura
- "Role of left atrial structural remodeling for cardiac events Enlargement of LA has adverse cardiovascular outcomes, including stroke , heart failure   , atrial fibrillation , and mortality . LA enlargement has been strongly associated with LV diastolic dysfunction, independent of LV ejection fraction, age, gender, and cardiovascular risk score  . "
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ABSTRACT: Plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) is related to cardiac remodeling in patients with hypertension. However, we do not know the detailed relationship between changes in PAC and regression of left atrial (LA) volume following long-term treatment with angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) or calcium-channel blocker (CCB).
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of anti-hypertensive monotherapy, an ARB irbesartan or a CCB amlodipine, on PAC and LA reverse remodeling in hypertensive patients.
A total of 48 patients with untreated hypertension were randomly assigned to irbesartan (ARB group, n=26) and amlodipine (CCB group, n=22). We examined the correlation between LA volume index (LAVI) and other echocardiographic parameters or PAC (n=40) at the baseline and after 12 months of treatment.
After 12 months, blood pressure (BP) decreased similarly in both groups. LAVI and PAC significantly decreased in the ARB group, but not in the CCB group (-16±8% vs. 22±9%, p<0.01, -16±9% vs. 11±9%, p<0.05). Larger %-decrease in PAC was associated with larger %-reduction of LAVI in the ARB group (r=0.54, p<0.05), but not in the CCB group.
While BP reduction was similar between the two groups, decrease in LA volume was larger in the ARB group than in the CCB group. Decrease in LA volume was larger in patients with a greater decrease in PAC than in those with smaller decrease in PAC. ARB may facilitate reverse remodeling of LA through decreases in PAC in hypertensive patients.
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