Doppler tissue imaging: A reliable method for estimation of left ventricular filling pressure in patients with mitral regurgitation

Division of Noninvasive Cardiology, San Raffaele Hospital IRCCS, Milan, Italy.
American heart journal (Impact Factor: 4.46). 09/2005; 150(3):610-5. DOI: 10.1016/j.ahj.2004.10.046
Source: PubMed


Doppler of mitral and pulmonary vein flows are used to estimate left ventricular (LV) filling pressure. Mitral regurgitation (MR) makes unreliable these parameters by inducing changes of both mitral inflow and pulmonary vein flow.
To evaluate whether Doppler tissue imaging (DTI) diastolic indices obtained at the level of LV lateral mitral annulus can provide accurate estimation of LV filling pressure in patients with MR.
Forty-three patients (age 55 +/- 11 years) with severe MR and mean LV ejection fraction (EF) 58 +/- 13 were enrolled, 10 (23%) with LV EF < 50% and 33 (77%) with LV EF > 50%. Doppler signals from the mitral inflow, pulmonary venous flow, and DTI indices of the lateral mitral annulus were obtained. LV end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) was measured invasively with fluid-filled catheter.
In the overall population, the majority of standard Doppler and DTI indices correlated with LVEDP, but the multivariate analysis showed that the ratio of mitral velocity to early diastolic velocity of the mitral annulus (E/Em ratio) (beta = .87, P = .0001) was independent predictor of LVEDP (R2 = 0.74, SE = 4, P = .0001). An E/Em ratio > 10 predicted an LVEDP > 15 mm Hg (sensitivity 90%, specificity 83%). In both groups with LV EF > 50% (beta = .77, P = .005; cumulative R2 = 0.73, SE = 2.5, P = .0001) and < 50% (beta = .89, P = .002; cumulative R2 = 0.77, SE = 2.1, P = .002), multivariate analysis underscored again only E/Em ratio as independent predictor of LVEDP.
The combination of DTI indices of the mitral annulus and mitral inflow velocities provides reliable parameters to predict LV filling pressure in patients with MR both in patients with LV EF > 50% and < 50%.

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    • "As opposed to mitral inflow E velocity, the peak velocity of the mitral annulus during early diastole (e’) demonstrates a monotonic response to worsening intrinsic diastolic function, with e’ becoming slower with increasing severity of diastolic dysfunction. Moreover, the E/e’ ratio has been shown to correlate with LV filling pressures in many patient populations [9-11], including those with septic shock [12]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Patients with severe sepsis or septic shock often exhibit significant cardiovascular dysfunction. We sought to determine whether severity of diastolic dysfunction assessed by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) predicts 28-day mortality. Methods In this prospective, observational study conducted in two intensive care units at a tertiary care hospital, 78 patients (age 53.2 ± 17.1 years; 51% females; mean APACHE II score 23.3 ± 7.4) with severe sepsis or septic shock underwent TTE within 6 h of ICU admission, after 18 to 32 h, and after resolution of shock. Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction was defined according to modified American Society of Echocardiography 2009 guidelines using E, A, and e’ velocities; E/A and E/e’; and E deceleration time. Systolic dysfunction was defined as an ejection fraction < 45%. Results Twenty-seven patients (36.5%) had diastolic dysfunction on initial echocardiogram, while 47 patients (61.8%) had diastolic dysfunction on at least one echocardiogram. Total mortality was 16.5%. The highest mortality (37.5%) was observed among patients with grade I diastolic dysfunction, an effect that persisted after controlling for age and APACHE II score. At time of initial TTE, central venous pressure (CVP) (11+/- 5 mmHg) did not differ among grades I-III, although patients with grade I received less intravenous fluid. Conclusions LV diastolic dysfunction is common in septic patients. Grade I diastolic dysfunction, but not grades II and III, was associated with increased mortality. This finding may reflect inadequate fluid resuscitation in early sepsis despite an elevated CVP, suggesting a possible role for TTE in sepsis resuscitation.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Critical ultrasound journal
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    • "Eustachio Agricola et al.44 studied 43 patients with severe MR. Catheterization was performed on the same day as echocardiography. "
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    ABSTRACT: Conventional Doppler measurements, including mitral inflow and pulmonary venous flow, are used to estimate left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP). However, these parameters have limitations in predicting LVEDP among patients with mitral regurgitation. This study sought to establish whether the correlation between measurements derived from tissue Doppler echocardiography and LVEDP remains valid in the setting of severe mitral regurgitation. THIRTY PATIENTS (MEAN AGE: 57.37 ± 13.29 years) with severe mitral regurgitation and a mean left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) of 46.0 ± 14.95 were enrolled; 16 (53.4%) patients were defined to have EF < 50% and 14 (46.6%) patients had EF ≥ 50%. Doppler signals from the mitral inflow, pulmonary venous flow, and Doppler tissue imaging indices were obtained, and LVEDP was measured invasively through cardiac catheterization. The majority of the standard Doppler and Doppler tissue imaging indices were not significantly correlated with LVEDP in the univariate analysis. In the multiple linear regression, however, early (E) transmitral velocity to annular E' (E/E') ratio (β = 1.09, p value < 0.01), E wave velocity to propagation velocity (E/Vp) ratio (β = 7.87, p value < 0.01), and isovolumic relaxation time (β = 0.21, p value = 0.01) were shown as independent predictors of LVEDP (R(2) = 91.7%). The ratio of E/Vp and E/E' ratio and also the isovolumic relaxation time could be applied properly to estimate LVEDP in mitral regurgitation patients even in the setting of severe mitral regurgitation.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2010
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    ABSTRACT: TDE is a relatively new but important technique in the quantification of myocardial function. At present, it can be used in the perioperative setting to characterize diastolic function, identify patients with high filling pressures, differentiate constrictive pericarditis from restrictive cardiomyopathy, and guide cardiac resynchronization therapy. Further validation of perioperative TDE is required, particularly in the quantification of systolic function and detection of intraoperative ischemia. The latter application has limitations that are overcome with the use of ε{lunate} and SR. One of the barriers to the perioperative application of ε{lunate} and SR has been removed by the advent of online strain analysis. However, sensitivity to "noise" and difficulty aligning the insonating beam with the direction of myocardial contraction (especially with TEE) remain substantial problems with TDE-derived ε{lunate} and SR. These issues may be resolved by further developments in speckle tracking.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2006 · Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
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