I kappa B-mediated apoptotic gene therapy against acute myelogenous leukemia using replication-defective HSV-1 vector expressing TK and mutant I kappa B alpha
Overexpression of NF-kappa B reportedly plays anti-apoptotic roles in the growth of AML cells. Control of AML cell growth was attempted using a replication-defective herpes simplex virus-1 vector, T0I kappa B alpha, overexpressing mutant I kappa B alpha to inhibit NF-kappa B in vitro. T0I kappa B alpha displays defective ICP4/ICP22/ICP27, isogenic thymidine kinase, and mutant I kappa B alpha. T0Z.1 expressing lacZ instead of I kappa B was used for controls. Infection of T0I kappa B alpha at 15 multiplicity of infection (MOI) with cells of AML lines, HL60, K562, and NB4 displaying >90% infection efficiency and tumor killing in vitro. Use of 10 microM of Ara-C alone was clinically equivalent to high-dose Ara-C, displaying 11% tumor killing. Neither ganciclovir (GCV) nor Ara-C enhanced T0I kappa B- alpha mediated tumor killing. Attenuation of NF-kappa B by T0I kappa B alpha was confirmed by EMSA. T0I kappa B alpha induced caspase-3 activity, with subsequent apoptosis confirmed by colorimetric and TUNEL assays. Fresh AML cells from 8 patients were infected with T0I kappa B alpha at 3 MOI, with or without GCV or 10 microM of Ara-C in vitro. Infection efficiency was 10%. T0I kappa B alpha displayed 8-15% tumor killing, superior to Ara-C in 6 of the 8 patients. Administration of Ara-C enhanced tumor killing in 5 of these 6 cases. Our results suggest that T0I kappa B alpha-mediated gene therapy induces apoptosis of AML cells in vitro.