ArticleLiterature Review

The Gender Similarities Hypothesis

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Abstract

The differences model, which argues that males and females are vastly different psychologically, dominates the popular media. Here, the author advances a very different view, the gender similarities hypothesis, which holds that males and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables. Results from a review of 46 meta-analyses support the gender similarities hypothesis. Gender differences can vary substantially in magnitude at different ages and depend on the context in which measurement occurs. Overinflated claims of gender differences carry substantial costs in areas such as the workplace and relationships.

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... Thus, our study integrates and extends previous theory and research to better understand when gender influences unethical behavior in negotiations. Finally, we used a Bayesian framework as more appropriate analysis to compare whether the existing body of empirical work on gender and unethical negotiation behavior is in line with a gender-similarity perspective (e.g., Hyde, 2005Hyde, , 2014 or a gender-difference perspective-the hypothesis we propose. ...
... We used a Bayesian framework for testing our hypotheses for three reasons. First, we wanted to assess the evidence for the H 0 (i.e., the gender-similarity hypothesis; Hyde, 2005Hyde, , 2014 via Bayes factors (Keysers et al., 2020), which cannot be done within a frequentist framework. In this meta-analysis, the Bayes factor provides the ratio of the marginal likelihoods of the H 0 against the H 1 . ...
... Notably, this gender difference is robust and can be observed similarly for unethical judgements, unethical intentions, and unethical behaviors in negotiations. In contrast, no evidence was found for a gender-similarity hypothesis (Hyde, 2005(Hyde, , 2014 as shown by the obtained Bayes Factors. ...
Article
Based on role congruity theory, this preregistered meta-analysis examines whether women negotiate less unethically than men. We predicted that moderators related to the person (negotiation experience) and the negotiation context (e.g., advocacy, cultural gender-role inequality) influence the proposed gender difference. We conducted a Bayesian three-level meta-analysis to test our predictions on a sample of 116 effect sizes from 70 samples (overall N = 14,028, including employees, MBA students, undergraduate students). As predicted, women negotiated less unethically than men (Hedges' g = 0.25). The gender difference held for unethical judgements (Hedges' g = 0.29), unethical intentions (Hedges' g = 0.21), and unethical behaviors (Hedges' g = 0.17). The gender difference decreased when parties negotiated for others as compared to for themselves, when parties strategically used positive affect, and tended to decrease when parties were experienced as compared to inexperienced negotiators. We discuss implications for theory and research.
... Although men's and women's cognitive profiles largely overlap, sex/gender 1 differences in certain cognitive abilities are consistently reported, albeit with different effect sizes (e.g., Hyde 2005;Torres et al. 2006;Toivainen et al. 2018;Hirnstein et al. 2019). While women tend to outperform men in some verbal tasks, such as speech production (d = 0.33) (Hyde 2005), men tend to achieve higher performance in some spatial abilities (Voyer et al. 1995;Reilly and Neumann 2013). ...
... Although men's and women's cognitive profiles largely overlap, sex/gender 1 differences in certain cognitive abilities are consistently reported, albeit with different effect sizes (e.g., Hyde 2005;Torres et al. 2006;Toivainen et al. 2018;Hirnstein et al. 2019). While women tend to outperform men in some verbal tasks, such as speech production (d = 0.33) (Hyde 2005), men tend to achieve higher performance in some spatial abilities (Voyer et al. 1995;Reilly and Neumann 2013). Spatial abilities are needed to perceive, localize, visualize, manipulate, and understand relationships between objects in space (Uttal et al. 2013;Newcombe and Shipley 2015). ...
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A recent meta-synthesis study with a sample of >12 million participants revealed that the male advantage in mental rotation (MR) is the largest cognitive sex/gender difference found in psychological literature. MR requires test takers to mentally rotate three-dimensional cubic figures under time restrictions. Previous studies have investigated how biological and social factors contribute to cognitive sex/gender differences in tasks of this type. Spatial anxiety and self-confidence in MR tasks have received less attention. The present study investigated the contribution of these psychological factors to sex/gender differences in MR performance. Participants ( n = 269) completed two MR tasks that differed in task difficulty. Participants also indicated their self-confidence (for each item) and spatial anxiety. The results revealed that pronounced sex/gender differences in spatial anxiety and self-confidence mediate sex/gender in MR performance, especially when task demands are high. The current findings suggest that task-irrelevant factors that are not spatial cognitive in nature contribute largely to the well-known medium to large sex/gender differences in MR. Future studies should further explore mechanisms underlying cognitive sex/gender differences within a biopsychosocial approach.
... Similarly, monogamous vole species exhibit small sex differences in home range size, spatial ability, and relative hippocampus size, but these measures are malebiased in polygynous species since only males need to search for mates [24]. Given that humans exhibit little to no sex differences for many cognitive and psychological traits [136,137], it follows that we should expect any structural sex differences in the human brain to also be small (Fig. 3). Given this expectation of small average sex differences, it also follows that we should not expect nonoverlapping distributions for neuroanatomical measures between the sexes (i.e., sexual dimorphism). ...
... In the absence of specially tailored study designs to deal with this complexity, there is no empirical basis for arbitrating as to whether a given sex difference in regional brain anatomy may or may not have functional relevance. Prior to initiating research in this field, we suggest that researchers consider whether their personal ethics align with the potential societal implications of this type of work [136,147]. ...
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Highlights Recent large-scale studies have reached different conclusions regarding the presence of sex differences in human neuroanatomy. We show that these contradictory findings are explained by different methodological choices. While multiple large direct analyses highlight small, highly reproducible sex differences, reviews do not account for methodological heterogeneity across studies (e.g., statistical power/sample size, brain size-correction methods, segmentation, region selection, participant age). This explains many of the apparent inconsistencies reported in recent reviews. We also summarize observations that motivate research on sex differences in human neuroanatomy (including potential causes and effects), review methodological and empirical support for using structural MRI to investigate such patterns, and outline best practices for analyzing and describing neuroanatomical sex differences. Finally, we argue that broader historical and societal contexts make it important to reinforce the scientific method by adopting an actively "anti-sexist" viewpoint when conducting research on sex differences in the human brain.
... Outcome expectation is an awareness or perception about the consequences of re-donation, which reflects donor's beliefs/attitudes toward RBD and involves both moral reasoning and cost-benefit analysis for this prosocial behavior (Bandura, 2001;Margoni & Surian, 2016;Pligt & De Vries, 1998). The gender similarities hypothesis and extensive evidence of empirical studies and systematic reviews on gender differences suggest that males and females are alike on most psychological variables such as moral reasoning, negotiation outcomes (Win-Lose, Lose-Lose, and Win-Win), and attitudes toward moral behavior (Hyde, 2005(Hyde, , 2014(Hyde, , 2016Jäncke, 2018;Mazei et al., 2015). When utilizing more objective measures or larger samples, the differences of most psychological variables (e.g., moral judgment) between genders are minimal (Atari et al., 2020;Hyde, 2005;Jäncke, 2018). ...
... The gender similarities hypothesis and extensive evidence of empirical studies and systematic reviews on gender differences suggest that males and females are alike on most psychological variables such as moral reasoning, negotiation outcomes (Win-Lose, Lose-Lose, and Win-Win), and attitudes toward moral behavior (Hyde, 2005(Hyde, , 2014(Hyde, , 2016Jäncke, 2018;Mazei et al., 2015). When utilizing more objective measures or larger samples, the differences of most psychological variables (e.g., moral judgment) between genders are minimal (Atari et al., 2020;Hyde, 2005;Jäncke, 2018). Male and female are similar in subjective task values (defined as individuals' incentives for doing different tasks) that are related to expectancies of performing the task/ behavior (Gegenfurtner, 2020). ...
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Blood donor retention is an effective way to improve blood safety and maintain a stable blood supply. According to the social cognition theory, outcome expectation is an important determinant of behavioral maintenance. However, no outcome expectation scale for blood donation is available in the literature. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a positive outcome expectation scale (POES) and a negative outcome expectation scale (NOES) for re-donation among blood donors. In Study 1, a total of 12 items for POES and 7 items for NOES were developed. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed to examine the factor structure of the two scales among a convenience sample of 155 college student blood donors in China (100 females, 55 males; Mage = 20.23 ± 1.94). In Study 2, the factor structure was further validated with a second convenience sample of 164 blood donors recruited from blood collection sites (79 female, 85 males; Mage = 25.68 ± 7.87) using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The internal consistency, convergent validity, discrimination validity and criterion validity were also tested. In Study 1, one item from NOES with a communality value lower than .30 was deleted. A three-factor structure for POES and a two-factor structure for NOES were established through the EFA. These factor structures were further supported by the CFA in Study 2. Both POES and NOES showed satisfactory internal consistency, convergent validity, discrimination validity and criterion validity. The POES and NOES demonstrated good reliability and validity in measuring the positive and negative outcome expectations of re-donation among blood donors. The two scales can be utilized in research and practice in predicting and promoting blood re-donation.
... Previous studies typically report lower sexual desire among women (e.g., Kim et al., 2021;Lippa, 2009;Sutherland et al., 2015), especially when solitary desire (e.g., masturbation) is measured (Baumeister et al., 2001;Hyde, 2005;Stark et al., 2015). Several theories have been proposed to explain the gender/sex difference in trait sexual desire. ...
... As expected (Hypothesis 2a) and consistent with the large body of previous studies (e.g., Baumeister et al., 2001;Hyde, 2005), men reported higher dyadic and solitary sexual desire on average than women. Notably, this effect was smaller for dyadic sexual desire (partner) compared to all other facets of sexual desire. ...
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While most studies on sexuality in later life report that sexual desire declines with age, little is known about the exact nature of age effects on sexual desire. Using self-reported dyadic sexual desire relating to a partner, dyadic sexual desire relating to an attractive person, and solitary sexual desire from a large (N > 8000) and age diverse (14.6–80.2 years) online sample, the current study had three goals: First, we investigated relationships between men and women’s sexual desire and age. Second, we examined whether individual differences such as gender/sex, sexual orientation, self-rated masculinity, relationship status, self-rated attractiveness, and self-rated health predict sexual desire. Third, we examined how these associations differed across sexual desire facets. On average, the associations between age and both men and women’s sexual desire followed nonlinear trends and differed between genders/sexes and types of sexual desire. Average levels of all types of sexual desire were generally higher in men. Dyadic sexual desire related positively to self-rated masculinity and having a romantic partner and solitary desire was higher in people with same-sex attraction. We discuss the results in the context of the evolutionary hypothesis that predict an increase of sexual desire and female reproductive effort prior to declining fertility. Our findings both support and challenge beliefs about gender/sex specificity of age effects on sexual desire and highlight the importance of differentiating between desire types.
... In the nearly 160,000 children from 51 LMIC examined here, early childhood development in girls and boys in the 3-to 5-yearold age range does not differ very much. These results replicate the general pattern of gender similarities findings from past largely high-income country (HIC) samples as documented in narrative reports (Maccoby & Jacklin, 1974) and in more than 45 meta-analyses (Hyde, 2005(Hyde, , 2014. Moreover, these results expand on past MICS findings that young girls and boys appear to differ very little on more contemporaneous early childhood development scores in LMIC as well (Lu et al., 2020). ...
... Bu görev ve sorumluluklar doğrudan ve dolaylı öğrenme yaşantılarıyla kadınlar ve erkekler tarafından içselleştirilir ve zaman içerisinde insanlar biyolojik cinsiyetlerinin gerektirdiği kadınlık ve erkeklik rollerine uygun şemalar geliştirirler. Kadınlar ve erkekler çok sayıda psikolojik nitelikte benzerlik göstermesine rağmen (Hyde, 2005;Zell, Krizan ve Teeter, 2015) bu şemalar, bireylerin duygularını, düşüncelerini, davranışlarını ve olaylar karşısındaki tepkilerini etkileyerek kadınlar ve erkekler arasındaki farklılıkların abartılmasına neden olabilir ve sonuç olarak ilişkilerde ve iş yaşamında olumsuz sonuçlar doğurabilir. ...
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The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between irrational beliefs about romantic relationships, cognitive flexibility and relationship satisfaction in individuals who are in a romantic relationship. A convenience sample of 296 single participants who are currently involved in a romantic relationship completed a questionnaire consisting of Personal Information Form, Irrational Romantic Relationship Beliefs Inventory, Cognitive Flexibility Scale, and Relationship Satisfaction Scale. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation analysis, standard multiple regression analysis and relative importance analysis. The results of the regression analysis indicated that individuals with over expectations, irrational beliefs and high cognitive flexibility, and low irrational beliefs about relationship-specific gender differences and different thinking in this sample have high relationship satisfaction. Relative importance analyses also suggested that relationship specific irrational beliefs about divergent thinking and gender differences had a significant importance in relationship satisfaction among significant predictors in this sample. Marriage and family therapists can focus on reducing relationship-specific irrational beliefs and increasing cognitive flexibility in individuals with low relationship satisfaction during the therapy seasons.
... Thus, when it comes to forecasting how satisfying one's union will be the next day or next year, women and men are the barometers of relationships. These findings dovetail with a larger literature showing that women and men are more similar than different (23). ...
Article
There is a longstanding belief in relationship science and popular opinion that women are the barometers in mixed-gender relationships such that their perceptions about the partnership carry more weight than men’s in predicting future relationship satisfaction, but this idea has yet to be rigorously tested. We analyze data from two studies to test within-person links between men’s and women’s relationship satisfaction on their own and their partner’s next-day and next-year satisfaction. Study 1 combined nine daily diary datasets from Canada and the United States with 901 mixed-gender couples who provided 29,541 daily reports of relationship satisfaction. Study 2 analyzed five annual waves of data from the German Family Panel (pairfam) that surveyed 3,405 mixed-gender couples who provided 21,115 relationship satisfaction reports. Latent curve models with structured residuals (LCM-SR) revealed that in both studies, men’s and women’s relationship satisfaction significantly predicted their own and their partner’s relationship satisfaction, with no gender differences in the magnitude of these effects. Results underscore the interdependence of romantic partners’ satisfaction and indicate that both men and women jointly shape romantic relationship satisfaction.
... Moreover, it has been reported that with a well-designed training (e.g., video game playing), women could have results similar to men (Hyde, 2016). Sex differences have been described in previous research (Tamayo et al., 2012;Kestens et al., 2021), with authors encouraging to use sex-stratified analysis when cognitive decline is evaluated (Jockwitz et al., 2021); however, others have not found significant difference between males and females in cognitive tasks (Kessels et al., 2008) which is in accordance with the Gender Similarities Hypothesis (e.g., males and females are quite similar on most psychological variables; Hyde, 2005). ...
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Hearing loss has been identified as a major modifiable risk factors for dementia. Adult candidates for cochlear implantation (CI) represent a population at risk of hearing loss-associated cognitive decline. This study investigated the effect of demographics, habits, and medical and psychological risk factors on cognition within such a cohort. Data from 34 consecutive adults with post-lingual deafness scheduled for CI were analyzed. Pure tone audiometry (PTA4) and Speech Discrimination Score (SDS) were recorded. The Repeatable Battery for Assessment of Neuropsychological Status for Hearing impaired individuals (RBANS-H) was used to measure cognition. Demographics (sex, age, years of education), habits (smoking, alcohol intake, physical inactivity), and medical factors (hypertension, diabetes, traumatic brain injury) were evaluated. Depression was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and social inhibition with the Type D questionnaire (DS14). All participants (mean age 62 ± 15 years) suffered from severe to profound hearing loss (PTA4:129 ± 60 dB; SDS:14 ± 24%). The mean RBANS-H total score was 83 ± 16. Participants reported a mean of years of formal education of 12 ± 5 years. The prevalence of habits and medical risk factors was: physical inactivity (29%), body mass index >30 (28%), traumatic brain injury (25%), hypertension (24%), heavy alcohol consumption (13%), smoking (13%), and diabetes (0%). Regarding psychological factors, the mean scores of social inhibition and depression were 10 ± 6 and 6 ± 5, respectively. The number of years of education was significantly correlated with the RBANS-H total score ( p < 0.001), and with the domains “Immediate memory” ( p = 0.003), “Visuospatial/constructional” ( p < 0.001), and “Attention” ( p < 0.001). The mean RBANS-H total score in participants who had university studies or higher level (12/34) was 97 ± 9, with the remaining participants reporting a mean score of 75 ± 15. Men performed better in the “Visuospatial/constructional” ( p = 0.008). Physical inactivity was associated with lower scores in the “Delayed memory” ( p = 0.031); hypertension correlated with lower RBANS-H total scores ( p = 0.025) and “Attention” ( p = 0.006). Depression and social inhibition were negatively correlated with RBANS-H total score and with the “Immediate memory,” “Visuospatial/constructional,” and “Attention” (all p < 0.05). In adults with late-onset deafness scheduled to CI, educational level has a significant effect. Additionally, sex, physical inactivity, hypertension, and psychological traits of social inhibition and depression may also influence cognitive status. Long-term studies with more participants would enable us better understand the effects different risk factors on cognitive status.
... The effect sizes of target group ratings were larger than those of self-ratings; self-ratings effects were generally small or very small. Our work is, thus, consistent with Hyde's (2005) gender similarities hypothesis. Women and men are often more similar than different. ...
Article
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Agency and Communion, the Big Two of social perception, appear to have unique subdimensions, but they have differed across studies and not all may be relevant for understanding gender stereotypes. Across two sets of studies (Total N = 1,648), we examined self-and group gender stereotypes using Abele and colleagues' (2021) conceptualization of agency as a vertical dimension that conveys information about social status and communion as a horizontal dimension that conveys information about approaching groups and individuals. Group stereotype analyses suggested that the vertical dimension comprised assertiveness/dominance and ability subdimensions, whereas the horizontal dimension was unidimensional. In contrast, self-stereotype analyses suggested that the vertical dimension comprised assertiveness/dominance and independence subdimensions and the horizontal dimension comprised a single nurturance subdimension-a unique morality subdimension did not emerge. As expected, women were perceived and rated themselves as higher on the horizontal dimension (group stereotypes), more nurturing (self-stereotypes), and less assertive/ dominant (both group and self-stereotypes) than men. Gender differences in nurturance and assertiveness/dominance were stronger, as expected, among individuals whose gender was salient. We discuss implications for examining gender stereotypes and the potential consequences of misspecifying the Big Two as unidimensional.
... Ha nem lenne nézetegyezség a két nem között, a kapcsolatokat sokkal nehezebb lenne kialakítani és ápolni, és a különbség az intim kapcsolatokra lenne leginkább hátráltató hatással (Dallos és Kovács, 2020;Glick és Fiske, 2001). De a hasonlóságot támasztja alá a "nemi hasonlóság hipotézis" (gender similarities hypothesis) is, mely szerint a férfiak és nők a legtöbb pszichológiai jellemző alapján megegyeznek (Hyde, 2005). ...
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Háttér és célkitűzések A kutatás céljának azt tűztük ki, hogy rámutasson a nemi, demográfiai és egyenlőségelvűséggel kapcsolatos vélekedés szerinti sajátosságokra a hosszú távra szóló párválasztási preferenciákkal kapcsolatos attitűdökben. Kérdéseinket a hagyományos és modern párválasztási preferenciákat magyarázni képes vonatkozó szociálpszichológiai elméletek alapján fogalmaztuk meg. Általánosságban azt vártuk, hogy a mintában a férfiakkal és nőkkel szembeni preferenciák hordoznak modern, de hordoznak hagyományos tartalmakat is. A nőktől, a fiatalabbaktól, az iskolázottabbaktól és a nemek szerepéről inkább egyenlőségelvűen gondolkozóktól azt vártuk, hogy preferenciáikban erősebben tükröződnek modern, mint hagyományos tartalmak. Módszer A mintavétel kényelmi alapon történt. A vizsgálati személyek ( N = 534, férfi: 139, nő: 395) online kérdőívet töltöttek ki, amely demográfiai kérdőívből, hosszú távra szóló párkapcsolati választáskor a férfiaktól és nőktől elvárt tulajdonságok értékeléséből és a Beere-féle nemiszerep-egyenlőség kérdőívből állt. Eredmények Mindkét nem véleménye szerint és mindkét nemmel kapcsolatban a hosszú távú bizalmi kapcsolatban való jó partnerség szempontjából lényeges társas tulajdonságok, mint a megbízhatóság és az őszinteség a legfontosabbak. A preferenciák függetlenek maradtak a többi vizsgált változótól, és a nagyobb tulajdonságcsoportok fontossági sorrendje állandónak bizonyult (nőknél: jó partner nő, házias nő, emancipált nő; férfiaknál: jó partner férfi, férfias férfi, vonzó férfi, házias férfi). Következtetések A férfiak és nők véleménye hasonló azzal kapcsolatban, hogy a jó hosszú távú párkapcsolathoz elsősorban a jó partnerséghez kötődő tulajdonságok a legfontosabbak, függetlenül attól, hogy férfiról vagy nőről van szó. A preferenciák állandónak nevezhetők, az elvárások sorrendjét a kitöltő neme, az életkora, az egyenlőségelvűséggel kapcsolatos vélekedései, az iskolázottság és a vallásosság nem árnyalja, bár finom hangsúlybeli eltérések a nevezett változók tekintetében azonosíthatók.
... It also aligns with a preoccupation with, and publication bias for, statistically significant differences in psychological research. However, there are ample critiques of constructing a body of knowledge that highlights group differences and masks group similarities by reporting and publishing the former and not reporting and publishing the latter (e.g., Helms et al., 2005;Hyde, 2005;Moradi, 2017). Framing sample diversity limitations in terms of group differences (Cole & Stewart, 2001) can also contribute to an implicit logic that the experiences of minoritized groups are worth investigating, reporting, and theorizing only if they are "unique," that is, different from majority groups. ...
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In this article, we aim to unpack some of the hidden curriculum in publishing successfully in the Journal of Counseling Psychology (JCP) and other academic outlets. The many unspoken and implicit considerations behind writing a successful academic article can reinforce epistemic exclusions around class, gender, race, sexuality and other axes of power that ultimately limit who gets to publish in academic journals and about what. Thus, we work to articulate the processes behind writing an academic article. Specifically, we offer suggestions for (a) writing compelling, precise, and parsimonious introductions, (b) clearly addressing the goals of the study via an accurate and detailed description of the method, (c) aligning analytic decisions with the research questions or hypotheses and the data parameters at hand, and (d) discussing the story of data in the context of prior scholarship, study limitations, and real-world implications. Where applicable, we provide concrete examples of published studies to “unhide” writing processes and to illustrate the invisible narratives and intentions behind key writing practices. We also present a checklist as an easy-to-reference companion to this article to help demystify the writing process. This article aligns with the commitment of JCP’s editorial leadership to play an active role in opening up the scholarly publication process so that the pipeline of manuscripts submitted to and accepted by JCP shapes a more inclusive future for the field.
... That is, just because a sex/gender difference is observed (on average), that in no way speaks to the desirability of associated behaviors. Ethical considerations notwithstanding, while researchers have provided alternative explanations for these phenomena as well as opposing results (Benuto & Meana, 2008;Hyde, 2005;Hyde & Durik, 2000;Petersen & Hyde, 2010), the overall volume of findings suggests a substantial gender difference in sexual flexibility, with men exhibiting relatively less plasticity compared with women (Beckstead, 2012;Kinnish et al., 2005;Savin-Williams et al., 2012;Vrangalova & Savin-Williams, 2012). ...
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Is sexual orientation an evolutionary adaptation or social construct? With respect to sexual preferences, to what extent are we “born that way” and to what extent does learning matter? This chapter discusses how nature and nurture may interact to shape sexual motivation by reviewing existing literature on sexual preferences and orientations, as well as by considering sex/gender differences in erotic plasticity, sexual fluidity, and the specificity of sexual arousal. We describe how these phenomena might be accounted for by processes in which mind-body feedback loops amplify some sexual responses over others on multiple levels, which we refer to as the Reward Competition Feedback (RCF) model. With respect to sex/gender differences, we describe how these positive feedback processes might be amplified in men compared with women, potentially substantially driven by differences in the constraints and affordances of female and male anatomy. More specifically, we argue that the well-known female-male difference in the concordance of genital and subjective arousal may contribute to well-known differences in sexual specificity and plasticity/fluidity. We further provide convergent support for RCF by reviewing preexisting theories of sexual learning. Finally, we consider some of the ethical implications of models in which sexual orientation might be shaped by experiences over the course of development.KeywordsSexual preferenceSexual orientationSexGenderDevelopmentLearning
... Various mechanisms behind such gendered patterns have been investigated, including men's and boys' advantage in numerical abilities and women's and girls' superiority in verbal aptitudes (e.g., Priess & Hyde, 2010), and sex-based distinctions in brains or hormones (e.g., Miller & Halpern, 2014; for reviews of cognitive and/or biological sex differences, cf. Halpern, 2012;Hyde, 2005). However, such intra-learner variables cannot account for increases in the magnitude of gender differences in motivation and achievement from elementary to high school (e.g., Evans et al., 2002;Hyde et al., 1990a, b;Schoon & Eccles, 2014). ...
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Academic gender stereotypes contribute to observed gender differences in educational enrollment and attainment. Investigating parents’ stereotypes among 907 families in China, this study used exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to uncover four latent factors: boys-Math, boys-Sciences, girls-Chinese, and girls-Liberal Arts stereotypes. The former two depicted boys as more gifted, enthusiastic, and higher-achieving learners in Math and Sciences, and the latter two favored girls in Chinese and Liberal Arts. This four-factor structure was invariant across parents with sons and daughters after accounting for the nonindependence of parents within families. The boys-Math and boys-Sciences stereotypes were found to be stronger than the other two stereotypes. Further analyses revealed nuances concerning the boys-Math stereotype: it was more pronounced among mothers than fathers in families with daughters, fathers with sons than daughters, and girls’ mothers without college degrees than those with degrees. Within the same family, mothers more commonly held stereotype-consistent perceptions concerning Math and Chinese than fathers, but there was a general agreement over gendered perceptions of all four achievement domains regardless of child gender. The findings highlight the need for family-based awareness-raising programs targeting parents’ gender stereotypes to create gender-fair and gender-inclusive learning environments.
... Thus, our results cannot be interpreted in terms of causality, which may be absent or even run in the opposite direction; the same evidence could then be found if men with poor emotional competence were more willing to adhere to TMI. Nonetheless, evidence from previous studies suggests that genderdifferences in emotional expressiveness only emerge gradually (Hyde, 2005). For example, Levant (1998) finds that boys lose their initial advantage in emotional expressiveness after entering preschool, where impacts through socialization are very likely. ...
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Background: Men are disproportionately often perpetrators of physical domestic violence (DV). Gender role constructs, such as traditional masculinity ideologies (TMI), are broadly accepted as an explanation for this effect. Emotional competence further constitutes an important role in TMI and the prevention of DV. However, the interactions between these constructs remains unclear. Objective: The present study aims to investigate associations of TMI with aggression, DV perpetration, and emotional competence, while also examining emotional competence as a potential moderator. Method: A sample of 428 cisgender men (Mage = 43.9 ± 15.3) from German-speaking countries in Europe completed an anonymous online survey that assessed TMI, aggression, and DV perpetration as well as alexithymia, emotion regulation, and self-compassion as indicators of emotional competence. Results: Strong TMI were associated with high levels of aggression and overall reduced emotional competence, as reflected by high levels of alexithymia, frequent use of expressive suppression, and low levels of self-compassion. Strong conformity to TMI was associated with a higher likelihood for DV perpetration when considering relevant sociodemographic covariates. Moderation analyses revealed that expressive suppression buffered the association between TMI and DV perpetration. Conclusions: Men with strong TMI report high levels of aggression and impaired emotional competence. While strong conformity to TMI was associated with frequent perpetration of DV, higher expressive suppression seems to buffer the association between TMI and DV perpetration. The present study highlights the importance of addressing gender ideologies when working on aggression, DV perpetration and emotional competence in men.
... Дж. С. Хайд выделяет классификацию вербальных аспектов [5], демонстрирующих некоторые различия в характеристике речи мужчин и женщин. К ним относятся такие параметры, как понимание прочитанного, словарный запас, орфография, вербальное мышление, речеобразование, склонность перебивать собеседника, разговорчивость, утвердительная речь, устанавливающая связи речь, саморазоблачение и др. ...
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Current research studies the concept of “gender” as one of the social factors that determine the choice of language means defined as more typical for female or male speech. The study focuses on the speech of Theresa May, the former British Prime Minister, the second female Prime Minister after M. Thatcher. The analysis of 10 interviews with male and female journalists is based on the classifications of masculine and feminine language means described in the studies of such linguists as R. Lakoff, a representative of feminist criticism of language, W. O’Barr and B. Atkins, who highlighted the influence of the speaker’s social status, D. Tannen, J. Holmes and D. Hyde. This study characterizes the features of T. May’s speech as masculine or feminine, depending on the communicative situation when the Prime Minister uses such markers as the 1st person pronouns, etiquette clichés, intensifiers, modal verbs “must” and “can”, as well as the tendency to interrupt the interlocutor. T. May’s speech features both feminine and masculine traits, notably feminine ones are more frequent in interviews with female journalists, due to the discussion topics, while masculine indicators are more typical for her communication with male interviewers, whose questions were addressed to T. May as the leader of the state and concerned social and political life of the UK. The feminine traits in such a situation indicate emotionality and seeking for the support of the speaker’s opinion. They might be considered as factors weakening T. May’s status of an appropriate leader, especially when criticized by an interviewer.
... The phenomenon was magnified during the COVID-19 surge, where strict lockdown and onerous restrictions were imposed on daily life in occupied Palestine (Alazzeh, 2020;WHO, 2021). Home vicinity, e-schooling, and reduced outdoor time available for the young may significantly impact the youngster's psychosocial and mental well-being (Hyde, 2005;Tang et al., 2020;WHO, 2021;Wilson, 2021). ...
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The Social Networks Addiction (SNA) is an international scale testing social network addiction, yet it has never been validated in Palestinian society and within the Arabic language. This study was conducted to investigate the psychometric properties and the factorial structure of the SNA scale in Palestinian society within the Arabic language for students aged 16–20 (N = 727) of both genders. The results of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) yielded four dimensions rather than the original six dimensions of the SNA scale; (1) Salience and tolerance, (2) Mood modification, (3) Withdrawal and conflict, (4) Relapse. The scale showed high validity and reliability in the Palestinian context and can be used to assess the addictive behavior among Palestinian youth. Study findings showed that 45.8% of the studied sample indicated a considerable addiction level for social media addiction within the uniquely Palestinian context. Further research is required to investigate preventive counter-addiction assessment in sustainable and larger-scale research to limit the long-term consequences of growing digital addiction phenomena.
... It should be highlighted that males and females do not simply experience emotional states on opposite ends of a characteristic personality spectrum, as implied by gender differences in terms of mean differences, rather considerable differences might exist together with a significant degree of overlap between the distributions of male and female participants (Hyde, 2005). Since the differences in mean scores were diminutive, thus it is essential to test BFI-10 on extensive sample data with more demographics to get detailed information and significant results. ...
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Рассматривается проблема построения эффективного взаимодействия в процессе дистанционного обучения в вузе. Выявлена взаимосвязь организации взаимодействия обучающихся с преподавателями, содержанием курсов и студенческим сообществом с уровнем их активности, вовлеченности в образовательную деятельность, удовлетворенности обучением. Представлен пример повышения качества взаимодействия в онлайн-среде при использовании платформы электронного обучения Moodle. Сделаны выводы об условиях эффективности построения взаимодействия в процессе дистанционного обучения. The problem of building effective interaction in the process of distance learning at a university is considered. The interrelation of the organization of interaction of students with teachers, the content of courses and the student community with the level of their activity, involvement in educational activities, and satisfaction with learning is revealed. An example of improving the quality of interaction in an online environment when using the Moodle e-learning platform is presented. Conclusions are drawn about the conditions of the effectiveness of building interaction in the conditions of distance learning.
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Описывается экспериментальное исследование, проведенное с целью изучения взаимодействия внимания и рабочей памяти при решении познавательной задачи, связанной с визуальным поиском и обработкой вербальной информации. Показано, что в условиях решения познавательной задачи слова воспринимаются автоматически, без участия сфокусированного объектного внимания, сохраняются в рабочей памяти на короткий промежуток времени без семантической обработки в виде пространственноорганизованного образа. Сделан вывод о том, что поиск вербальной информации не происходит продуктивнее за счет эффекта превосходства слова. The article describes an experimental study conducted to study the interaction of attention and working memory in solving a cognitive task related to visual search and the verbal information processing. As a result of an experimental study, it was revealed that in the conditions of solving a cognitive task, words are perceived automatically, without the participation of focused object attention, and are stored in working memory for a short period of time in the form of a spatially organized image without semantic processing. It was concluded that the search for verbal information is not more productive due to the word superiority effect.
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Рассматривается реализация формулы полной вероятности и байесовской вероятности в системе компьютерной алгебры GeoGebra на основе популярной вероятностной задачи, содержание которой затрагивает вопрос корректности педагогического оценивания. Предложена компьютерная поддержка в решении математических задач, позволяющая обучающимся прийти к более глубокому пониманию изучаемого раздела теории вероятностей. Представлены результаты экспериментального проектирования комплекса заданий в рассматриваемой системе в рамках изучения математических дисциплин: теория вероятностей, алгебра, геометрия. Делается вывод о роли подобных компьютерных программ как необходимого интегрирующего звена в преподавании вузовских курсов естественно-математических и общетехнических дисциплин, имеющих эмпирическую основу. The implementation of the formula of full probability and Bayesian probability in the GeoGebra computer algebra system is considered on the basis of a popular probabilistic problem, the content of which touches on the issue of the correctness of pedagogical assessment. Computer support in solving mathematical problems is offered, which allows students to come to a deeper understanding of the studied section of probability theory. The results of experimental design of a set of tasks in the system under consideration in the framework of the study of mathematical disciplines: probability theory, algebra, geometry are presented. The conclusion is made about the role of such computer programs as a necessary integrating link in the teaching of university courses of natural-mathematical and general technical disciplines that have an empirical basis.
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Рассмотрена роль мастер-класса как формы совершенствования, самосовершенствования и саморазвития преподавателя высшей школы, вопросы разработки методических основ данных процессов, системного изучения профессионально-педагогической деятельности. Уточнено понятие «мастер-класс», освещен содержательный аспект научно-методического обеспечения мастер-класса. Описаны подходы к организации мастер-класса по обмену инновационным опытом, представлена его методическая структура, обоснованы специфические принципы взаимодействия по передаче опыта и его этапы, определены критерии и показатели эффективности его организации и проведения. Материалы статьи могут быть использованы в условиях дополнительного профессионального образования преподавателей высших учебных заведений и в их профессиональной деятельности. The article considers the role of the master class as a form of improvement, self-improvement and self-development of a high school teacher, issues of developing methodological foundations of these processes, systematic study of professional and pedagogical activity. The concept of “master class” is clarified, the substantive aspect of the scientific and methodological support of the master class is highlighted. Approaches to the organization of the master class on the exchange of innovative experience are described, its methodological structure is presented, specific principles of interaction on the transfer of experience and its stages are substantiated, criteria and indicators of the effectiveness of its organization and conduct are determined. The materials of the article can be used in the conditions of additional professional education of teachers of higher educational institutions and in their professional activities.
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Рассмотрено содержание основных понятий «интеллект», «эмоциональный интеллект». Представлен обзор научных публикаций, на основе которого выявлено влияние уровня развития эмоционального интеллекта на адаптивность студентов в условиях пандемии, их успешность в обучении и профессиональной деятельности. Приводятся результаты исследования компонентов эмоционального интеллекта у обучающихся различных направлений подготовки и форм обучения. Делаются выводы о различиях уровня сформированности эмоционального интеллекта у студентов разных групп; о необходимости целенаправленного развития эмоционального интеллекта. The content of the basic concepts of “intelligence”, “emotional intelligence” is considered. The review of scientific publications is presented, on the basis of which the influence of the level of development of emotional intelligence on the adaptability of students in the conditions of a pandemic, their success in training and professional activity is revealed. The results of the study of the components of emotional intelligence in students of various fields of training and forms of education are presented. Conclusions are drawn about the differences in the level of formation of emotional intelligence among students of different groups; about the need for purposeful development of emotional intelligence.
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Представлены некоторые методы онлайн-обучения игре на фортепиано. Детально рассмотрена специфика методов онлайн-обучения музыке в разных возрастных группах. Отмечена важность максимального приближения онлайн-обучения к очному формату, необходимость сохранения индивидуального подхода к каждому ученику. The article represents some methods of online learning to play the piano. The specifics of online music teaching methods in different age groups are represented in detail. In the article noted the importance of bringing online learning as close as possible to the usual format, the need to maintain an individual approach to each student.
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Рассмотрена значимость анализа «больших данных» для современного образования, возможности работы с ними на примере функционирования образовательной платформы. Показаны перспективы применения технологий big data в персонализированном онлайн-обучении, а также риски применения анализа «больших данных». The article describes the importance of big data analysis for modern education. The possibilities of working with big data on the example of educational platform have been considered. Prospects of big data technologies in personalized online learning, as well as risks of big data analysis are considered.
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Does growing up with a sister rather than a brother affect personality? In this article, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the effects of siblings’ gender on adults’ personality, using data from 85,887 people from 12 large representative surveys covering nine countries (United States, United Kingdom, The Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, Australia, Mexico, China, and Indonesia). We investigated the personality traits of risk tolerance, trust, patience, locus of control, and the Big Five. We found no meaningful causal effects of the gender of the next younger sibling and no associations with the gender of the next older sibling. Given the high statistical power and consistent results in the overall sample and relevant subsamples, our results suggest that siblings’ gender does not systematically affect personality.
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In our increasingly digitalized society, it is important to have a grasp of basic programming and therefore, programming was recently made mandatory in Swedish schools. We investigated how the mandatory programming education affects self-efficacy and interest in programming in a sample of 12-year-old children (N = 373). Data was collected at the start of the school year, directly after the education (mainly consisting of block programming), and the end of the school year. Boys had higher self-efficacy and interest than girls at all these three timepoints. Interestingly, as opposed to girls with Swedish background, girls with foreign background did not differ from the boys in programming self-efficacy. The gender difference in programming self-efficacy was completely mediated by gender differences in the children's previous mastery experience, social persuasion, and vicarious experience of computer use. Self-efficacy was strongly related to interest, but despite increasing the children's self-efficacy, programming education surprisingly reduced their interest in programming. The results regarding predictors of self-efficacy lend support to Bandura's social cognitive theory. The intersectional (gender x background) differences could be interpreted in terms of the gender-equality paradox. Possible ways of encouraging children's programming efforts and boosting the effects of interventions are discussed.
Article
We investigate the relationships between gender-role-orientation (i.e., androgynous, masculine, feminine and undifferentiated) and subjective career success among business professionals from 36 societies. Drawing on the resource management perspective, we predict that androgynous individuals will report the highest subjective career success, followed by masculine, feminine, and undifferentiated individuals. We also postulate that meso-organizational culture and macro-societal values will have moderating effects on gender role's impact on subjective career success. The results of our hierarchical linear models support the hypothesized hierarchy of the relationships between gender-role-orientations and subjective career success. However, we found that ethical achievement values at the societal culture level was the only variable that had a positive moderating impact on the relationship between feminine orientation and subjective career success. Thus, our findings of minimal moderation effect suggest that meso- and macro-level environments may not play a significant role in determining an individual's perception of career success.
Article
Статья посвящена проблеме формирования интереса к знаниям у студентов бакалавриата. Рассмотрены понятия ситуативного и индивидуального интереса, представлена модель, направленная на формирование и развитие интереса к знаниям в области педагогики у обучающихся вузов. Показаны основные фазы развития интереса. Выделены результаты исследования, показавшие, что студенты первого курса, обучающиеся в Университете литературы и гуманитарных наук Бамако (Мали), проявляют особый интерес к получению новых знаний. The article is devoted to the study of problems related to the formation of interest in pedagogical knowledge among undergraduate students. In the course of the study, the concepts of situational and individual interest were considered, and a developing model aimed at forming interest in pedagogical knowledge among students was determined. The article also discusses the main phases of the development of interest in knowledge among students of higher educational institutions. The results of the study showed that first-year students studying at the University of Literature and Humanities show a special interest in obtaining new knowledge.
Article
Divergent public responses to police brutality incidents demonstrate that for some, police violence is an injustice that demands remediation, while for others state violence is justice served. We develop a novel survey experiment in which we randomize the race and gender of a victim of police violence, and then provide respondents with an opportunity to establish justice via compensation. We uncover small but consistent effects that financial restitution is most supported for a White female detainee and least supported for a Black female detainee, and this is largely driven by White respondents. Beyond the treatment effects, we show that Black respondents are much more likely to perceive detainees as deserving of restitution; across all treatments, Black respondents are 58 percent more likely than Whites to support a financial settlement. We further show that White respondents’ perceptions of deservingness are highly related to their perceptions of who is at fault for the beating—the detainee or the police—and whether the detainee was involved in crime. Black respondents remain likely to award a settlement even if they think the detainee was at fault and involved in crime. Our results provide further evidence that perceptions of who deserves restorative justice for state violence are entangled with race in targeted ways.
Article
Представлен авторский взгляд на ряд вопросов практики вузовского преподавания иностранного языка в формате дистанционного обучения. Рассматриваются организационные и технические сложности дистанционного обучения, трудности контроля достижений обучающихся. Показаны проблемы практического использования в условиях дистанта таких форм текущего и итогового контроля как коллоквиум, зачет и экзамен. Сделан вывод о необходимости адаптации данных форм контроля к практике дистанционного обучения, их модернизации. The author’s view on a number of issues of the practice of university teaching of a foreign language in the distance learning format is presented. Organizational and technical difficulties of distance learning, difficulties of monitoring the achievements of students are considered. The difficulties of practical use in remote conditions of such forms of current and final control as a colloquium, a test and an exam are shown. The conclusion is made about the need to adapt these forms of control to the practice of distance learning, their modernization.
Article
Представлены результаты анализа содержания учебных пособий по английскому языку на предмет их гендерной сбалансированности. Рассмотрены лексико-грамматический аспект, пол персоналий и персонажей, упоминаемых в текстах, гендерные стереотипы. Раскрывается понятие о коммуникативных стратегиях гендерной сбалансированности и их компонентном составе. Делается вывод о том, насколько современные учебники по английскому языку способствуют формированию данных стратегий у обучающихся, получающих основное общее образование. The article presents the results of the content analysis of textbooks in the English language in terms of their gender balance. It considers lexical and grammatical aspects, gender of personalities and characters as well as mentioned gender stereotypes. The article introduces the notion of gender balanced communication strategies and their components, and speculates on how modern English language textbooks contribute to formation and development of these strategies among students receiving basic general education.
Chapter
The origins of sex differences in human behavior have been extensively studied from various theoretical perspectives, and a growing body of evidence has suggested that organization of the brain, and subsequent sex-typed behaviors, are influenced by exposure to sex hormones and the expression of specific genes during early development. Methodological advances in the study of biological bases of sex differences have shed light on mechanisms that influence sex development across the life span, though many questions remain. This chapter provides a general overview of biological approaches to the study of sex differences, with summaries of findings to date and future directions. The emphasis of the chapter is on hormones because that has been the major focus of biological approaches to sex development for decades. The chapter also touches on genetics toward the end given some important emerging work disentangling hormonal effects from genetic effects.KeywordsAndrogensBrain functionBrain structureComplete androgen insensitivity syndromeCongenital adrenal hyperplasiaGender identityGender roleSexual differentiationSex determinationSexual orientation
Chapter
The focus of this chapter is on two decades of advances in theory and research involving cognitive theoriesCognitive theories of gender developmentGender development. The primary ways in which contemporary research has built upon previous work include (a) expanding the measurement and conceptualization of gender identitiesGender identities, (b) broadening the scope of gender-related cognitive constructs, and (c) detailing more closely the processes underlying gender developmentGender development and describing the interrelations among these processes. In this chapter, we review the major themes underlying cognitive approaches, detail recent advances in research involving cognitive theoriesCognitive theories of gender developmentGender development, and provide suggestions for future work that will capitalize on these advances.
Chapter
Gender segregation refers to the tendency of most children to affiliate primarily with same-gender peers. This chapter reviews the development and consequences of this phenomenon. First, the developmental trajectory of gender segregation from early childhood into adulthood is summarized. Second, possible explanations for the emergence of gender segregation in early childhood are critically examined. These include the possible influences of family, school, popular media, behavioral compatibility, and gender-related cognitions. In the third section, the maintenance and consequences of gender-segregated peer groups during middle childhood, adolescence, and adulthood are considered. In the last section, I present a preliminary integrative developmental model. It takes into account the interacting influences of early-appearing variations in behavioral dispositions (including play interests and temperament), ingroup gender identities, and peer group processes on children’s gender development. The model addresses gender development in cisgender children as well as those with transgender or other nonbinary gender identities. Finally, I offer several recommendations for future theorizing and research.Keywordsgender identitypeersinterestsplaytemperamentsocial identitystereotyping
Article
Рассмотрено понятие «цифровое портфолио компетенций». Представлен анализ итогов интеграции в учебный процесс вуза данного инструмента комплексной системы оценки результатов обучения студентов. Выявлены возможности цифрового портфолио компетенций как структурного элемента электронного портфолио обучающегося университета, механизма сбора, фиксации оценочных данных успеваемости для осуществления анализа полученных сведений и принятия управленческих решений. Сделан вывод об эффективности его использования в качестве инструмента непрерывного и динамичного процесса «документирования компетентности» обучающихся, создания компетентностного профиля студента в процессе или по итогам освоения им образовательной программы. The article discusses the concept of “digital portfolio of competencies”. The analysis of the results of the integration into the educational process of the university of this tool of the integrated system of evaluation of the results of training of university students is presented. The possibilities of a digital portfolio of competencies as a structural element of an electronic portfolio of a university student, a mechanism for collecting and fixing evaluation data of student performance for analyzing the information received and making managerial decisions are revealed. The conclusion is made about the effectiveness of its use as a tool for a continuous and dynamic process of “documenting the competence” of university students, creating a competence profile of a student in the process or following the results of mastering an educational program.
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Рассматриваются современное состояние развития процесса цифровизации в системе высшего образования в России и место информационно-цифровых технологий в образовательной среде университета. Выделены основные проблемы, с которыми высшие образовательные учреждения сталкиваются в процессе внедрения данных технологий: отсутствие необходимого уровня доступа к технологиям, неготовность преподавательского состава и студентов к обучению с их применением, неумение работать и учиться в режиме онлайн, низкая эффективность онлайн-обучения и недостаточно высокий уровень качества онлайн-курсов. Представлены результаты опроса студентов, отражающие основные проблемы процесса цифровизации. The article examines the current state of development of the digitalization process in the higher education system in Russia and the place of information and digital technologies in the educational environment of the university. The main problems that higher educational institutions face in the process of implementing these technologies are highlighted: the lack of the necessary level of access to technologies, the unavailability of teaching staff and students to study with their use, the inability to work and study online, the low efficiency of online learning and the insufficiently high level of quality of online courses. The results of a survey of students reflecting the main problems of the digitalization process are presented.
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The sex-role mediation hypothesis suggests that a masculine self-concept promotes male-typed cognition, including spatial skills. Support for the hypothesis is mixed, limited by small samples and the spatial skills examined, with few studies exploring the role of gendered activities, experiences, and interests (e.g., Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics [STEM] college majors). Therefore, in a sample of 339 undergraduate students, a series of regression analyses with bootstrapped-based estimation of indirect effects was used to determine whether self-perceived masculinity was related to three-dimensional (3D) mental rotations, geographical knowledge, identifying the true horizontal, and object location memory via major ‘STEM-ness.’ Spatial skills and masculinity were consistently positively related, except for object location memory, which is the only spatial skill examined where women, on average, outperform men. Moreover, the link between some spatial skills (3D mental rotations, identifying the true horizontal) and masculinity partially occurred via major STEM-ness. Findings are novel in revealing associations among masculinity, spatial skills, and STEM interests, and are somewhat consistent with the sex-role mediation hypothesis. They also encourage future longitudinal studies to examine whether masculinity predicts or is predicted by spatial skills, and they may have downstream implications for reducing gender disparities in STEM.
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Purpose: Information Technology is playing a vital role in supporting struggling economies in the world and the Generation Z has the remarkable potential to make things happen in this context among all known cohorts. More than one third population of Pakistan falls in Generation Z and almost 48% of this pool comprises of females. Increasing trend in Pakistani females perusing higher studies and momentous enrollment of females at degree level implies that a significant chunk of available manpower for IT industry will be female in gender in upcoming years. IT industry has to pay attention to employability preferences of this pool as well in order to attract, attain and retain the best talented resources out of this segment to gain competitive advantage. Design/Methodology/Approach: This study is based upon a sample of IT students, approached through mixed sampling technique and gender-specific comparison is conducted with the help Mann-Whiney U test after ensuring reliability and validity checks. Findings: The results depict gender differences in almost 37% variables considered in this study, hence serve as a strong baseline for practitioners and strategists of IT industry in Pakistan to gain a competitive edge in ever-changing, dynamic business world. Implications/Originality/Value: Although handling of Generation Z representatives is a significant challenge for managers belonging to antecedent generations in current business operations, gender differences are yet another dimension to be explored in detail for competitiveness.
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Рассматриваются теоретические аспекты и условия формирования познавательного интереса школьников, концептуальные основы построения учебного процесса. Выделены уровни сформированности и факторы, влияющие на становление познавательного интереса. The article discusses the theoretical aspects of the problem, the conditions for the formation of cognitive interest of school children, the conceptual foundations for building the educational process. In addition, the publication provides a definition of cognitive interest. The purpose of this article is to consider the problem of the formation of cognitive interest in schoolchildren as a condition for increasing the effectiveness of education. To solve this problem, the article considers the levels of formation and factors affecting the formation of cognitive interest.
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There has been an immense amount of interest in gender inclusion at the workplace from management and economic researchers. However, a fundamental problem with gender research in the workplace is that it has stagnated in traditional management research. A gender-progressive workplace environment, as well as a more gender-inclusive approach to solving problems, can help to supplement problem-oriented gender study with novel approaches to promoting gender equity. While few contributions have been documented across nearly two decades, it is nevertheless true that a significant proportion of contributions only appear in different journals with varying disciplinary perspectives. The topic is important because, it benefits businesses by helping them to develop and protect their competitive advantage while also empowering women. The continued challenges of gender inequality stand in the way of women rising to the most prominent positions in the business world. Due to the presence of this phenomenon, Indian working women are more likely to be falling down the corporate ladder, losing out on decision-making opportunities, and unable to rise in the corporate hierarchy. The aim of this document is to present researchers with a unified method and show how this research topic influenced the development of effective research techniques in the future. A study in which 469 papers written over the last decade cover topics of gender, workplace, and discrimination includes a bibliometric analysis and a mapping analysis. Examining the research of the groups, the most applicable exploration discoveries, patterns, and trend analysis, while at the same time making recommendations of intriguing hypothetical and down-to-earth implications is the most accurate way to conduct research. Further study on this topic is going to be done in the future, but this study is applied only to aid the growth of employees and future researchers.
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Исследование посвящено опыту одного из ведущих инженерных вузов России – Томского политехнического университета – в организации и проведении практик по дисциплине «Иностранный язык» в условиях пандемии Covid-19. Проанализированы особенности интеграции технологий дистанционного обучения в образовательный процесс. Представлены результаты опроса, проведенного среди студентов 2 курса Школы перспективных производственных технологий, направленного на выявление отношения студентов к повседневным занятиям, проводимым с помощью интернет-платформы видеоконференцсвязи ZOOM. Предлагаются практически значимые способы внедрения ZOOM в процесс преподавания иностранных языков, которые могут обеспечить преподавателей эффективными стратегиями создания продуктивной среды обучения на дистанционных занятиях. The present research focuses on the experience of one of the leading engineering educational institutions in Russia – Tomsk Polytechnic University – in organizing and giving practices on the discipline “Foreign Language” in the force majeure circumstances provoked by the Covid-19 pandemic. The peculiarities of integrating remote learning in the educational process have been analyzed; findings of the survey conducted among 2nd year students of the School of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies aimed to reveal the students’ attitude towards day-to-day classes delivered by means of the video conferencing Internet platform ZOOM are presented. The study also suggests some beneficial ways of ZOOM implementation in foreign language teaching that could help to equip teachers with effective strategies in establishing productive learning environment in their online classes.
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Samenvatting Bij gelegenheid van haar emeritaat, reflecteert de auteur op ontwikkelingen met betrekking tot het seksueel welzijn van jongeren. Geopend wordt met een korte beschouwing van de stand van zaken op dat vlak in Nederland en van een paar relevante aspecten van de tegenwoordige maatschappelijke context. Vervolgens wordt dieper ingegaan op enkele centrale thema's op het snijvlak van gender en seksualiteit, op de rol van hedendaagse technologisering en sociale media, en op (valkuilen in de) seksuele vorming. In het slotwoord wordt onder andere gepleit voor de nood-zakelijke verruiming van de academische aandacht voor het thema. I n 2021 is de Bijzondere Leerstoel Seksuele ontwik-keling, diversiteit en gezondheid aan de Universiteit Utrecht opgeheven 1. Daarmee wordt een periode van 10 jaar wetenschappelijke focus op (aspecten van) het seksueel welzijn van jongeren afgesloten. Bij die omstandigheid is een bespiegeling op zijn plaats. Dit artikel beoogt die bespiegeling te zijn. Ik zal reflecte-ren op het seksueel welzijn van hedendaagse jongeren in het licht van de hedendaagse samenleving. Ik kijk naar enkele markante constanten en verschuivingen in het huidige tijdsgewricht. Conform de leeropdracht is de focus hier vooral op de westerse wereld, meer in het bijzonder op Nederland. Enkele opvallende trends in publiek debat en wetenschappelijk onderzoek zul-len de revue passeren. Wellicht kan deze bespiegeling mede richting geven aan ter zake wetenschappelijke aandacht die onder vele (andere) academische noe-mers tot verdere bloei zal komen in de komende tijd. Ik zal eerst een korte schets geven van het seksu-eel welzijn van jongeren in Nederland, voor zover we daar kennis van hebben. Vervolgens probeer ik dat te plaatsen tegen de achtergrond van 'de toestand in de wereld 2 ' waar moderne jongeren mee van doen heb-ben. Twee thema's zijn vervolgens onontkoombaar. Ten eerste de meervoudige ontwikkelingen op het ter-rein van gender en seksualiteit, een onderwerp dat mij van oudsher aan het hart gaat. Ten tweede bespreek ik technologisering en (sociale) media, welke nu en in alle verdere toekomst zulke vergaande consequenties heb-ben voor relaties en seksualiteit. Een afsluitende reflec-tie op de seksuele vorming is uiteraard ook aangewe-zen. Ik probeer zo min mogelijk overlap te creëren met eerdere (rechtstreeks terzake) artikelen van mijn hand in dit tijdschrift in de afgelopen tien jaar 3 , maar zal daar niet geheel in slagen. Seksueel welzijn van jongeren in Nederland De laatste editie van ons nationale onderzoek naar de seksualiteit van jongeren, Seks onder je 25 e , is alweer vijf jaar oud (de Graaf et al. , 2017). De populatie jongeren die toen onderzocht is, wordt ook wel aangeduid als Zoomers (Generatie Z, geboren 1996-2010). De iets ou-dere Millennials (Generatie Y, geboren 1980-1995) zul-len ook nog kleur aan de data hebben gegeven. Nu, anno 2022, zal veel vergelijkbaar zijn qua seksu-eel welzijn. Maar in sommige opzichten kunnen zich toch ook veranderingen hebben voltrokken. Voor een optimaal geactualiseerd beeld van het tegenwoordige seksueel welzijn van jongeren (inclusief zicht op de jongste generatie, geboren na 2010) is het wachten op het volgende onderzoek. Hoe staat het ervoor? Maar kijken we naar de informatie die we nu hebben op basis van die laatste populatiestudie van de Graaf en collega's, dan lijkt het op het eerste gezicht best goed (om niet te zeggen wonderlijk wel) te gaan met het seksueel welzijn van jongeren in Nederland. Negen op de tien meisjes vindt 'seks fijn'. Bij de jongens ligt dat nog wat hoger. Ongeveer driekwart zegt 'tevreden' te Em. Prof. Dr. I.Vanwesenbeeck, voorheen Jeugdstudies Universiteit Utrecht en Rutgers, kenniscentrum seksualiteit Correspondentieadres: inevanwesenbeeck@outlook.com 1 De leerstoel werd tussen 2011 en 2021 geïnstalleerd vanwege de Hennie Verha-gen Stichting bij Interdisciplinaire Sociale Studies/Jeugdstudies aan de Universiteit Utrecht, werd gefinancierd door Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek Seksualiteit (FWOS), GGz Eindhoven (eerste vijf jaar) en Rutgers (laatste vijf jaar) en werd bekleed door de auteur. 2 Je moet op leeftijd zijn om hier de titel van een ooit fameus tv-programma van G.B.J.Hilterman in te herkennen.
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Рассматривается проблема развития гиподинамии у женщин второго зрелого периода и ее последствия. Представлена модель реализации индивидуальных программ физической подготовки женщин данной возрастной категории с использованием технологий дистанционного обучения. Описано исследование, посвященное проверке результативности данной модели, дается анализ его результатов. Делается вывод об эффективности разработанной модели и методики ее реализации. The problem of the development of inactivity in women of the second mature period and its consequences are considered. A model of the implementation of individual physical training programs for women of this age category using distance learning technologies is presented. A study devoted to testing the effectiveness of this model is described, and an analysis of its results is given. The conclusion is made about the effectiveness of the developed model and the methodology of its implementation.
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Представлена история развития высшего инклюзивного образования в Китае за последние 37 лет. Выделены и проанализированы наиболее важные документы по трем этапам высшего образования: поступление в вуз («начальная точка образования»); образовательный процесс; результат образования. Выявлены особенности политики государства в сфере инклюзивного образования, отмечаются ее успехи и проблемы. The history of the development of higher inclusive education in China over the past 37 years is presented. The most important documents on the three stages of higher education are highlighted and analyzed: admission to university (“the starting point of education”); the educational process; the result of education. The features of the state policy in the field of inclusive education are analyzed, its successes and shortcomings are noted.
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In this article we test the hypothesis that male students outperform female students in mathematics. Using large national data sets and curvilinear growth models, we examine gender differences in mathematical trajectories from elementary school through high school. We analyze subsamples of high-scoring students and also different areas of math, such as reasoning and geometry. Despite relatively equal starting points in elementary school, and relatively equal slopes, we find that boys have a faster rate of acceleration. By the 12th grade, this results in a slight gender difference, which is most pronounced in geometry. Realizing this slight and delayed emergence of gender differences, we qualify the strong conclusions of earlier research, such as Benbow and Stanley's (1980, 1983), which found that large gender differences emerge by junior high school.
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Introduces the binomial effect size display, which displays the change in success rate (e.g., survival and improvement rates) attributable to a new treatment procedure. An example of the use of this method is presented. (11 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Located 165 studies that reported data on gender differences in verbal ability. The weighted mean effect size was +0.11, indicating a slight female superiority in performance. The difference is so small that we argue that gender differences in verbal ability no longer exist. Analysis of tests requiring different cognitive processes involved in verbal ability yielded no evidence of substantial gender differences in any aspect of processing. Similarly, an analysis of age indicated no striking changes in the magnitude of gender differences at different ages, countering Maccoby and Jacklin's (1974) conclusion that gender differences in verbal ability emerge around age 11 yrs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Examines the psychology of women as it was studied from the middle of the 19th century to the 1st 3rd of the 20th century. During that period 3 topics received the most attention: sex differences in brain size and complexity and their implications for cognitive and affective behavior; the hypothesis of greater male variability (a corollary of evolutionary theory) and its social implications; and the expression of maternal instinct. Each topic is examined in relation to evolutionary theory and its influence on the conduct of 19th century science. The antecedents of each topic are traced as is the subsequent redefinition of each within the paradigm of behaviorism. It is proposed that each of these topics functioned as "scientific myth" which justified and explained contemporary cultural values. (71 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The origins of sex differences in human behavior can lie mainly in evolved dispositions that differ by sex or mainly in the differing placement of women and men in the social structure. The present article contrasts these 2 origin theories of sex differences and illustrates the explanatory power of each to account for the overall differences between the mate selection preferences of men and women. Although this research area often has been interpreted as providing evidence for evolved dispositions, a reanalysis of D. M. Buss's (see record 1989-32627-001) study of sex differences in the attributes valued in potential mates in 37 cultures yielded cross-cultural variation that supports the social structural account of sex differences in mate preferences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Three studies explored gender differences in mathematics performance by investigating the possibility that men and women have different concerns when they take standardized math tests, and that when these gender-specific performance concerns are made relevant, performance may suffer. Results of 3 studies supported these hypotheses. In Study 1, women who believed a math test would indicate whether they were especially weak in math performed worse on the test than did women who believed it would indicate whether they were exceptionally strong. Men, however, demonstrated the opposite pattern, performing worse on the ostensible test of exceptional abilities. Studies 2 and 3 further showed that if these gender-specific performance concerns are alleviated by an external handicap, performance increases. Traditional interpretations of male–female differences on standardized math tests are discussed in light of these results. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This article reviews all published studies reporting tests for sex differences in well-being. Women were found to report greater happiness and life satisfaction than men. This sex difference was explained in terms of men's and women's social roles: The female (vs. male) gender role specifies greater emotional responsiveness. Furthermore, past role-related experiences provide women with appropriate skills and attitudes. Women's (vs. men's) greater well-being was also found to hold for married but not unmarried Ss: For both sexes the married state (vs. unmarried) was associated with favorable well-being, but the favorable outcomes proved stronger for women than men. Given that most Ss were married, the overall sex difference in well-being can be attributed to Ss' marital status. These findings were discussed in the context of prior research on sex differences in negative well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A series of meta-analyses were conducted to test Bjorklund and Kipp's hypothesis that due to selection pressures operating during evolution, women and girls are better able than men and boys to delay gratification (Bjorklund & Kipp, 1996). A total of 38 effect sizes were derived from 33 studies in which participants made one or more choices between a small (or less preferred) immediate reward and a large (or more preferred) delayed reward. Overall, there was a small female advantage (r = .058). Further analyses revealed that the female advantage was larger when continuous measures (r = .096) rather than dichotomous measures were used (r = .021). No evidence was found for the gender gap changing systematically with age. Discussion focuses primarily on alternative explanations for the gender difference found here. Consideration is also given to how the female advantage in delay of gratification might be reflected in real-life situations.
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Social constructionist theories and sociobiological perspectives have led to increased interest in gender differences in sexual behavior. This study involved a meta-analysis of gender differences in sexual arousal in response to sexual stimuli. Forty-six studies in which participants were presented with a sexual stimulus depicting males and females and in which participants responded using a self-report measure of arousal were compiled, and 62 independent effect sizes were aggregated. An overall effect size of d = .31 showed a small to moderate-sized gender difference in sexual arousal with men reporting more arousal than women across all studies. There was significant variation in the effect sizes, though, which was only partially explained by variables coded from the studies. It was found that the gender difference was slightly larger for studies using pornographic vs. erotic stimuli, was larger for studies where participants were tested in a private setting or small group compared to a large group, and was much larger for college age participants compared to those who were older than college age. Generally, the pattern of results provided more support for predictions from social influence theories compared to sociobiological theory.
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Meta-analytic reviews of sex differences in aggression from real-world settings are described. They cover self-reports, observations, peer reports, and teacher reports of overall direct, physical, verbal, and indirect forms of aggression, as well as (for self-reports) trait anger. Findings are related to sexual selection theory and social role theory. Direct, especially physical, aggression was more common in males and females at all ages sampled, was consistent across cultures, and occurred from early childhood on, showing a peak between 20 and 30 years. Anger showed no sex differences. Higher female indirect aggression was limited to later childhood and adolescence and varied with method of measurement. The overall pattern indicated males' greater use of costly methods of aggression rather than a threshold difference in anger. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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Research comparing the leadership styles of women and men is reviewed, and evidence is found for both the presence and the absence of differences between the sexes. In contrast to the gender-stereotypic expectation that women lead in an interpersonally oriented style and men in a task-oriented style, female and male leaders did not differ in these two styles in organizational studies. However, these aspects of leadership style were somewhat gender stereotypic in the two other classes of leadership studies investigated, namely (a) laboratory experiments and (b) assessment studies, which were defined as research that assessed the leadership styles of people not selected for occupancy of leadership roles. Consistent with stereotypic expectations about a different aspect of leadership style, the tendency to lead democratically or autocratically, women tended to adopt a more democratic or participative style and a less autocratic or directive style than did men. This sex difference appeared in all three classes of leadership studies, including those conducted in organizations. These and other findings are interpreted in terms of a social role theory of sex differences in social behavior.
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Four meta-analyses were conducted to examine gender differences in personality in the literature (1958-1992) and in normative data for well-known personality inventories (1940-1992). Males were found to be more assertive and had slightly higher self-esteem than females. Females were higher than males in extraversion, anxiety, trust, and, especially, tender-mindedness (e.g., nurturance). There were no noteworthy sex differences in social anxiety, impulsiveness, activity, ideas (e.g., reflectiveness), locus of control, and orderliness. Gender differences in personality traits were generally constant across ages, years of data collection, educational levels, and nations.
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A general theory of domain identification is used to describe achievement barriers still faced by women in advanced quantitative areas and by African Americans in school. The theory assumes that sustained school success requires identification with school and its subdomains; that societal pressures on these groups (e.g., economic disadvantage, gender roles) can frustrate this identification; and that in school domains where these groups are negatively stereotyped, those who have become domain identified face the further barrier of stereotype threat, the threat that others' judgments or their own actions will negatively stereotype them in the domain. Research shows that this threat dramatically depresses the standardized test performance of women and African Americans who are in the academic vanguard of their groups (offering a new interpretation of group differences in standardized test performance), that it causes disidentification with school, and that practices that reduce this threat can reduce these negative effects.
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Three studies explored gender differences in mathematics performance by investigating the possibility that men and women have different concerns: when they take standardized math tests, and that when these gender-specific performance concerns are made relevant, performance may suffer. Results of 3 studies supported these hypotheses. In Study 1, women who believed a math test would indicate whether they were especially weak in math performed worse: on the test than did women who believed it would indicate whether they were exceptionally strong. Men, however, demonstrated the opposite pattern, performing worse on the ostensible test of exceptional abilities. Studies 2 and 3 further showed that if these gender-specific performance concerns are alleviated by an external handicap, performance increases. Traditional interpretations of male-female differences on standardized math tests are discussed in light of these results.
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One of the most pervasive and undisputed gender stereotypes is that men are more aggressive than women. However, this stereotype has, until recently, led researchers to conclude that women are nonaggressive and, therefore, to ignore the topic of female aggression as a distinct phenomenon. The basis of the myth, factors supporting its maintenance, and theories of female aggression are examined. A feminist reinterpretation of aggression that views women's and men's aggressive behavior within social structural arrangements that create and sustain differential power relations is presented.
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Contemporary research on sex differences in intellectual abilities has focused on male-female differences in average performance, implicitly assuming homogeneity of variance. To examine the validity of that assumption, this article examined sex differences in variability on the national norms of several standardized test batteries. Males were consistently more variable than females in quantitative reasoning, spatial visualization, spelling, and general knowledge. Because these sex differences in variability were coupled with corresponding sex differences in means, it was demonstrated that sex differences in variability and sex differences in central tendency have to be considered together to form correct conclusions about the magnitude of cognitive gender differences.
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Although academic dishonesty is a major problemin American colleges and universities, relatively littleresearch has investigated gender differences incheating. Based on the differential socialization theory of gender differences in moral reasoning(e.g., Chodorow, 1989; Gilligan, 1982) we expected that,compared to women, men would report more favorableattitudes toward cheating and more cheating behavior. We conducted a meta-analysis that included 8studies of gender differences in attitudes towardcheating, 34 studies of gender differences in cheatingbehavior, and 6 studies that investigated both attitudes and behavior. Although the mean effect size forgender differences in attitudes was of moderatemagnitude, equivalent to a correlation of r = .21, themean effect size for behavior was small, equivalent to r = .08. Behavior effect sizes also varied asa function of field of study, method of data collection,and country in which the study was conducted. We discussthe implications of our results for future research on gender differences in academicdishonesty.
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Meta-analyses of 43 published studies comparingadult women's and men's interruptions duringconversations were conducted. Combined significancelevels and combined effect sizes were analyzed. Acrossstudies, men were significantly more likely than womento use interruptions. This difference, however, wasassociated with a negligible effect size (d = .15). Amore substantial effect size (d = .33) was found when studies looking specifically at intrusive typesof interruption were analyzed separately. Othermoderator variables were found to be related to gendereffects on the use of intrusive interruptions. Most notably, reports of gender differences inintrusive interruptions were more likely and larger inmagnitude when either women (versus men) were firstauthors, participants were observed in naturalistic(versus laboratory) settings, or participants wereobserved interacting in groups of three or more persons(versus in dyads). These results lend support to acontextual-interactive model of gender that emphasizes the importance of situational moderators ongender-related variations in social behavior.
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It has been speculated that the prevalence of eating disorders in women has risen because of increases in women's body dissatisfaction. We conducted a meta-analysis of gender differences in attractiveness and body image using 222 studies from the past 50 years. The analysis shows dramatic increases in the numbers of women among individuals who have poor body image. Moreover, these trends were found across multiple conceptualizations of body image, including self-judgments of physical attractiveness.
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We used meta-analysis to examine recent studies of sex differences in coping. Women were more likely than men to engage in most coping strategies. The strongest effects showed that women were more likely to use strategies that involved verbal expressions to others or the self—to seek emotional support, ruminate about problems, and use positive self-talk. These sex differences were consistent across studies, supporting a dispositional level hypothesis. Other sex differences were dependent on the nature of the stressor, supporting role constraint theory. We also examined whether stressor appraisal (i.e., women's tendencies to appraise stressors as more severe) accountedfor sex differences in coping. We found some support for this idea. To circumvent this issue, we provide some data on relative coping. These data demonstrate that sex differences in relative coping are more in line with our intuitions about the differences in the ways men and women cope with distress.
Article
Two studies investigated the influence of social roles on sex differences in aggression, the first focusing on expectations and the second on behavior In both studies, deindividuation was used to remove the influence of social roles. In Study 1, implicit theories about sex differences in aggression were examined by asking people to predict aggression by males and females in individuated and deindividuated conditions. People expected men to be more aggressive than women but did not show an appreciation of the disinhibiting effects of deindividuation. In Study 2, deindividuation was manipulated in the laboratory to assess its effects in an aggression-eliciting situation. As predicted, men aggressed more than women in the individuated condition, but this difference was eliminated in the deindividuated condition. Subjects' perceptions of their behavior were more consistent with the implicit theories documented in Study I than with how they actually behaved.
Article
In this article the bases for recent allegations of sex bias in Kohlberg's theory of moral development are discussed. Studies comparing the development of moral reasoning between the sexes are then reviewed. Only a few inconsistent sex differences have been found in childhood and adolescence. Some studies indicate that, in adulthood, males evidence higher moral development than females, but in these studies sex differences are confounded with differences in level of education and occupation. A metaanalysis (a statistical procedure for combining findings) supported the conclusion that the overall pattern is one of nonsignificant sex differences in moral reasoning. Discussion focused on implications for moral development theory and research.
Article
When women perform math, unlike men, they risk being judged by the negative stereotype that women have weaker math ability. We call this predicamentstereotype threatand hypothesize that the apprehension it causes may disrupt women's math performance. In Study 1 we demonstrated that the pattern observed in the literature that women underperform on difficult (but not easy) math tests was observed among a highly selected sample of men and women. In Study 2 we demonstrated that this difference in performance could be eliminated when we lowered stereotype threat by describing the test as not producing gender differences. However, when the test was described as producing gender differences and stereotype threat was high, women performed substantially worse than equally qualified men did. A third experiment replicated this finding with a less highly selected population and explored the mediation of the effect. The implication that stereotype threat may underlie gender differences in advanced math performance, even those that have been attributed to genetically rooted sex differences, is discussed.
Article
On standardized tests of mathematical problemsolving, the typical finding has been that women scorelower than men. Experiment 1 manipulated gender labeling(female character, male character, or gender neutral) within the problem question to seewhether this accounted for gender differences inmathematical problem solving. Sixty-four seventh andeighth graders were tested on modified versions of theCanadian Test of Basic Skills (CTBS) with the resultsshowing that although gender labeling affected studentsperformance, it did not account for gender differences.Experiment 2 manipulated both gender labeling and gender stereotype threat for 174 universitystudents writing modified versions of a modelStandardized Achievement Test (SAT). Again, genderlabeling within problem questions did not account forgender differences. However, women scored lower thanmen when they believed that the test had previouslyshown gender differences. There was no gender differencein the performance of the same women and men when they believed that the test was merelycomparing Canadian students with American students. Thissuggests that gender stereotype threat could be a keyfactor in explaining gender differences in mathematical problem solving.
Article
The joint effects of gender differences in mean and variability on 28 cognitive ability scales were recently examined by Feingold (1992a). He noted that gender differences in extreme score ranges (e.g., in the tails of the distribution of scores) may be influenced by differences in both mean and variability and offered subjective evaluations of effect sizes in the center and tails of these distributions. We provide an analytic evaluation of the effect sizes in the tails and show that the effect sizes in the tails of these distributions are typically smaller than Feingold assumed. We also evaluate the joint effect of gender differences in mean and variability via a different index: the number of females and males in the extreme score ranges. Males outnumber females in the upper tail of the score distribution of 22 of 28 ability scales, including 3 of the scales in which females have a higher overall mean.
Article
According to our social-role theory of gender and helping, the male gender role fosters helping that is heroic and chivalrous, whereas the female gender role fosters helping that is nurturant and caring. In social psychological studies, helping behavior has been examined in the context of short-term encounters with strangers. This focus has tended to exclude from the research literature those helping behaviors prescribed by the female gender role, because they are displayed primarily in long-term, close relationships. In contrast, the helping behaviors prescribed by the male gender role have been generously represented in research findings because they are displayed in relationships with strangers as well as in close relationships. Results from our meta-analytic review of sex differences in helping behavior indicate that in general men helped more than women and women received more help than men. Nevertheless, sex differences in helping were extremely inconsistent across studies and were successfully predicted by various attributes of the studies and the helping behaviors. These predictors were interpreted in terms of several aspects of our social-role theory of gender and helping.
Article
Gender differences on tests of achievement in reading and mathematics, and on tests of cognitive ability, were assessed. Ss were children in kindergarten and Grades 1 and 5 in elementary schools in Taiwan, Japan, and the US ( ns = 1,975 to 4,266). Few gender differences were observed on curriculum-based tests of math computation and reading. Boys were more effective, however, in solving word problems and in answering questions involving estimation, visualization, and measurement. Cognitive tests revealed some gender differences at the 5th-grade level in all 3 cultures. Children and their mothers tended, as early as the 1st grade, to believe that boys were better at math and girls were better at reading. Children in the 3 cultures differed consistently in their scores in reading and math, but there were very few interactions between gender and location. The lack of frequent significant interactions between gender and location indicated the gender effects for both achievement scores and ratings were equivalent across Chinese, Japanese, and American contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The outcomes of 148 studies of whether men and women differ in how easily they are influenced are examined meta-analytically. The analysis indicates that (a) women are more persuasible and more conforming than men in group pressure situations that involve surveillance by the influencing agent. In situations not involving surveillance, women are also more conforming, but this effect is vulnerable to the "file-drawer" problem discussed by R. Rosenthal (1979). Effect-size estimates show that the sex difference in influenceability is generally small. The present article also describes a study with 83 male and 118 female undergraduates that supported the hypothesis that sex of researchers is a determinant of the sex difference. 79% of the authors of influenceability studies were male, and men obtained larger sex differences in the direction of greater persuasibility and conformity among women. In studies authored by women, there was no sex difference. (43 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Reviews 8 studies on children, published from the year 1918-1919, to show sex differences in cognitive ability, intelligence levels and special abilities. Some studies deal with gifted children and children with superior IQ. Sex differences were found in almost all studies done on intelligence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
E. E. Maccoby and C. N. Jacklin (1974) concluded that the following cognitive gender differences were well-established: verbal ability, quantitative ability, and visual–spatial ability. The present study applied meta-analysis techniques to studies cited by Maccoby and Jacklin, assessing the magnitude of gender differences using both ω–2 and d statistics. Results indicate that gender differences in all of these abilities were small: For verbal ability, the median ω–2 was .01 and the median d was .24; for quantitative ability, the median values of ω–2 and d were .01 and .43; for visual–spatial ability, they were .043 and .45; and for field articulation, ω–2 was .025 and d was .51. Discussion focuses on the practical implications of the finding that these "well-established" differences were in fact very small. Concerns about sampling are raised. The problem is also discussed in the context of a larger issue in psychological research: the limitations of the hypothesis-testing approach and the need to estimate the magnitude of effects. (63 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Gender differences in cognitive abilities were determined using the norms from the four standardizations of the Differential Aptitude Tests conducted between 1947 and 1980, and from the four standardizations of the Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test/Scholastic Aptitude Test conducted between 1960 and 1983. The standardized gender differences (d s) were averaged over grade of examinees and year of standardization to obtain a mean effect size for each ability, and variations among effect sizes were examined for grade, year, and Grade × Year trends. Girls scored higher than boys on scales of grammar, spelling, and perceptual speed; boys had higher means on measures of spatial visualization, high school mathematics, and mechanical aptitude; and no average gender differences were found on tests of verbal reasoning, arithmetic, and figural reasoning. Gender differences declined precipitously over the years surveyed, and the increases in these differences over the high school grades have diminished. The important exception to the rule of vanishing gender differences is that the well-documented gender gap at the upper levels of performance on high school mathematics has remained constant over the past 27 years. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
a history of psychologists' efforts to understand sex and gender is offered describe the major conclusion from this historical analysis (that three basic paradigms have guided the efforts of psychologists—"sex differences," "gender as a personality variable," and "sex as a social category" . . . ) and identify several other trends in past theory and measurement each of the three overarching perspectives is described in depth and critiqued suggest that the concept of self or identity is particularly useful for psychological-level analyses / describe a "multiplicity model of gender identity" to illustrate this assertion (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This article presents an examination of the little noted sex-related difference in classroom grades. In contrast to standardized measures of mathematics achievement, girls receive better math grades than do boys. Three hypotheses are proposed to account for this difference. The first hypothesis proposes that boys' greater math experience facilitates their performance on standardized tests. The second hypothesis proposes that math learning styles account for the observed differences. Autonomous learning behavior is presumed to facilitate performance on standardized tests, whereas rote learning is presumed to facilitate performance on classroom exams. The third hypothesis proposes that boys and girls respond differently to novel and familiar achievement situations. It is hypothesized that girls do better when dealing with familiar situations such as classroom exams, whereas boys do better when dealing with novel situations such as standardized tests. Theoretical and empirical evidence consistent with each hypothesis is reviewed, and directions for further research are explored. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Reviews 88 publications of studies on psychology of sex (1910-1914). Sex differences have been investigated for the following: heredity; physical development; motor ability; sensation and perception; memory; the effect of drill; association; attention; judgment and reasoning; general intelligence; affective processes, tastes and ideals; creative ability in art and letters; suggestibility; and variability. According to some, sex differences are most marked in the simpler functions of sensation and motion, and decrease at higher levels of mental activity. However, others state the opposite conclusions. There is also no consensus on the basis for these sex differences. Some studies show that heredity plays a major role in the differences found, while literature emphasizing social influences is also present. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This article reports the complex results of meta-analyses of gender differences in attitudes and affect specific to mathematics. Overall, effect sizes were small and were similar in size to gender differences in mathematics performance. When differences exist, the pattern is for females to hold more negative attitudes. Gender differences in self-confidence and general mathematics attitudes are larger among high school and college students than among younger students. Effect sizes for mathematics anxiety differ depending upon the sample (highly selected or general). One exception to the general pattern is in stereotyping mathematics as a male domain, where males hold much more stereotyped attitudes (d= -.90). While affect and attitudes toward mathematics are not the only influences on the development of gender differences in mathematics performance, they are important, and both male and female affect and attitudes should be considered in conjunction with other social and political influences as explanations.
Article
Studies reporting the objective settlements obtained by men and women in negotiations were reviewed. Differences in outcomes were expected due to differences in perceptions, behaviors, and contextual factors between men and women. In the sample of studies, men negotiated significantly better outcomes than women. Opponent sex, relative power of the negotiator, integrative potential of the task, mode of communication and year of the study were tested as moderators of the effect. Although the overall difference in outcomes between men and women was small, none of these hypothesized moderators or several exploratory moderators reversed or eliminated this effect. The organizational significance of the findings is discussed in terms of the glass ceiling, a gender-based earnings differential and women in negotiation positions. Directions for future research in the laboratory and the field are suggested.
Article
This meta-analysis investigated the possibility that gender differences in aggression, and the variability in these differences, are a function of gender differences in the regulation of arousal generated in emotionally evocative contexts. The sample of studies for this analysis was based on an exhaustive search of the relevant research reports from 1965–1999. Studies were excluded from the sample if they were case studies; investigated spousal/familial or societal violence, war, suicide, or political violence; involved clinical or deviant participants; included fewer than 10 participants; included all male, all female, all non-Caucasian, or non-US/non-Canadian participants. Based on previous evidence that males may be more easily aroused by aggressive-relevant emotional stimuli than females, and that males may have more difficulty regulating emotionally arousing states than females, we hypothesized that the magnitude of the gender differences in aggression would covary, in a nonlinear manner, with the emotional evocativeness of the study context. Consistent with our hypothesis, the magnitude of gender differences in aggression was relatively small in research contexts that appeared to produce no or large increments in emotional arousal and larger (favoring males) in contexts that appeared to produce small or medium increments in emotional arousal. Aggr. Behav. 28:366–393, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article
At the highest levels of math achievement, gender differences in favor of men persist on standardized math tests. We hypothesize that stereotype threat depresses women's math performance through interfering with their ability to formulate problem-solving strategies. In Study 1, women underperformed in comparison to men on a word problemm test, however, women and me performed equally when the word problems were converted into their numerical equivalents. In Study 2, men and women worked on difficult problems, either in a high- or reduced-stereotype-threat condition. Problem-solving strategies were coded. When stereo-type threat was high, women were less able to formulate problem-solving strategies than when stereotype threat was reduced. The effect of stereotype threat on cognitive resources and the implications for gender differences in mathematical testing are discussed.
Article
Prior studies of childhood aggression have demonstrated that, as a group, boys are more aggressive than girls. We hypothesized that this finding reflects a lack of research on forms of aggression that are relevant to young females rather than an actual gender difference in levels of overall aggressiveness. In the present study, a form of aggression hypothesized to be typical of girls, relational aggression, was assessed with a peer nomination instrument for a sample of 491 third- through sixth-grade children. Overt aggression (i.e., physical and verbal aggression as assessed in past research) and social-psychological adjustment were also assessed. Results provide evidence for the validity and distinctiveness of relational aggression. Further, they indicated that, as predicted, girls were significantly more relationally aggressive than were boys. Results also indicated that relationally aggressive children may be at risk for serious adjustment difficulties (e.g., they were significantly more rejected and reported significantly higher levels of loneliness, depression, and isolation relative to their nonrelationally aggressive peers).
Article
A meta-analysis of studies of gender differences in computer-related attitudes and behavior using US and Canadian participants found that men and boys exhibited greater sex-role stereotyping of computers, higher computer self-efficacy, and more positive affect about computers than did women and girls. These effect sizes varied as a function of study population — adult, college, high school, and grammar school — with the largest differences generally found for high school students. Gender differences in beliefs about computers approached zero and did not vary by study population. Gender differences in computer-related behaviors were small and did not differ as a function of study population. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Article
The claim of a gender bias is considered on measures of moral judgment focusing on concepts of justice. Both meta-analyses and secondary analyses on 56 samples of over 6000 male and female subjects are used to estimate the magnitude of gender effects. Inconsistent with current expectations, the results indicate that overall, and at every age/educational level, females score significantly higher than males. Second, the magnitude of this difference is small, both in comparison with age/education effects and in relation to conventional interpretations of the measures employed. Several possible interpretations of these results are discussed especially with regard to C. Gilligan's (1977, Harvard Educational Review, 47, 481–517) recent criticism of Kohlberg's theory.
Article
Three sets of meta-analyses examined gender effects on children's language use. Each set of analyses considered an aspect of speech that is considered to be gender typed: talkativeness, affiliative speech, and assertive speech. Statistically significant average effect sizes were obtained with all three language constructs. On average, girls were slightly more talkative and used more affiliative speech than did boys, whereas boys used more assertive speech than did girls. However, the average effect sizes were either negligible (talkativeness, d=0.11; assertive speech, d=0.11) or small (affiliative speech, d=0.26). Larger effect sizes were indicated for some language constructs depending on either the operational definition of the language measure, the method of recording, the child's age level, the interaction partner (adult or peer), group size, gender composition, observational setting, or type of activity. The results are interpreted in relation to social-developmental and social-constructionist approaches to gender; these views are presented as complementary--rather than competing--meta-theoretical viewpoints.