The antifungal activity of the essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (lavender oil) and its main components, linalool and linalyl acetate, was investigated against 50 clinical isolates of Candida albicans (28 oropharyngeal strains, 22 vaginal strains) and C. albicans ATCC 3153. Growth inhibition, killing time and inhibition of germ tube formation were evaluated. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Lavender oil inhibited C. albicans growth: mean minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.69% (vol./vol.) (vaginal strains) and 1.04% (oropharyngeal strains); mean MFC of 1.1% (vaginal strains) and 1.8% (oropharyngeal strains). Linalool was more effective than essential oil: mean MIC of 0.09% (vaginal strains) and 0.29% (oropharyngeal strains); mean MFC of 0.1% (vaginal strains) and 0.3% (oropharyngeal strains). Linalyl acetate was almost ineffective. Lavender oil (2%) killed 100% of the C. albicans ATCC 3153 cells within 15 min; linalool (0.5%) killed 100% of the cells within 30 s. The essential oil inhibited germ tube formation (mean MIC of 0.09%), as did the main components (MIC of 0.11% for linalool and 0.08% for linalyl acetate). Both the essential oil and its main components inhibited hyphal elongation of C. albicans ATCC 3153 (about 50% inhibition at 0.016% with each substance). Lavender oil shows both fungistatic and fungicidal activity against C. albicans strains. At lower concentrations, it inhibits germ tube formation and hyphal elongation, indicating that it is effective against C. albicans dimorphism and may thus reduce fungal progression and the spread of infection in host tissues.
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"Both linalool and benzyl alcohol have previously been suggested to have anti-fungal activity (e.g. –); thus, elevated emissions of these compounds may reflect the induction plant defenses against powdery mildew infection. It is also plausible that such compounds may play an indirect role in plant defense by facilitating the attraction of natural enemies of the fungus. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Powdery mildews (Erysiphales) are economically important plant pathogens that attack many agricultural crops. Conventional management strategies involving fungicide application face challenges, including the evolution of resistance and concerns over impacts on non-target organisms, that call for investigation of more sustainable alternatives. Mycophagous ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) feed on powdery mildew and have considerable potential as biological control agents; however, the foraging ecology and behavior of these beetles is not well understood. Here we document the olfactory cues presented by squash plants (Cucurbita moschata) infected by powdery mildew (Podosphaera sp.) and the behavioral responses of twenty-spotted ladybird beetles (Psyllobora vigintimaculata) to these cues. Volatile analyses through gas chromatography revealed a number of volatile compounds characteristic of infected plants, including 3-octanol and its analogues 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone. These compounds are typical "moldy" odorants previously reported in volatiles collected from other fungi. In addition, infected plants exhibited elevated emissions of several compounds also observed in collections from healthy leaves, including linalool and benzyl alcohol, which are reported to have anti-fungal properties. In Y-tube choice assays, P. vigintimaculata beetles displayed a significant preference for the odors of infected plants compared to those of healthy plants. Moreover, beetles exhibited strong attraction to one individual compound, 1-octen-3-ol, which was the most abundant of the characteristic fungal compounds identified. These results enhance our understanding of the olfactory cues that guide foraging by mycophagous insects and may facilitate the development of integrated disease-management strategies informed by an understanding of underlying ecological mechanisms.
"Its flowers and leaves are also used as a herbal medicine, either in the form of lavender oil or as a herbal tea. The flowers are also used as a culinary herb and studies have shown its property as an antimicrobial agent. Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae family), popularly known as " guaçatonga " , is a medicinal plant broadly used in South America. Among the popular applications attributed to this plant are anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antimicrobial, and antiulcer activities. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus is the main agent that causes bovine mastitis, an inflammation in cow's udder, which is the most costly disease in dairy cattle. The treatment of intramammary infections is usually based on antibiotics therapy, but the increase of resistance has led to the search for new treatment alternatives. In this work the authors evaluated the antibacterial activity of four essential oils obtained from plants commonly used in Brazil folk medicine, namely Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Casearia sylvestris, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha pulegium. Antibacterial activity was evaluated by the disk diffusion and microboth dilution methods against 14 strains of S. aureus isolated from subclinical cases of bovine mastitis, obtained in southern Brazil. The composition of the oils was determined by GC and GC/MS analysis. Three out of four essential oils analysed inhibited the S. aureus tested. The oil from leaves of C. zeylanicum was the most active with MIC values of 0.3 mg/ml. The main components of C. zeylanicum essential oil were benzyl benzoate (63%) and cinnamaldehyde ( 15%). The essential oils of C. sylvestris and L angustifolia showed moderate activity. Results revealed the potential of C. zeylanicum leaf oil as an antibacterial agent against S. aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis, supporting the concept that this essential oil alone and combined with the oils of C. sylvestris and L. angustifolia should be further investigated for possible use as phytotherapeutic agents. Clinical trials will be evaluated to confirm the in vitro results.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Folk and traditional therapeutic use of the essential oil of English lavender for pain, infection, relaxation, and sedation dates back centuries. Current research focusing on the inherent synergism of Lavandula angustifolia Miller demonstrates great potential for future applications. Today's investigations may provide the key to eradicating degenerative inflammatory disease, infectious disease, and carcinogenesis.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2008 · Holistic nursing practice