Article

Effect of a Gentle Iyengar Yoga Program on Gait in the Elderly: An Exploratory Study

Authors:
  • West Virginia University School of Public Health, Dept Epidemiology
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Abstract

To determine if a tailored yoga program could improve age-related changes in hip extension, stride length, and associated indices of gait function in healthy elders, changes that have been linked to increased risk for falls, dependency, and mortality in geriatric populations. Single group pre-post test exploratory study. A 3-dimensional quantitative gait evaluation, including kinematic and kinetic measurements, was performed pre- and postintervention. Changes over time (baseline to postintervention) in primary and secondary outcome variables were assessed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Yoga exercises were performed in an academic medical center (group classes) and in the subjects' homes (yoga home-practice assignments). Pre- and postassessments were performed in a gait laboratory. Twenty-three healthy adults (age range, 62-83 y) who were naive to yoga were recruited; 19 participants completed the program. An 8-week Iyengar Hatha yoga program specifically tailored to elderly persons and designed to improve lower-body strength and flexibility. Participants attended two 90-minute yoga classes per week, and were asked to complete at least 20 minutes of directed home practice on alternate days. Peak hip extension, average anterior pelvic tilt, and stride length at comfortable walking speed. Peak hip extension and stride length significantly increased (F1,18=15.44, P<.001; F1,18=5.57, P=.03, respectively). We also observed a trend toward reduced average pelvic tilt (F1,18=4.10, P=.06); adjusting for the modifying influence of frequency of home yoga practice strengthened the significance of this association (adjusted F1,17=14.30, P=.001). Both the frequency and duration of yoga home practice showed a strong, linear, dose-response relationship to changes in hip extension and average pelvic tilt. Findings of this exploratory study suggest that yoga practice may improve hip extension, increase stride length, and decrease anterior pelvic tilt in healthy elders, and that yoga programs tailored to elderly adults may offer a cost-effective means of preventing or reducing age-related changes in these indices of gait function.

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... Majority of the studies in the literature reported positive effects of yoga on elderly population on fatique, sleep quality and in overall physical wellness were reported [11][12][13][14][15]. The current study involved a geriatric population with LBP receiving similar yoga program that was used in previous studies and positive results were obtained in pain and QoL. ...
... Furthermore, as they progress with different movement patterns, they maintained their posture for a long period of time. Because the selected asanas were the ones requiring flexibility, considering the previous reports in the literature, it is safe to state that balance, which was developed towards compensation mechanisms caused by pain, muscular weakness, and loss of flexibility, reduced [13][14][15][16][17][18]. ...
... Researchers on geriatric population performing yoga found decrease in anxiety, improvement in sleep, diminish of medications for sleep and stress, improvement in flexibility and balance [12,14,19,20]. The authors thought that yoga was the reason for the improvement of quality of life, diminish of pain severity, regulation in sleep and emotional well-being. ...
Article
Objectives: The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effects of yoga on quality of life and pain in geriatric women with low-back pain.Design: Fifteen women (65-69 years old) with low-back pain were included in the present study. 12 sessions yoga program consisted of asanas, stretching exercises, breathing and relaxation techniques were given to geriatric women suffering from low-back pain twice a week for 6 weeks.Main outcome measures: The quality of life was assessed with Nothingham Health Profile and pain was determined before and after the study using Visual Analoque Scale.Results: After-sessions, the patients’ quality of life values were found to be statistically higher than the beforesession values (p<0.05). It was determined that the severity of pain decreased after yoga session (p<0.05).Discussion: The results showed that yoga has a positive effect on quality of life and pain severity of geriatric women with low-back pain. Therefore it is possible to use yoga programs as an alternative approach to solve problems such as poor quality of life and pain caused by low-back pain.
... Available studies have shown the effectiveness of yoga on cardiorespiratory function in men and women older than 60 years of age [2]; cardiovascular and behavioural effects in healthy older men and women [3]; as well as effects on reducing risk of falls in elderly patients [4]; and seniors [5]. Further research showed that yoga is effective in improving sleep quality, depression state, and health status of older adults [6]; self-rated sleep in a geriatric population [7]; gait in the elderly [8]; and cognition, and quality of life [9]. ...
... Indeed, substantial evidence abounds that yoga is a potentially promising physical activity for older adults [6,28,29,30,31,32]. This is because yoga improves health-related quality of life [9], [33]; enhances walking and balance [6,8,34]; cardiovascular health [3,22,35]; blood pressure [3,18,22]; control of chronic condition [36]; promote functional efficacy [37]; muscle strength [5,6]; sleep [6,7]; and functioning of other systems [10,16,17,19,21]. ...
... No serious adverse events occurred. In 2005, DiBenedetto, Innes, Taylor, Rodeheaver, Boxer, Wright, and Kerrigan [8] carried out an exploratory study on "Effect of a gentle Iyengar yoga program on gait in the elderly". The study revealed that the peak hip extension and stride length significantly increased (F1,18=15.44, ...
Article
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Yoga, a mind-body practice, is a potentially promising physical activity that has positive effects in human health and aging. A complete knowledge of these effects remains a prerequisite for attaining optimum health and functional aging. The study determined the quality of knowledge of effects of yoga in health and aging as possessed by health educators in universities of Nigeria. The study was guided by five research questions and four null hypotheses. Relevant literature on the effects of yoga in health and aging was properly reviewed and documented. Using descriptive method, a total of 300 health educators was conveniently sampled and studied. Data collection was done using a four-point knowledge scale questionnaire. The descriptive statistics was employed for qualitative data analysis. The result showed that the quality of knowledge of effects of yoga in health and aging as possessed by health educators in universities of Nigeria was adequate. The study also showed that the quality of knowledge of the above phenomenon differed based on demographic variables of gender, location, years of working experiences and educational qualification. Statistically, it was found that significant differences exist between variables of gender and educational qualification while none existed on location and years of working experiences. In conclusion, the quality of knowledge possessed by health educators in diverse fields of health and aging promotion as well as lifestyle modification is indeed reflecting in all domains via: cognitive, affective and psychomotor. This however, defined the worth of the training, skills, exposures and professional competences as well as programmes and prospects put in place for their professional development.
... 8 Yoga originated in India 4000 years ago and has improved emotional, physical, and spiritual wellbeing. [9][10][11][12][13] Asanas, pranayama, and meditation are the important components of yoga. Though the effect of yoga on long-term endpoints like HbA1c and prevention of diabetes-related complications are unclear and inconclusive, several studies have shown that yoga improves glycemic outcome, cholesterol, oxidative stress, blood pressure, BMI, and waist to hip ratio. ...
... 20 Yoga is an ancient psychological, physical, and spiritual exercise regimen that can be practiced even by an ill, elderly groups of patients. [11][12][13] Several studies documented that yoga significantly reduced the glycaemic outcome, lipid parameters, BMI, and blood pressure. 15 In the current study, 120 patients were randomised into exercise and yoga groups. ...
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Context/Background: Lifestyle interventions have proven to reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and prevent the complications. Yoga is considered safe, simple to learn, and can be practiced even by ill, obese, elderly, or disabled persons at home. The present study was conducted to assess the effect of one year of yoga therapy on lipid profile, BMI, and blood pressure in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methodology: This randomized controlled trial was conducted in an Urban Health center, Belagavi from July 2018 to December 2019. Around 120 participants diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomized into “Yoga” and “Exercise” groups. Fasting lipid profile, BMI, and blood pressure were examined at baseline, six months, and after one year of intervention. Results: GEE model analysis showed that there were significant effects of Intervention × Time on Cholesterol (p=0.001), LDL (p=0.006) and VLDL (p=0.000). It was identified that the exercise intervention was found to decrease cholesterol and TG significantly more than the yoga group. Also, there was a significant reduction in BMI in both the exercise and yoga groups at the end of six months and one year (p=0.247). Conclusions: Yoga can be a complementary therapy for type 2 diabetes, along with medications and exercise.
... Yoga includes a novel type of exercise that has been shown to improve motor function and other areas of life participation in many populations. [5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14] Specifically, a systematic analysis of mind-body interventions reported that yoga has demonstrated a large effect on improvement of motor PD symptoms. 15 However, little is known about how motor improvement affects life participation among individuals with PD and how yoga can be used as a rehabilitation modality for PD. ...
... Sessions occurred twice a week for 1 hour and were consistent with other balance, yoga, and lower extremity programming. 6,14,30 Yoga exercises were delivered in a standardized progression that included asanas (postures), pranayama (breathing), and dhyana (meditation). Modified yoga postures were performed sitting, standing, and in supine positions. ...
Article
Full-text available
Parkinson's disease (PD) often leads to poor balance, increased falls, and fear of falling, all of which can reduce participation in life activities. Yoga, which usually includes physical exercise, can improve functioning and life participation; however, limited research has been conducted on the effects of yoga on life participation of individuals with PD. This study had two purposes: (1) to identify and understand the perceived activities and participation outcomes associated a therapeutic yoga intervention for individuals with PD; and (2) to compare the perceived activities and participation outcomes with the outcomes measured in the clinical trial. A single-blind, randomized, waitlist-controlled, phase II exploratory pilot study using an after-trial embedded mixed methods design (clinical trial Pro00041068) evaluated the effect of an 8-week Hatha Yoga intervention on individuals with PD. Directed content analysis was used to analyze focus group interviews with participants who completed the yoga intervention. Quantitative and qualitative data were merged and compared using a data comparison matrix. Qualitative analysis indicated many activities and participation outcomes. Comparison of qualitative and quantitative data indicated the yoga intervention led to improved balance, mobility, and functional gait, and fewer falls. These outcomes reached beyond the intervention and into participants' daily lives. Results support the use of Hatha Yoga as a community-based rehabilitation intervention for individuals with PD. Yoga, as part of an interdisciplinary approach to treatment, can improve many types of activities and participation outcomes (e.g., mobility, social relationships, self-care, handling stress, recreation).
... Yoga includes a novel type of exercise that has been shown to improve motor function and other areas of life participation in many populations. [5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14] Specifically, a systematic analysis of mind-body interventions reported that yoga has demonstrated a large effect on improvement of motor PD symptoms. 15 However, little is known about how motor improvement affects life participation among individuals with PD and how yoga can be used as a rehabilitation modality for PD. ...
... Sessions occurred twice a week for 1 hour and were consistent with other balance, yoga, and lower extremity programming. 6,14,30 Yoga exercises were delivered in a standardized progression that included asanas (postures), pranayama (breathing), and dhyana (meditation). Modified yoga postures were performed sitting, standing, and in supine positions. ...
Article
Full-text available
An informal caregiver (ICG) is a family member and/or friend who provides unpaid care to an individual with a disability or chronic disease. ICGs often put their healthcare second while caring for their loved ones; and this may lead to negative impacts on their well-being. ICGs attended an 8-week therapeutic yoga intervention for their care recipients with Parkinson’s disease. ICGs who participated in the yoga classes were assessed utilizing a retrospective pretest and traditional post-test to determine the presence of depressive symptoms and positive aspects of caregiving. Although the sample size was small, data revealed improvements in depressive symptoms and positive aspects of caregiving. Focus group and individual interview data revealed five qualitative categories: yoga engagement, relationship improvement, psychological improvements, functional improvements, and community engagement. Future research should expand participation of ICGs in yoga trials to determine the extent of changes in psychosocial well-being.
... This concern arises from apprehension about the structural integrity of joints over time, due to repeated high stresses, that occur even with walking [14][15][16]. While studies involving older adults have shown that yoga can improve gait biomechanics [17][18][19], and increasing evidence suggests that yoga may be a promising intervention for obesity in children [20] and adults [21], no studies have examined the benefits of yoga for gait biomechanics in children with or without obesity. ...
... Finally, although only studied in elderly adults, yoga has been shown to improve function and strength in the lower extremities. For example, DiBenedetto et al. [19] found increased peak hip extension and stride length after eight weeks of Hatha yoga. Zettergren et al. [18] found improved balance and increased fast walking speed after an eight-week Kripalu yoga intervention. ...
Article
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Obesity negatively impacts the kinematics and kinetics of the lower extremities in children and adolescents. Although yoga has the potential to provide several distinct benefits for children with obesity, this is the first study to examine the benefits of yoga for gait (primary outcome) in youths with obesity. Secondary outcomes included health-related quality of life (HRQoL), physical activity, and pain. Feasibility and acceptability were also assessed. Nine youths (11–17 years) participated in an eight-week Iyengar yoga intervention (bi-weekly 1-h classes). Gait, HRQOL (self and parent-proxy reports), and physical activity were assessed at baseline and post-yoga. Pain was self-reported at the beginning of each class. Significant improvements were found in multiple gait parameters, including hip, knee, and ankle motion and moments. Self-reported and parent-proxy reports of emotional functioning significantly improved. Time spent in physical activity and weight did not change. This study demonstrates that a relatively brief, non-invasive Iyengar yoga intervention can result in improved malalignment of the lower extremities during ambulation, as well as in clinically meaningful improvements in emotional functioning. This study extends current evidence that supports a role for yoga in pediatric obesity.
... This concern arises from apprehension about the structural integrity of joints over time, due to repeated high stresses, that occur even with walking [14][15][16]. While studies involving older adults have shown that yoga can improve gait biomechanics [17][18][19], and increasing evidence suggests that yoga may be a promising intervention for obesity in children [20] and adults [21], no studies have examined the benefits of yoga for gait biomechanics in children with or without obesity. ...
... Finally, although only studied in elderly adults, yoga has been shown to improve function and strength in the lower extremities. For example, DiBenedetto et al. [19] found increased peak hip extension and stride length after eight weeks of Hatha yoga. Zettergren et al. [18] found improved balance and increased fast walking speed after an eight-week Kripalu yoga intervention. ...
Article
Childhood obesity in the United States has more than tripled in the past three decades. Differences in lower extremity kinematics between obese and nonobese children during walking have been investigated, but the validity of using the gait deviation index (GDI) for measuring gait in obese children has not been explored. Nine obese children (13.9 ± 2.4 years old) with a body mass index of 33.3 ± 3.5 participated in the study. Reflective markers were placed on all children in a widely used standard lower extremity marker configuration. All participants walked along a 20-foot walkway at a self-selected speed. The kinematic and kinetic measurements for all children were taken, and the GDI for each subject was calculated. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) GDI of the nine obese children was 88.5 ± 12, which was significantly lower than the GDI of the typically developing children (100 ± 10, p < 0.002). There were no statistically significant correlations between the GDI and the Pediatric Quality of Life (PedsQL) Total score or PedsQL Physical Functioning score. Obese children had a significantly increased anterior pelvic tilt, hip flexion, hip adduction, hip adduction moment, knee flexion, knee valgus, and plantar flexion in stance phase (p < 0.05). While in swing phase, obese children had increased hip adduction and knee varus. The kinematic differences may reveal lower limb mal-alignment in obese children during walking. Overall, the GDI can play a major role in evaluating gait pathology in obese children. Future studies will increase the sample size to further evaluate the correlation between the GDI and functional outcomes.
... Tai chi is a form of martial art and a low intensity exercise that is practiced with an emphasis on deep breathing, mental imagery, and slow, graceful movements to promote flexibility, balance and overall wellbeing (Chyu et al., 2010;Wolf et al., 1996). Yoga is a generic term for a physical, mental and spiritual discipline, the practice of which involves emphasis on postures (asanas), breathing techniques (pranayama) and meditation (dhyana) (Evans, Tsao, Ternlieb, & Zeltzer, 2009) and having positive effects on balance, muscle strength, endurance, flexibility and gait (DiBenedetto et al., 2005;Fan & Chen, 2011). ...
... Improvement in balance has been reported in previous studies that used yoga for relatively robust older adults living in the community (Chen & Tseng, 2008;Oken et al., 2006;Schmid et al., 2010;Zettergren et al., 2011). The favourable effect of yoga intervention on balance is hypothesised to be mediated by the slow stretching postures that increase muscle strength and endurance (Fan & Chen, 2011), improving flexibility (Schmid et al., 2010) and gait function (DiBenedetto et al., 2005). Two quasi experimental studies that involved transitionally frail older adults in long term care facilities in Taiwan (Chen et al., 2010;Fan & Chen, 2011) found similar results with silver yoga exercises. ...
Article
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Falls amongst older people is a global public health concern. Whilst falling is not a typical feature of ageing, older people are more likely to fall. Fall injuries amongst older people are a leading cause of death and disability. Many older people do not do regular exercise so that they lose muscle tone, strength, and flexibility which affect balance and predispose them to falls. The management of falls in residential care settings is a major concern with strategies for prevention and monitoring a focus in this setting. Yoga and tai chi have shown potential to improve balance and prevent falls in older adults. They also have potential to improve pain and quality of life. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of conducting a three-arm randomised controlled trial (RCT) with frail older people in a residential care setting to test the hypothesis that a 14-week modified tai chi or yoga programme is more effective than usual care activity in improving balance function, quality of life, pain experience and in reducing number of falls. There were no statistically significant differences between the three groups in the occurrence of falls. Yoga demonstrated a slight decrease in fall incidence; quality of life improved for the tai chi group. Only the yoga group experienced a reduction in average pain scores though not statistically significant. The findings of the study suggest it is possible to safely implement modified yoga and tai chi in a residential care setting and evaluate this using RCT design. They show positive changes to balance, pain and quality of life and a high level of interest through attendance amongst the older participants. The results support offering tai chi and yoga to older people who are frail and dependent with physical and cognitive limitations.
... 13 Yoga is another low-intensity activity that is commonly known to have similar benefits of Tai-chi. 14,15 Tai-chi and yoga improve gait measures such as hip extension, stride length, flexibility, range of motion, and functional balance-mitigating the risk of falling in older adults. 11,13,15 Improvement in gait measures further enhances confidence and helps to combat fear of falling. ...
... 14,15 Tai-chi and yoga improve gait measures such as hip extension, stride length, flexibility, range of motion, and functional balance-mitigating the risk of falling in older adults. 11,13,15 Improvement in gait measures further enhances confidence and helps to combat fear of falling. Increasing balance and coordination through these activities will likely translate into better performance of everyday activities and reduction of falls in places like the bedroom, bathroom, or stairs. ...
Article
Fear of falling is a critical component in fall prevention approaches; however, it is often overlooked in the majority of fall prevention exercises. Alternative fall prevention approaches that take fear of falling into account are necessary. This article discusses fall prevention activities that are feasible for individuals with limited mobility who have an increased fear of falling. Health care providers should consider the degree to which a patient has a fear of falling and recommend activities that fit most to their patient’s comfort level.
... [13][14][15][16][17][18][19] Despite the increased relevance of spirituality as a topic of research in the West, and the efforts of many vocal Yoga practitioners to maintain the spiritual practices implicit in Yoga, the discipline frequently remains thought of, and researched as, the physical practices of Yoga alone. [20][21][22] "Thinning of the Sacred" is a phrase borrowed from author P. Vrajaprana's article, "Contemporary Spirituality and the Thinning of the Sacred: A Hindu Perspective," published in Cross Currents in 2000. 23 Vrajaprana's article mirrors sentiments expressed in A.K. Malhotra's 1999 book Instant Nirvana: Americanization of Mysticism and Meditation. ...
Article
With acceptance of Yoga in the West come challenges to Western understanding of what healing is, and how healing happens. The principles of spirituality and holistic living, which form the basis of Yoga, are largely being edited out of Yoga practice in America in an attempt to hold on to cultural perceptions about the nature of healing. This deletion has been a concern for many contemporary Yoga practitioners. This article explores Western cultural values as a backdrop for understanding the tendency to edit "practices" from other "traditions." Suggestions are made for how contemporary Yoga therapists can actively promote the traditional practices of Yoga through the language used to discuss Yoga, scientific studies, and reflection on Western preconceptions about health and healing. Yoga need not be divested of its spiritual heritage to live alongside biomedical approaches to health. By holding multiple theories of health and wellness as correct and useful within their own specific contexts, we will have more to offer those who are suffering with physical or mental illness.
... Além disso, sua prática ajuda na melhora de seus problemas de saúde, como: mudanças de humor, distúrbios do sono, fadiga, sintomas de estresse, queixas somáticas. Os praticantes relatam, também, melhoras em seu sistema imunológico, na flexibilidade, na autonomia funcional e no sistema metabólico, fatores que contribuem para a qualidade de vida de idosos (DIBENEDETTO et al., 2005). ...
Article
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O envelhecimento é um fenômeno natural e fisiológico dos seres vivos, muitas vezes associado a pontos negativos, como degenerações, atrofias, limitações e dores. A ioga, muitas vezes, é usada como uma forma terapêutica que auxilia em recuperações e na manutenção da saúde e vem sendo uma boa ajuda para melhorar a qualidade de vida de idosos, minimizando os fatores negativos do envelhecimento. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar se houve melhoras na qualidade de vida de idosos por meio da prática de ioga. Este estudo, caracterizado como descritivo-comparativo, foi composto por uma amostra final de 44 idosos entre 65 e 80 anos de idade, divididos em grupo experimental e grupo controle. Todos os idosos foram submetidos aos questionários Whoqol-old e Whoqol-bref para avaliação da qualidade de vida, e o grupo experimental foi submetido a aulas de ioga duas vezes por semana durante 10 semanas. Foram apresentadas diferenças estatisticamente significativas nas facetas Habilidades Sensoriais; Participação Social; Atividades Passadas, Presentes e Futuras; e Intimidade. Apesar de as outras facetas não apresentarem o mesmo resultado, houve um pequeno aumento nas variáveis analisadas.
... Yoga is believed to have originated in India more than 2000-3000 years ago and has been associated with religious, cultural and physical activities ever since [14,15]. For thousands of years yoga has been practiced to improve emotional, physical and spiritual wellbeing [16][17][18]. The yoga practices commonly used to promote health and manage illness include asanas (physical postures), pranayama (regulated breathing) and meditation [19]. ...
Article
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Yoga is increasingly used as an adjunctive therapy in the management of Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). The present study aims to systematically evaluate the literature and perform a meta-analysis on the effects of yoga practice compared to physical exercise in the management of T2DM. Data were obtained using a stepwise search process using keywords in the following online medical databases; PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus. All controlled clinical trials involving patients with T2DM, comparing yoga as an intervention with physical exercise and evaluating glycaemic control and other outcomes between the intervention and control groups were included in the analysis. Eight studies were eligible to be included in the systematic review. In total, 842 participants were assigned to a Yoga intervention or a control group with an Exercise intervention and the age range of participants was 30–78 years. A significant reduction in FBG (15.16 mg/dl), PPBG (28.66 mg/dl), HbA1c (0.39%) and BMI (0.71 kg/m2) was noted in the intervention group (‘Yoga’) compared to the control group (‘Physical Exercise’) in the pooled analysis. We did not observe any significant difference between the two groups for lipid parameters, other body composition measures (WC and WHR) and Blood Pressure. In conclusion, our results show that Yoga has beneficial effects on glycaemic control in comparison to physical exercise in T2DM However, individual studies showed considerable heterogeneity. Hence, further well-controlled randomized trials are required prior to drawing conclusions about the benefits of yoga in comparison to physical exercise.
... Instructors are trained to modify nearly any posture to meet the needs of the individual student. Iyengar yoga has been studied in several populations, including the elderly, 5 those with chronic low back pain, 6 breast cancer survivors, 7 those with cardiac conditions, 8 and more. ...
Article
The popularity of yoga in the United States and across the globe has been steadily increasing over the past several decades. The interest in yoga as a therapeutic lifestyle tool has also grown within the medical community during this time. However, the wide range of styles available to the public can make it difficult for patients and physicians alike to choose the one that will offer the most benefit. This guide was created to assist physicians in making informed recommendations for patients practicing yoga in the community. When the most suitable style is selected, yoga can be an extremely useful lifestyle tool for patients seeking to improve fitness and develop a mindfulness-based practice.
... Esta modalidade também se mostra eficaz no tratamento de doenças, como dores de coluna (Williams, 2005) e cardiopatias (Pullen et al., 2010) e em parâmetros de saúde como adaptações cardiorrespiratórias (Balasubramanian;Pansare, 1991;Baptista;Dos Santos Alves, 2005), composição corporal (Chen et al., 2008) e estado de equilíbrio (Gauchard et al., 1999). Há grande variedade nas modalidades de ioga, podendo-se citar Iyengar (Dibenedetto et al., 2005), Silver Ioga (Chen et al., 2007) e hatha, a mais estudada (Clay et al., 2005). ...
Article
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Introduction: The practice`s incorporation of the exercises modalities alternatives for flexibility promotion is more and more common. Studies demonstrate association between flexibility and life quality. In this context, yoga and ballness arise as tools capable of improving the individual’s flexibility. Objective: To compare the flexibility levels of the trunk flexion of the middle-age women of the ballness practioners and yoga. Methods: Twenty-four middle-age women were selected voluntarily. They were divided into three groups (N=8/group): Control (C) (48,87±2,80 years), Ballness (B) (48,62±5,63 years) and yoga (I) (49,12±5,48 years), for inclusion in the study, the subjects of (B) and (I) should be practicing the modality for six months, with a minimum frequency of two meetings a week. Besides, the entire sample should be free from injuries in the lumbosacral region, in the hip and in the lower members of the musculature. Results: The flexibility of the exercises groups proved to be better than that of (C) group (p<0,05 for (I) p<0,001 in (B), the average reached distance of (B) was 37,1±6,0 cm against 32,1±6,1 cm of (I) and of 20,5±3,1cm (C), no differences between (B) an (I). Additionally, in the ‘sit and reach’ test, the subject of the groups (B) and (I) had a “good” prevalence level of 37% and 37,5% respectively, whereas nobody of (C) showed in this condition. Conclusions: The regular practice of the ballness yoga and middle-age women, even with low weekly frequency, are sufficient to promove greater flexibility compared to sedentary
... Chandler (2001) noted yoga improved: circulation, respiration, cardiac function, and balanced mental functioning. Researchers have shown that yoga reduces low back pain (Galantino et al., 2004;Williams et al., 2005;Tilbrook et al., 2011), reduces blood pressure (Shantakumari et al., 2012), improves peak hip extension range of motion (DiBenedetto et al., 2005) and increases gait speed in community dwelling older adults (Zettergren et al., 2011). Although studies exist that have evaluated the effects of yoga in a variety of areas (Chandler, 2001;Galantino et al., 2004;Williams et al., 2005;Tilbrook et al., 2011;Shantakumari et al., 2012;Zettergren et al., 2011), a paucity of literature exists examining EMG output during yoga asana. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to assess electromyographic (EMG) output of the anterior tibialis (TA), medial head of the gastrocnemius (GA), rectus femoris (RF), bicep femoris (BF), and gluteus medius (GM) in experienced yogic practitioners during selected yoga asana. A secondary purpose was to examine the differences in EMG output in unilateral V. bilateral standing yoga asana. The study was a single occasion descriptive design. Thirteen healthy yoga practitioners (1 male, 12 females, average age of 37.5) with more than five years of experience were recruited. EMG activity was recorded during maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) of the TA, GA, RF, and BF using the Biodex Multijoint System®, and GM using manual muscle testing position. Subjects then performed the following yoga asana while EMG activity was recorded: downward facing dog, half-moon, tree, chair, and warrior three pose. Each asana was held for fifteen seconds and performed three times. EMG data were band pass filtered and the root mean square was obtained. Asana data were then amplitude normalized with the subjects’ MVIC data. Integrated EMG was calculated for TA, GA, RF, BF and GM, in each asana. A multilevel regression analysis was performed, and peak EMG data was compared. Analysis between muscles showed that during CH and DD EMG activity was greatest in the TA muscle compared to the other muscles, while during HM and WR the GA muscle showed the greatest activity. Analysis within muscles showed low GA, BF, and GM activity during chair pose and downward facing dog compared to half moon, tree, and warrior three, and high RF activity during chair compared to the other poses. In conclusion, there were differences in frontal and sagittal plane muscle activation between single limb and double limb poses in experienced yogic practitioners.
... The practice of yoga improves the measures of gait, fatigue, quality of life, and physical function in several neurological conditions [15,[20][21][22]. ...
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Background Parkinson’s disease (PD), a progressive neurodegenerative disease, affects motor and nonmotor functions, leading to severe debility and poor quality of life. Studies have reported the beneficial role of yoga in alleviating the symptoms of PD; however, a validated yoga module for PD is unavailable. This study developed and validated an integrated yoga module(IYM) for PD. Methods The IYM was prepared after a thorough review of classical yoga texts and previous findings. Twenty experienced yoga experts, who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, were selected validating the content of the IYM. A total of 28 practices were included in the IYM, and each practice was discussed and rated as (i) not essential, (ii) useful but not essential, and (iii) essential; the content validity ratio (CVR) was calculated using Lawshe’s formula. Results Data analysis revealed that of the 28 IYM practices, 21 exhibited significant content validity (cut-off value: 0.42, as calculated by applying Lawshe’s formula for the CVR). Conclusions The IYM is valid for PD, with good content validity. However, future studies must determine the feasibility and efficacy of the developed module.
... Changes in physical activity, medication, and/or supplement use were assessed at each follow-up visit using a form specifically designed for this purpose. In addition, participants were also asked to complete a 3-and 6month study evaluation questionnaire adapted from that used in our previous studies [52,53], which included a single 5-point Likert scale item to assess change in concerns regarding memory. All assessors were blinded to participant treatment assignment. ...
Article
Background: Telomere length (TL), telomerase activity (TA), and plasma amyloid-β (Aβ) levels have emerged as possible predictors of cognitive decline and dementia. Objective: To assess the: 1) effects of two 12-week relaxation programs on TL, TA, and Aβ levels in adults with subjective cognitive decline; and 2) relationship of biomarker changes to those in cognitive function, psychosocial status, and quality of life (QOL). Methods: Participants were randomized to a 12-week Kirtan Kriya meditation (KK) or music listening (ML) program and asked to practice 12 minutes/day. Plasma Aβ(38/40/42) and peripheral blood mononuclear cell TL and TA were measured at baseline and 3 months; cognition, stress, sleep, mood, and QOL were assessed at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Results: Baseline blood samples were available for 53 participants (25 KK, 28 ML). The KK group showed significantly greater increases in Aβ40 than the ML group. TA rose in both groups, although increases were significant only among those with higher practice adherence and lower baseline TA. Changes in both TL and TA varied by their baseline values, with greater increases among participants with values ≤50th percentile (ps-interaction <0.006). Both groups improved in cognitive and psychosocial status (ps ≤0.05), with improvements in stress, mood, and QOL greater in the KK group. Rising Aβ levels were correlated with gains in cognitive function, mood, sleep, and QOL at both 3 and 6 months, associations that were particularly pronounced in the KK group. Increases in TL and TA were also correlated with improvements in certain cognitive and psychosocial measures. Conclusion: Practice of simple mind-body therapies may alter plasma Aβ levels, TL, and TA. Biomarker increases were associated with improvements in cognitive function, sleep, mood, and QOL, suggesting potential functional relationships.
... Both the VY and Taijifit™ groups experienced significant increases in muscle strength, muscle endurance, indices of functionality, and flexibility. These results are consistent with previous research demonstrating that yoga and Tai Chi can improve strength, endurance, balance, and flexibility [14][15][16][17][18][19]24,[33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43] as well as studies demonstrating yoga's benefits to walking, [16,44,45] lower body flexibility and endurance, and handgrip strength [46] and Tai Chi's benefits to run time (800/1000 m), [43] sit-and-reach flexibility, [34] and abdominal muscle strength. [42] The VY group experienced a greater increase in chest press and abdominal endurance compared to the Taijifit™ group, which may be related to training volume. ...
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Aims This study aimed to investigate the effects of online Vinyasa Yoga (VY) and Taijifit™ (12 weeks) in informal caregivers (≥18 years of age). Methods Twenty-nine participants were randomized to two groups: VY (n = 16, 55.87 ± 12.31 years) or Taijifit™ (n = 13, 55.07 ± 12.65 years). Main Outcome Measures Prior to and following the study, assessments were made for muscle strength (1-RM leg press, chest press, and handgrip), muscle endurance (leg press and chest press; maximal number of repetitions performed to fatigue at 80% and 70% baseline 1-RM, respectively), abdominal endurance (maximum number of consecutive curl-ups to fatigue), tasks of functionality (dynamic balance and walking speed), and flexibility (sit and reach). Results There was a significant increase over time for muscle strength, muscle endurance, tasks of functionality, and flexibility (P = 0.001). The VY group experienced a greater improvement in chest press endurance (VY: pre 19.25 ± 5.90, post 28.06 ± 7.60 reps; Taijifit™ pre 15.69 ± 4.49, post 21.07 ± 5.85 reps; P = 0.019) and abdominal endurance (VY: pre 37.12 ± 31.26, post 68.43 ± 55.07 reps; Taijifit™ pre 19.23 ± 19.00, post 32.07 ± 20.87 reps; P = 0.034) compared to the Taijifit™ group. Conclusions VY and Taijifit™ are effective for improving muscle strength and endurance, tasks of functionality, and flexibility in informal caregivers. VY led to greater gains in chest press endurance and abdominal curl-ups.
... At each follow-up visit, participants also recorded any changes in medication and/or supplement use and in exercise routines using a form specifically designed for this purpose. In addition, participants were asked to complete a 3and 6-month study evaluation questionnaire adapted from that used in our previous studies [45,58]. This survey included a single 5-point Likert scale item to assess change in concerns regarding memory. ...
Article
Background: While effective therapies for preventing or slowing cognitive decline in at-risk populations remain elusive, evidence suggests mind-body interventions may hold promise. Objectives: In this study, we assessed the effects of Kirtan Kriya meditation (KK) and music listening (ML) on cognitive outcomes in adults experiencing subjective cognitive decline (SCD), a strong predictor of Alzheimer's disease. Methods: Sixty participants with SCD were randomized to a KK or ML program and asked to practice 12 minutes/day for 3 months, then at their discretion for the ensuing 3 months. At baseline, 3 months, and 6 months we measured memory and cognitive functioning [Memory Functioning Questionnaire (MFQ), Trail-making Test (TMT-A/B), and Digit-Symbol Substitution Test (DSST)]. Results: The 6-month study was completed by 53 participants (88%). Participants performed an average of 93% (91% KK, 94% ML) of sessions in the first 3 months, and 71% (68% KK, 74% ML) during the 3-month, practice-optional, follow-up period. Both groups showed marked and significant improvements at 3 months in memory and cognitive performance (MFQ, DSST, TMT-A/B; p's ≤0.04). At 6 months, overall gains were maintained or improved (p's ≤ 0.006), with effect sizes ranging from medium (DSST, ML group) to large (DSST, KK group; TMT-A/B, MFQ). Changes were unrelated to treatment expectancies and did not differ by age, gender, baseline cognition scores, or other factors. Conclusions: Findings of this preliminary randomized controlled trial suggest practice of meditation or ML can significantly enhance both subjective memory function and objective cognitive performance in adults with SCD, and may offer promise for improving outcomes in this population.
... While HY yielded a significant improvement, SBE practice yielded a significant pre-post intervention impairment of gait function (see Figure 3). Findings corroborate that yoga programs tailored to older adults may offer an effective means of preventing or reducing age-related changes in gait function (Di Benedetto et al., 2005). The mindful approach that characterized the walking exercises of each HY session likely influenced gait function and walking tasks of the POMA tool, improving participants' awareness (Schmid et al., 2010). ...
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We tested the effects of Hatha Yoga and specific balance exercises on balance function and fear of falling in older adults living in nursing homes. Twenty-six older adults underwent either Hatha Yoga or simple balance exercises practice. Before, during, and after completing the two programmes, the performance-oriented mobility assessment tool and the Italian version of the falls efficacy scale international were administered to assess participants' balance function and fear of falling. Hatha Yoga practice yielded significant differences in balance function and fear of falling associated with low falls risk and reduced fear of falling. Specific balance exercises practice yielded significant differences only on balance function but with reduced performance-oriented mobility assessment tool scores associated with a greater falls risk. Accordingly, to improve the quality of life of older adults living in nursing homes, the practice of Hatha Yoga should be encouraged.
... On average, yoga expressed greater total hip ROM and hip flexor moments compared with activities of daily life (ADL) [3,32], suggesting that yoga should be studied further as a potential training modality to improve daily gait [28,33,34]. In addition, the knee abduction angle and abductor moments were greater in yoga than in ADL [30]. ...
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This study was aimed at exploring the biomechanical characteristics of the lower extremity amongst three typical yoga manoeuvres. A total of thirteen experienced female yoga practitioners were recruited in the current study; they were all certified with the Yoga Alliance. A three-dimensional motion capture system with 10 cameras combined with four synchronised force plates was used to collect kinematics of the lower extremity and ground reactive force whilst the participants performed the crescent lunge pose, warrior II pose, and triangle pose. One-way repeated ANOVA was used in exploring the differences amongst the three yoga movements, and the significance was set to alpha
... The definite mechanisms of how yoga helps in post-stroke rehabilitation are not lucidly understood. In physical domain, it enhances microcirculation in the joints and facilitates restoration of proper tone in the muscle fibers resulting in improvement of strength, range of motion and gait with a reduction in stiffness [42,43]. It further improves balance, coordination of fine and complex movements. ...
Chapter
The experience of stroke can significantly impact the physical health, psychosocial wellbeing of an individual. These consequences make the patients vulnerable to develop mental illnesses, ranging from dysthymia to as serious as severe depression with suicidal tendencies. There is a need for holistic therapies such as yoga-based lifestyle, which aim at improving quality of life on both physical and psychosocial domains. There is growing evidence indicating the potential use of yoga in improving an individual’s functional status post-stroke. This chapter aimed at reviewing the evidence for the effects of yoga in the prevention of stroke and its post-stroke rehabilitative potential. The literature suggests the need for integration of yoga therapy with the conventional treatment to curb the morbidity and mortality associated with stroke and its co-morbidities.
... Such a difference could be due to the exercise habits of the elderly population of India, with Indians of all age regularly practicing yoga as a cultural habit. Yoga has been found to significantly improve the flexibility in elderly population (Brown, et al. 2008;DiBenedetto, et al. 2005). Therefore, it is highly likely that the elderly population in the present study was more flexible than an elderly population of an occidental country. ...
Thesis
Falls concern a third of the people aged over 65y and lead to the loss of functional ability. The detection of risks factors of falls is essential for early intervention. Six intrinsic risk factors of fall: vision, vestibular system, joint range of motion, leg muscle strength, joint proprioception and foot cutaneous proprioception were assessed with clinical tests before and after temporarily degradation. Standing balance was recorded on a force plate.From the force plate, 198 parameters of the centre of pressure displacement were computed. The parameters were used as variables to build neural network and logistic regression model for discriminating conditions. Feature selection analysis was performed to reduce the number of variables.Several models were built including 3 to 10 conditions. Models with 5 or less conditions appeared acceptable but better performance was found with models including 3 conditions. The best accuracy was 92% for a model including ankle range of motion, fatigue and vision contrast conditions. Qualities of balance parameters were able to diagnose impairments. However, the efficient models included only a few conditions. Models with more conditions could be built but would require a larger number of cases to reach high accuracy. The study showed that a neural network or a logistic model could be used for the diagnosis of balance impairments. Such a tool could seriously improve the prevention and rehabilitation practice
... 25,26 The beneficial effects of yoga in patients with MS point to an improvement in body flexibility, balance, gait, and muscular strength, and reduction in anxiety and depression with cognition enhancement. [27][28][29] Other benefits of yoga in MS patients include positive outcomes at physical and psychological aspects, such as the decrease in pain, fatigue, 27 and bladder dysfunction, 30 and improvement in peak expiratory flow, 31 attention, 32 anxiety and depression, 33 and cognition. 34 ...
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Background Some investigations point to the beneficial effects of yoga in alleviating the motor and cognitive dysfunctions in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients by using varying combinations of physical, breathing, and meditative practices of yoga. There is a need for a validated yoga module with a holistic approach that can be used as a standardized protocol by researchers and therapists. Purpose To develop and validate an integrated yoga module for practice in relapsing–remitting MS patients to improve their quality of life. Methods We did a thorough review of the literature for the development of the yoga module. We formed an expert group with 24 experts and a neurologist and used two rounds of interactive Delphi method to combine their opinion to obtain content validity of the module through online structured questionnaire prepared for the purpose on a Google Form. We incorporated all suggestions obtained by the experts. The final module (60 min per session, twice a day, five days per week) included warm-up exercises, customized asanas, relaxation techniques, and OM meditation. Advice on yogic diet and discussion using yogic concepts for stress management also form a part of the holistic approach to yoga lifestyle modification. Results Analysis divulged that 30 out of 39 practices exhibited a content validity ratio value greater than or equal to 0.42. Conclusion The study has shown good content validity of the integrated yoga module. Future clinical studies are being planned to rule the feasibility and reliability of this module.
... A growing body of research suggests that yoga-based interventions are readily accepted by older adults and may improve health in this population. 10 The aim of study was to investigate the effect of the "Tree Pose (Vrksasana in Sanskrit)," one of the yoga poses that improves balance, on balance in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis when included in the conventional exercises as part of a home program. ...
Article
Objective: In this study the effect of the add-on effect of the tree pose (vrksasana), on the balance of patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis was investigated. Design: Thirty-two patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis were randomly assigned to conservative exercise group (EXE, 30-minutes/day 12-week) or tree pose added exercise group (EXE+YOGA, 30-minutes conventional exercise + 2-minutes tree pose/day 12-week) by Microsoft Excel randomization option. The balance of the patients were evaluated with berg balance scale, timed up&go test, single leg standing test, tandem walk test, tandem stance test, korebalance static&dynamic balance tests baseline, 6th week and at 3rd month of the exercise program. Results: There was no statistically significant difference on baseline data between groups. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in the 6th week measurement of single leg stance (p<.05). In the berg balance scale, static balance test, dynamic balance test and tandem walk tests, a statistically significant difference was found among baseline, 6th week and 12th week measurements in both the EXE group and the EXE+YOGA group. Conclusion: Gains in the static&dynamic balance of postmenopausal osteoporotic patients can be obtained by adding "vrksasana" to conventional exercises.
Chapter
This chapter is aimed to advance our understanding of lifestyle disorders which are one of the major health challenges in the post-modern era. Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) are often characterized by Dyslipidemia which is common to diseases like Stroke and Myocardial infarction. Sedentary lifestyle and lack of physical activity are one of the major reasons causing dyslipidemia. Several diseases, including those of cardiovascular origin, such as arterial dyslipidemia, coronary heart disease, hypertension, stroke, congestive heart failure, result from dyslipidemia which is the common denominator. In dyslipidemia, the lipid levels are altered and are often characterized as an epidemic in both developing as well as the developed countries which increases stroke propensity. Health risks that lead to cardiovascular diseases and stroke involve huge economic burden. In such a scenario, Yoga is often proposed as an easy, effective, and alternative approach that has the potential to reduce health risks. It may also reduce the risk of dyslipidemia and other co-morbid diseases like stroke and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, physical activities like Yoga, combined with the associated reduction in psychological stress, may be the preferred intervention in the management of NCDs, especially cardiovascular diseases. Although physical activity improves the health of individuals and enables prevention from diseases, as per the American Heart Association, the lifestyle changes must also include a healthy diet and exercise, which can favorably alter the cholesterol levels in adults.
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Context: Analysis the impact of Yogic Practices and Aerobic Exercises on Flexibility among children with Down syndrome. Aim: This study aims to identify the effect of Yogic Practices and Aerobic Exercises on Flexibility among children with Down syndrome. Research Design : Random group design was used as research design. Material and Methods : 30 down syndrome boys age group 12 to 18 years have been selected for as final samples for further data collection process of the study. Subjects for study have been chosen from Anugragha special school Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India. The subjects were divided into three groups, namely Yogic practice group, Aerobic exercise group, and control group, each group consisting of 10 subjects. The subjects were divided into three groups, namely Yogic practice group, Aerobic exercise group, and control group, each group consisting of 10 subjects. The study was conducted on dependent variables such as flexibility.
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Quickly rising in the Western world as a discipline for incorporating the psyche and body into association and amicability, when embraced as a lifestyle, yoga works on physical, mental, scholarly, and otherworldly wellbeing. Yoga offers a powerful technique for overseeing and diminishing pressure, tension, and melancholy and various investigations exhibit the adequacy of yoga on disposition-related issues. The discoveries of the previously mentioned consider analysing the mental and actual results of yoga demonstrate hard, to sum up and make substantial inferences because of variety in the examination plans, contrasts in the length and recurrence of yoga classes, and contrasts in the particular yoga projects and populaces being contemplated. Regardless, results for the included investigations exhibit a large number of the various restorative impacts, benefits, and significant mending force of yoga.
Thesis
Preventing mobility disability is necessary for maintaining independent function in old age and it is well documented that various types of exercise interventions can improve walking speed in old age. However, the underlying biomechanical mechanisms of how interventions improve old adults’ gait velocity are unknown. To increase the efficacy of interventions that aim to improve walking performance and other critical mobility functions in old adults, there is a need for a paradigm shift from conventional outcome assessments (i.e., walking speed) to more sophisticated biomechanical analyses that examine joint kinematics, kinetics, and neuromuscular activation before and after interventions. This thesis aims to determine the biomechanical mechanisms how exercise and, in particular lower extremity power training, improves walking speed in old age. Based on a literature review, candidate mechanisms for how strength or power training evoke adaptations in gait biomechanics that potentially underlie training-induced increases in old adults’ walking speed are discussed. Subsequently, this thesis provides a detailed description of the design and methodology of the Potsdam Gait Study (POGS); a randomized controlled trial that examines the effects of 10 weeks of lower extremity power training on a series of biomechanical and neuromuscular outcome measures during level gait. The second half of the current thesis presents and discusses the results of POGS on stride characteristics, joint kinematics, joint kinetics, and muscle activation. Overall, the current thesis is the first to comprehensively study power training-induced adaptations in gait biomechanics that potentially underlie increases in old adults’ walking speed.
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ABSTRACT Background and Aim: One of the main causes of death in the elderly is related to the injuries from falls during walking. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of 6 weeks of balance training on kinematic compatibility of hips, knees, and ankles joints during walking in elderly women. Materials and Methods: In the current semi-experimental study, 20 elderly women with the age range of 60-75 (67.72± 4.48 ages) were selected based on convenience sampling procedure to participate in the present study. The participants were randomly divided into control and experiment groups. Participants in each group took a walking test in a pre-test session followed by a post-test after 6 weeks . Participants in the experimental group performed the balance training systematically for 3 sessions in a week. Overall, they were trained for 18 sessions of balance training (including various modes of standing and walking) based on the decided protocol. Making use of motion analysis system, Kinematic features of the walking such as range of motion of hip, knee and ankle joints were collected and analyzed using the Cortex software. Repetitive ANOVA (2 × 2) was run for the purpose of data analysis. Results: The results of the present study showed significant improvement in range of motion of hip joint (p=0.03) in elderly women of the experiment group compared with that in the control group. Although the variables range of motion of knee (p=0.12) and ankle (p=0.28) joints increased in the experiment group, these increases were not significant in comparison with that in the control group. Conclusion: The results revealed that kinematic compatibility of hip joint in older women is affected by 6 weeks of balance training. Therefore, it can be suggested that this balance training intervention could be an effective approach to ameliorate the risk factors for falls and to promote safer locomotion in elderly community-dwelling women. Key words: Walking; Elderly woman; Balances training; Range of motion of joints
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Background and Aim: One of the main causes of death in the elderly is related to the injuries from falls during walking. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of 6 weeks of balance training on kinematic compatibility of hips, knees, and ankles joints during walking in elderly women. Materials and Methods: In the current semi-experimental study, 20 elderly women with the age range of 60-75 (67.72± 4.48 ages) were selected based on convenience sampling procedure to participate in the present study. The participants were randomly divided into control and experiment groups. Participants in each group took a walking test in a pre-test session followed by a post-test after 6 weeks. Participants in the experimental group performed the balance training systematically for 3 sessions in a week. Overall, they were trained for 18 sessions of balance training (including various modes of standing and walking) based on the decided protocol. Making use of motion analysis system, Kinematic features of the walking such as range of motion of hip, knee and ankle joints were collected and analyzed using the Cortex software. Repetitive ANOVA (2 × 2) was run for the purpose of data analysis. Results: The results of the present study showed significant improvement in range of motion of hip joint (p=0.03) in elderly women of the experiment group compared with that in the control group. Although the variables range of motion of knee (p=0.12) and ankle (p=0.28) joints increased in the experiment group, these increases were not significant in comparison with that in the control group. Conclusion: The results revealed that kinematic compatibility of hip joint in older women is affected by 6 weeks of balance training. Therefore, it can be suggested that this balance training intervention could be an effective approach to ameliorate the risk factors for falls and to promote safer locomotion in elderly community-dwelling women.
Article
Objectives: The primary objectives of this pilot trial were to assess the study feasibility and acceptability of the 12-week yoga and educational film programs for the management of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in preparation for a future randomized controlled trial (RCT). Materials and Methods: This pilot, parallel-arm, randomized feasibility trial was conducted at two sites, Morgantown, WV and Columbus, OH. Yoga group participants attended 75-min Iyengar yoga classes, twice weekly for 4 weeks, then once a week for 8 weeks (16 total classes), and completed a 30-min homework routine on nonclass days. Educational film group participants attended once weekly, 75-min classes (12 total classes), which included information on RLS and other sleep disorders, RLS management including sleep hygiene practices, and complementary therapies. Feasibility and acceptability outcomes included program satisfaction and recruitment, retention, and adherence rates. In addition, participants were asked their preferences regarding three yoga class schedule scenarios for a future study. Attendance, yoga, and treatment logs were collected weekly. Program evaluation and yoga scheduling questionnaires were collected at week 12. Results: Forty-one adults with moderate to severe RLS were randomized to a 12-week yoga (n = 19) or educational film (n = 22) program. Thirty participants (73%) completed the program. Yoga and education group participants attended an average of 13.0 ± 0.84 (81%) and 10.3 ± 0.3 classes (85%), respectively. Participants from both groups indicated satisfaction with the study. All yoga group respondents to the program evaluation reported they would likely (n = 6) or very likely (n = 7) continue yoga practice; 86.7% of education group respondents (13 of 15) indicated that they were likely (n = 7) or very likely (n = 6) to make lasting changes based on what they had learned. The preferred schedule for a future study was a 16-week study with once-weekly yoga classes. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that a larger RCT comparing yoga with an educational film group for the management of RLS is feasible. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT03570515; 02/01/2017.
Article
Introduction: Home-based physical activity has several advantages, considering the barriers that adults encounter to site-based studies (i.e., travel, time, weather). Mind-body interventions (MBIs) have the potential to not only improve cognitive and emotional regulation, but also affect functional fitness via gentle muscular movements and exercises. The purpose of this scoping review was to review the evidence for MBIs that incorporate a home-based component to improve functional fitness outcomes (FFO). Given the variety of populations studied, varied structure and style of the interventions, and various FFOs tested, a scoping review was identified as the most appropriate approach. Methods: For this scoping review, we searched the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, SportDiscus, PsycInfo and Cochrane Library using keywords related to MBIs with a home-based component, FFOs, and adults from inception to May 2021. Results: We found 1,569 results and 14 studies met our inclusion criteria - 5 on Tai-chi, 5 on Yoga, 3 on Dance and 1 on Tai-chi and Yoga. Within the studies, 10 measured balance, 9 mobility, 4 fall risk, 4 strength and 2 flexibility. Study participants included healthy and clinical samples. The interventions ranged 6-17 weeks with home exercise ranging 1-5 days/week. Home instruction was delivered via video (10), handouts (4), and live instruction (3). On-site MBIs were supplemented by home-based exercise instruction in 12 studies. Twelve of the 14 studies observed significant improvements in FFOs. Conclusion: Only 4 of the 14 studies included a fully-home based MBI. Although each one of them showed significant effects on their respective FFOs, more studies are needed to compare their efficacy against on-site MBIs. Future research on fully home-based MBIs is needed as they could offer many advantages over in-person interventions in terms of fewer barriers, accessibility, cost-effectiveness and could be more sustainable over time.
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The objective of this study is to assess the findings of selected articles regarding the therapeutic effects of yoga and to provide a comprehensive review of the benefits of regular yoga practice. As participation rates in mind-body fitness programs such as yoga continue to increase, it is impor tant for health care professionals to be informed about the nature of yoga and the evidence of its many therapeutic effects. Thus, this manuscript provides information regarding the therapeutic effects of yoga as it has been studied in various populations concerning a multitude of different ailments and conditions. Therapeutic yoga is defined as the application of yoga postures and practice to the treatment of health conditions and involves instruction in yogic practices and teachings to prevent reduce or alleviate structural, physiological, emotional and spiritual pain, suffering or limitations. Results from this study show that yogic practices enhance muscular strength and body flexibility, promote and improve respiratory and cardiovascular function, promote recovery from and treatment of ad diction, reduce stress, anxiety, depression, and chronic pain, improve sleep patterns, and enhance overall well-being and quality of life.
Article
The goal of any rehabilitation process is to return individuals who have suffered an injury back to maximal function and independence thereby improving their overall quality of life. However, once a patient is discharged from therapy, the client is now on their own to continue to improve strength, mobility, and functionality. In some cases, individuals may seek out help from personal trainers to assist in the post-rehabilitation process. During rehabilitation, traditional exercises may not be appropriate. Using advice from the rehabilitation and medical team, the personal trainer may opt to provide similar training practices used within the physical therapy setting. For example, during the rehabilitation process, clients are exposed to a multitude of training modalities (e.g., mirror training, electrical stimulation, instability training) based upon the client’s individual needs. While some of these practices are outside the scope of the personal trainer (e.g., electrical stimulation), one such training style, known as cross-education (CE), or cross-transfer effect, can be safely implemented within fitness or home-based settings.
Article
Despite the positive benefits of physical activity (PA), ~53% of adults ≥65 fall under the category of sedentary making structured exercise (e.g., aerobic activity and strength training) essential for healthy aging. As we age, particularly above 65, individuals begin to experience significant losses in muscle mass, strength, power, and bone mineral density. With enough loss, these changes can lead to bone or joint disorders, as well as an increased risk of falls relating to instability and loss of balance. While aging is inevitable, it is evident that increasing PA can aid in improvements in overall health and well-being throughout the later years. Traditionally, the most common methods to elicit positive health benefits (e.g., increases in cardiovascular and skeletal muscle health, and reductions in chronic disease incidence) include jogging, cycling, swimming, and weight lifting. However, due to a lack of mobility, increased fragility, and biomechanical complexity of specific movements these activities may present a challenge to older adults. Thus, less common, alternative forms of low-impact exercise may allow older adults with limited abilities and conditions to meet the recommended guidelines for PA without the high-impact and stress of traditional activities. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to discuss the various types of low-impact activities and their associated cardiovascular and musculoskeletal benefits.
Article
Aim To investigate impact of Yoga and Music Intervention on anxiety, stress, and depression levels of health care workers during the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods This study was conducted to assess psychological responses of 240 healthcare workers during COVID-19 outbreak. We used Yoga and Music Intervention in normal and abnormal subjects based on Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-42 (DASS-42). Results Of all 209 participants, 105 (50.23%) had symptoms of depression (35.88%), anxiety (40.19), and stress (34.92%) alone or in combination. The data suggest that there is significant improvement in test scores after intervention. Majority of persons with abnormal score exhibited improved DASS-42 score on combined interventions of Yoga and music compared to control group. Even subjects without abnormalities on DASS-42 score also showed improved DASS-42 scores in intervention ( n = 52) group compared to nonintervention ( n = 52) group. Conclusions Our findings highlighted the significance of easily available, simple, inexpensive, safe nonpharmacological interventions like Yoga and Music therapy to overcome stress, anxiety, and depression in present times.
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Abstract Background & Aim: Physical activity has an important role in the length of life of hemodialysis patients. Some complementary interventions such as relaxation technique might be effective on the level of physical activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Benson’s relaxation technique on physical activity of hemodialysis patients. Material & Methods: It was a randomized controlled trial that was carried out in the hemodialysis units of Shiraz University of Medical sciences. Eighty six hemodialysis patients were randomly assigned to Benson’s relaxation technique group (n =43) and control group (n=43). The technique was performed in experimenmtal group for 20 min, twice a day for 8 consecutive weeks. Physical activity was assessed by the "Daily Living Activity (ADL)" and "Instrumental Daily Living Activity (IADL)" scale in both groups at baseline and 8 weeks after intervention. Data were analyzed with independent and dependent samples t–test, and chi–square using SPSS-PC (v.16). Results: Before the intervention, the mean score of ADL in intervention and control groups was 12.53 (2.54) and 12.30 (2.78), respectively. However, at the 8th week of the intervention, the mean score of ADL in the intervention group was 13.42 (1.44) and in the control was 11.74 (3.45). The results of independent samples t–test showed a significant difference between ADL of the groups (t=2.83, P=0.006). In addition, the mean score of IADL at the beginning of study in intervention and control group was 14.36 (4.36) and 12.04 (6.01) and at 8th week of intervention, it was 15.62 (3.77) and 12.00 (5.77), respectively. A significant difference was observed between two groups regarding the IADL scale at the 8th week of the intervention (t=3.29, P=0.001). Conclusion: The findings suggest beneficial effects of Benson’s relaxation technique on the improvement of physical activity in hemodialysis patients. Therefore, teaching relaxation techniques could serve as a resource for improving the levels of physical activity.
Article
AIM : To study the effects of yoga on various systems of Human Body. The objective of this study is to provide a comprehensive review of benefits of regular Yoga practice on various system of body. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION:It is important for health care professionals to be informed about nature of Yoga and evidence of its many therapeutic effects. Yoga has been practiced in India since time immemorial. In ancient Indian medicinal system, Yoga practice is described as the link between an individual and universe. It is considered to be means for physical, mental and spiritual growth of an entity. With increasing research evidence, OBSERVATION : Yoga has been emerging as a powerful tool to achieve good state of health both at physical and mental levels. Yoga includes physical postures, regulated breathing (Pranayam), Meditation (Dhyan) and relaxation which is helpful in improving lifestyle and also in bringing down prevalence of medical emergencies like psychological, neurological and metabolic disorders. Moreover it helps people to remain happy and healthy even in stressful conditions. RESULTS : Results show that Yoga enhance strength and flexibility, promote and improve respiratory and cardiovascular function, improve digestive system, reproductive system, improve immunity, improve Sleep patterns, reduce stress, anxiety depression and enhance overall well-being and quality of life.
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Increasing life expectancies have resulted in global aging of the population. Because of physiological changes associated with aging, older adults are more vulnerable to developing chronic diseases and disability. Multimorbidity with two or more aging and stress-related conditions occurs in more than half of older adults. The use of polypharmacy for multiple disorders increases risks of adverse reactions. Mind-body medicine uses ancient Eastern practices like yoga and meditation to achieve balance between mind, body and spirit. The US National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) showed the growing popularity of yoga practice in people aged 65 and over. The use of mind-body therapies like yoga could supplement conventional medicine in management of mild-moderate mental and physical symptoms. Yoga therapy empowers individuals to take responsibility for own health and is ideal for preventing chronic stress-related disorders of aging because of low-cost and improved safety profile.
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Background: Evidence suggests yoga is a safe and effective intervention for the management of physical and psychosocial symptoms associated with neurological conditions. However, heterogeneity in the components and reporting of clinical yoga trials impedes both the generalization of study results and the replication of study protocols. The aim of this Delphi survey was to address these issues of heterogeneity, by developing a list of recommendations of key components for the design and reporting of yoga interventions for neurological conditions. Methods: Recognized experts involved in the design, conduct, and teaching of yoga for neurological conditions were identified, and invited to contribute to the Delphi survey. 12 of the 38 experts contacted agreed to participate. Round 1 presented an open-ended question, allowing panelists to individually identify components they considered key to the design and reporting of yoga interventions for neurological conditions. Results: Twelve panelists completed the one round of the Delphi survey. Panelists provided 35 comments to the Round 1 question. These comments were then reduced to 13 items such as breathing exercises, posture, cognition, meditation, balance, etc. Conclusions: Expert have provided a non-prescriptive reference list for the design and reporting of yoga interventions for neurological conditions. It is anticipated that future research incorporating the Delphi guidelines will facilitate high quality international research in this field, increase homogeneity of intervention components and parameters, and enhance the comparison and reproducibility of research into the use of yoga for the management of neurological conditions. KEY WORDS: Yoga, neurological conditions, Delphi
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Notes on Anatomy & Physiology for Yoga Education compiled and edited by Dr Ananda with assistance of Ramya Pillutla and Sri G Dayanidy at CYTER
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Background Yoga movements involve a series of motions of the core and lower limb muscles that require constant body adjustments to maintain balance and proper body alignment. Inertial measurement unit, a wearable device that is consisted of 3-axis accelerometers, 3-axis gyroscopes and 3-axis magnetometers, can provide objective data for motion analysis. This study aimed to investigate gait symmetry and single-leg stance balance of professional yoga instructors versus age-matched normal controls using inertial measurement unit (IMU) - based evaluation. Methods Twenty-five yoga instructors and twenty-five healthy control subjects were recruited to conduct the walking experiments and single-leg stance tests. Kinematic data were measured by attaching IMUs to the lower limbs and trunk. The asymmetry of swing phases during gait cycles was assessed using the normal walk and tandem walk tests with eyes open and closed, respectively. The subjects subsequently conducted four single-leg stance tests, including a single-leg stance on both legs with eyes open and closed. Two balance indexes regarding the angular velocities of the waist and chest were defined to assess postural stability. Results The gait asymmetry indexes of yoga instructors were significantly lower than those of the normal controls on normal walk and open-eye tandem walk tests. The asymmetry indexes also showed a smaller value in the yoga instructors on close-eye tandem gait; however, it did not reach statistical significance. Similarly, the yoga instructors had better body balance, that is, smaller angular velocities on both the waist and chest, in all four single-leg stance tests. This indicates superior postural stability over both the waist and chest levels of yoga instructors during the single-leg stance. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that yoga practice improves gait asymmetry and balance ability in healthy adults. However, further intervention studies are needed to confirm the effect of yoga training. Trial Registration: This study was registered with an ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT05449730.
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This article discusses the proper classification of workers as employees or independent contractors.
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With the advent of social media platforms, followers are quick to trust fitness enthusiasts and unqualified personal trainers with generalized workouts that are “guaranteed” to work. These generalized workout regimens often propose substantial benefits to the cardiovascular or muscular system with the assumption of similar individual responses within the general population. However, despite identical nutrition and workout regimens, large variations in exercise adaptation can fluctuate between individuals due to various genetic and lifestyle factors (5,21). Thus, universal workouts lack a key component when prescribing an optimal training program (i.e., inter-individual variation).
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Abnormal joint mobility is an important factor in movement dysfunction and physical disability. Because the decision to treat impaired joint mobility in an older individual may be influenced by assumptions concerning normal range of motion (ROM) at older ages, it is important to establish population-based normative values for hip and knee ROM by age, race, and sex. This study used data from the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1), which involved a national probability sample of persons drawn from the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States. Goniometric measurements of hip and knee active range of motion (AROM) were obtained from a subset of the sample consisting of 1,892 subjects. This analysis was limited to the 1,313 white and 370 black subjects. Univariate statistics, weighted by the probability of selection into the sample, were calculated for 12 sex-race-age-group-specific categories. These normal AROM values for the hip and knee calculated from this population based sample were found to differ from estimates found in textbooks by as much as 18 degrees. With one exception, normal values for all motions were lower in the oldest age group than in the youngest age group. The differences in mean AROM were generally small, ranging from 3 to 5 degrees. Only in the case of hip extension did the difference in mean AROM between the youngest and the oldest age groups constitute a decline of more than 20% of the arc of motion. With the possible exception of hip extension, this study supports the conclusion that, at least to age 74 years, any substantial loss of joint mobility should be viewed as abnormal and not attributable to aging and therefore should be treated much as it would be in a younger individual.
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This study was undertaken to determine (a) whether a program of regular exercise can improve gait patterns in older women, and (b) whether any such improvement in gait is mediated by increased lower limb muscle strength. A 22-week randomized controlled trial of exercise was conducted as part of the Randwick Falls and Fractures Study in Sydney, Australia. Subjects were 160 women aged 60-83 years (Mean age 71.1, SD = 5.2) who were randomly recruited from the community. Exercise and control subjects were tested prior to and at the end of the trial. At initial testing, exercisers and controls performed similarly in the strength and gait parameters. They were well matched in terms of age and a number of health and life-style characteristics. At the end of the trial, the exercise subjects showed improved strength in five lower limb muscle groups, increased walking speed, cadence, stride length, and shorter stride times as indicated by both reduced swing and stance duration. There were no significant improvements in any of the strength or gait parameters in the controls. Within the exercise group, increased cadence was associated with improved ankle dorsiflexion strength, and increased stride length was associated with improved hip extension strength. Exercise subjects with initial slow walking speed showed greater changes in velocity, stride length, cadence, and stance duration than those with initial fast walking speed. These findings show that exercise can increase gait velocity and related parameters in older persons, and that part of this increase may be mediated by improved lower limb muscle strength.
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The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of measurements obtained with a seven-item modified version of the Gait Abnormality Rating Scale (GARS-M), an assessment of gait designed to predict risk of falling among community-dwelling, frail older persons. Fifty-two community-dwelling, frail older persons, with a mean age of 74.8 years (SD = 6.75), participated. A history of falls was determined from self-report or by proxy report. The GARS-M was scored from videotapes of subjects walking at self-selected paces. Gait characteristics were recorded during a timed walk on a 6-m brown-paper walkway. Scores obtained by three raters for 23 subjects demonstrated moderate to substantial intrarater and interrater reliability. Concurrent validity, as assessed by Spearman rank-order correlation coefficients, was demonstrated for the relationship between GARS-M scores and stride length (r = -.754) and for the relationship between GARS-M scores and walking speed (r = -.679). Mean GARS-M scores distinguished between frail older persons with and without a history of recurrent falls (mean GARS-M scores of 9.0 and 3.8, respectively). The GARS-M is a reliable and valid measure for documenting gait features associated with an increased risk of falling among community-dwelling, frail older persons and may provide a clinically useful alternative to established quantitative gait-assessment methods.
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The present study was conducted to determine whether breathing through a particular nostril has a lateralized effect on hand grip strength. 130 right hand dominant, school children between 11 and 18 yrs of age were randomly assigned to 5 groups. Each group had a specific yoga practice in addition to the regular program for a 10 day yoga camp. The practices were: (1) right-, (2) left-, (3) alternate- nostril breathing (4), breath awareness and (5) practice of mudras. Hand grip strength of both hands was assessed initially and at the end of 10 days for all 5 groups. The right-, left- and alternate-nostril breathing groups had a significant increase in grip strength of both hands, ranging from 4.1% to 6.5%, at the end of the camp though without any lateralization effect. The breath awareness and mudra groups showed no change. Hence the present results suggest that yoga breathing through a particular nostril, or through alternate nostrils increases hand grip strength of both hands without lateralization.
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The study tested the effect of strength and endurance training on gait, balance, physical health status, fall risk, and health services use in older adults. The study was a single-blinded, randomized controlled trial with intention-to-treat analysis. Adults (n = 105) age 68-85 with at least mild deficits in strength and balance were selected from a random sample of enrollees in a health maintenance organization. The intervention was supervised exercise (1-h sessions, three per week, for 24-26 weeks), followed by self-supervised exercise. Exercise groups included strength training using weight machines (n = 25), endurance training using bicycles (n = 25), and strength and endurance training (n = 25). Study outcomes included gait tests, balance tests, physical health status measures, self-reported falls (up to 25 months of follow-up), and inpatient and outpatient use and costs. There were no effects of exercise on gait, balance, or physical health status. Exercise had a protective effect on risk of falling (relative hazard = .53, 95% CI = .30-.91). Between 7 and 18 months after randomization, control subjects had more outpatient clinic visits (p < .06) and were more likely to sustain hospital costs over $5000 (p < .05). Exercise may have beneficial effects on fall rates and health care use in some subgroups of older adults. In community-living adults with mainly mild impairments in gait, balance, and physical health status, short-term exercise may not have a restorative effect on these impairments.
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there are few longitudinal studies of the prognosis of falling at home. to determine outcomes in older people who fall once and more than once. longitudinal prospective cohort study. primary care in the UK. 1815 subjects over 75 who had a standardized and validated health check. annual interviews over 4 years. Practice records were used to establish death and admission to institutions. risk of death was increased at 1 year [odds ratio (OR) 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-4.7] and 3 years (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-3.0) for recurrent fallers but not single fallers (OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.5-1.6 at 1 year; OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.7-1.4 at 3 years). Risk of admission to long-term care over 1 year was markedly increased both for single fallers (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.8-8.3) and recurrent fallers (OR 4.5, 95% CI 1.7-12). Functional decline was not related to faller status, the latter being very variable from one year to the next. the stronger relationship between falling and admission to long-term care rather than mortality supports the hypothesis that the perceived risks for those who fall only once are exaggerated.
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Physical activity programs in nursing homes typically consist of seated, range of motion (ROM) exercises, regardless of resident abilities. The Functional Fitness for Long-Term Care (FFLTC) Program was designed not only to maintain ROM, but also to improve strength, balance, flexibility, mobility, and function. In addition, it was tailored to meet the needs of both high and low mobility residents. The feasibility and efficacy of the FFLTC Program were evaluated with 68 residents (mean age 80) from five institutions. Persons were classified as low or high mobility and randomized into either the FFLTC program or a seated ROM program. Classes were conducted in groups of 4 to 10 residents by trained facility staff for 45 minutes, three times per week. Assessments at baseline and 4 months consisted of mobility, balance, gait, flexibility, functional capacity, and several upper and lower extremity strength measures. Attendance averaged 86% for the FFLTC and 79% for the ROM classes. Four months of exercise led to significant improvements in mobility (16%), balance (9%), flexibility (36%), knee (55%), and hip (12%) strength for the FFLTC group. Shoulder strength was the only improvement found for the ROM group. The ROM group significantly deteriorated in some areas, particularly hip strength, mobility, and functional ability. Institutionalized seniors, even those who are physically frail, incontinent and/or have mild dementia, can respond positively to a challenging exercise program. The FFLTC program demonstrated clear benefits over typical, seated ROM exercises. Moreover, with minimal training, the program can be safely delivered at low cost by institutional staff and volunteers.
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To assess the effectiveness of exercise programmes in preventing falls (and/or lowering the risk of falls and fall related injuries) in older people. A review of controlled clinical trials designed with the aim of lowering the risk of falling and/or fall injuries through an exercise only intervention or an intervention that included an exercise component. Falls, fall related injuries, time between falls, costs, cost effectiveness. A total of 4933 men and women aged 60 years and older. Eleven trials meeting the criteria for inclusion were reviewed. Eight of these trials had separate exercise interventions, and three used interventions with an exercise programme component. Five trials showed a significant reduction in the rate of falls or the risk of falling in the intervention group. Exercise is effective in lowering falls risk in selected groups and should form part of falls prevention programmes. Lowering fall related injuries will reduce health care costs but there is little available information on the costs associated with programme replication or the cost effectiveness of exercise programmes aimed at preventing falls in older people.
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The present study aimed at assessing the effects of a set of yoga practices on normal adults (n = 37), children (n = 86), and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (n = 20). An equal number of normal adults, children, and patients with rheumatoid arthritis who did not practice yoga were studied under each category, forming respective control groups. Yoga and control group subjects were assessed at baseline and after varying intervals, as follows, adults after 30 days, children after 10 days and patients after 15 days, based on the duration of the yoga program, which they attended, which was already fixed. Hand grip strength of both hands, measured with a grip dynamometer, increased in normal adults and children, and in rheumatoid arthritis patients, following yoga, but not in the corresponding control groups, showing no re-test effect. Adult female volunteers and patients showed a greater percentage improvement than corresponding adult males. This gender-based difference was not observed in children. Hence yoga practice improves hand grip strength in normal persons and in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, though the magnitude of improvement varies with factors such as gender and age.
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The optimal prevention of osteoporotic fractures in the elderly consists of increasing the bone density and preventing falls. We report on the efficacy of training program to promote ambulatory competence in elderly women. Twenty-five elderly women were enrolled in our training program, which is a three-month program consisting of dynamic balance training with Galileo 900 (Novotec, Pforzheim, Germany) once a week, combined with daily static balance (standing on one leg like a flamingo) and resistance (half-squat) training. The mean age of the participants was 72.8 years (range, 61-86 years). After 3 months of training, the step length, knee extensor muscle strength, and maximum standing time on one leg were significantly increased, while the walking speed and hip flexor muscle strength were not significantly altered. During the study period, no serious adverse events such as new vertebral fractures or adverse cardiovascular symptoms were observed in any participant. The present preliminary study shows that our training program may have the potential to promote ambulatory competence in elderly women.
Article
Objective: To assess the effectiveness of exercise programmes in preventing falls (and/or lowering the risk of falls and fall related injuries) in older people. Design: A review of controlled clinical trials designed with the aim of lowering the risk of falling and/or fall injuries through an exercise only intervention or an intervention that included an exercise component. Main outcome measures: Falls, fall related injuries, time between falls, costs, cost effectiveness. Subjects: A total of 4933 men and women aged 60 years and older. Results: Eleven trials meeting the criteria for inclusion were reviewed. Eight of these trials had separate exercise interventions, and three used interventions with an exercise programme component. Five trials showed a significant reduction in the rate of falls or the risk of falling in the intervention group. Conclusions: Exercise is effective in lowering falls risk in selected groups and should form part of falls prevention programmes. Lowering fall related injuries will reduce health care costs but there is little available information on the costs associated with programme replication or the cost effectiveness of exercise programmes aimed at preventing falls in older people.
Article
Presents an approach for the meta-analysis of data from pretest–posttest designs. With this approach, data from studies using different designs may be compared directly and studies without control groups do not need to be omitted. The approach is based on a standardized mean-change measure, computed for each sample within a study, and it involves analysis of the standardized mean changes and differences in the standardized mean changes. Analyses are illustrated using results of studies of the effectiveness of mental practice on motor-skill development (e.g., D. Feltz and D. M. Landers [see PA, Vol 71:325]). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Hip flexion contractures are a common complication in disabled patients. However, no previous study has examined reduced hip motion during gait. This retrospective analysis evaluates the relationship between the degree of hip flexion contracture found on static testing and the degree found during gait and also assesses the strength of the association between hip flexion contractures and compensatory mechanisms such as anterior pelvic tilting, increased knee flexion, and decreased contralateral step length. Clinical and quantitative gait laboratory data were obtained from 41 consecutive patients with mostly neurologically based impairments who presented with bilateral hip flexion contractures on Thomas testing (82 limbs). Correlation studies demonstrated a relatively weak association between the degree of peak hip extension during gait and hip flexion contracture by Thomas testing (r = 0.41, P < 0.0001). Limited hip extension was most closely associated with anterior pelvic tilting (r = 0.60, P < 0.0001), whereas Thomas test measurements yielded a correlation with anterior pelvic tilt of only r = 0.36 (P< 0.001) and were insignificant predictor variables of anterior pelvic tilting in regression analysis. Thus, peak hip extension and anterior pelvic tilting assessed during gait were poorly associated with the static Thomas test measurements, and anterior pelvic tilt was most strongly correlated with reduced hip extension during gait compared with the other compensatory mechanisms.
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine whether a moderate to high intensity strengthening and aerobic exercise program can improve the strength, exercise capacity, gait and balance of deconditioned male nursing home residents. Ambulatory subjects who scored 30 or less on the modified Tinetti gait and balance assessment scale, who demonstrated less than 80% of age-matched lower extremity strength on isokinetic muscle testing and who gave informed consent were enrolled. Subjects were randomized to either an exercise (n = 8) or a control (n = 6) group. All participants underwent an exercise test to determine maximal oxygen uptake (Vo2max) and received quantitative gait and balance measurements. The subjects assigned to the exercise group then completed a 12-wk program of weight training for the lower extremities and stationary cycling. Both the exercise and control groups were then retested. Ten outcome variables were assessed: Tinetti mobility scores, Vo2max, isokinetic-tested lower extremity strength and endurance, stride length, gait velocity, stance time, gait duration, cadence and balance. The exercise group, after completion of the program, demonstrated significant improvements in Tinetti mobility scores (P < 0.05), combined right and left quadricep muscle strength (P < 0.01), right and left lower extremity muscular endurance (P < 0.01), left stride length and gait velocity (P < 0.05), although other outcome variables changed insignificantly. The control group revealed no changes of significance with the exception of improvement of the combined right and left hamstring muscle strength (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, for those outcome variables that had improved significantly in the exercise group, the changes amounted to only a 5 to 10% increase over the baseline measurements. These findings showed that an appropriately designed high intensity exercise program can result in significant although limited improvements for clinical mobility scores, strength, muscular endurance and certain gait parameters. (C) Williams & Wilkins 1992. All Rights Reserved.
Article
The civilization of India has produced a great variety of systems of spiritual beliefs and practices. Ancient seers used yoga as a means to explore the exterior and interior world and, perhaps, ultimately to achieve wisdom and knowledge of the sacred Indian texts: the Vedas, Upanishads, and Shastras.6 These great teachers, or gurus, did not equate yoga with religion but more as an art of living at the highest level in attunement with the larger life–reality. The emphasis in yoga was on personal verification rather than on belief. The practice of yoga was a way to inner joy and outer harmony.The Sanskrit word “yoga” comes from the root yug (to join), or yoke (to bind together or to concentrate). Essentially, however, the word “yoga” has come to describe a means of uniting or a method of discipline: to join the body to the mind and together join to the self (soul), or the union between the individual self and the transcendental self. Yoga comes from an oral tradition in which teaching was transmitted from teacher to student. The Indian sage Patanjali, called “The Father of Yoga, ” collated this oral tradition in his classic work The Yoga Sutras, a 2000-year-old treatise on yogic philosophy. He defines yoga as “that which restrains the thought process and makes the mind serene.” Patanjali suggests that ethics (yama and niyama) is the way to cleanse the mind, body, and spirit. He emphasizes a more psychological approach to healing and self-realization. The body's organs and systems are to be cleansed first through asanas (postures) and pranayama (controlling the breath).13 The Sutras provide guidance on how to gain mastery over the mind and emotions and how to achieve spiritual growth. The code of conduct includes the practice of the highest human virtues like ahimsa (noninjury) and satya (truth), and the promotion of the noblest feelings like amity and compassion.2Initially, the discipline of hatha yoga used in the studies described later was developed as a means for meditation: preparing the body and the nervous system for stillness. Physical strength and stamina developed by asanas and pranayama allowed the mind to remain calm. The word “hatha” can be divided into two words: ha (sun) and tha (moon). The common interpretation of hatha yoga is a union of the pairs of opposites. Hatha yoga, the yoga of activity, addresses the body and mind and requires discipline and effort. It is through hatha yoga that most Westerners are introduced to the philosophy. Many people believe that this is yoga and are unaware of the totality of yoga as a philosophy of life.Along with meditation, yoga asanas and pranyama have become popular in the West, and yoga has become “westernized.” Postures are taught as ends in themselves merely to heal an illness, reduce stress, or look better. The fact that these postures are a foundation for self-realization is generally ignored. Yoga is often thought of as calisthenics, epitomized by the headstand, the lotus posture, or another pretzel-like pose. Many think of yoga as a system of meditation or religion. Yoga, however, is meant to be practiced in the larger context of conscious spiritual discipline. The Hatha Yoga Pradipika is considered to be the classic manual on hatha yoga. The first chapter reminds the student that hatha yoga is used as a vehicle in self-realization.25 This goal should be kept in sight. Yoga is proposed to be a preventive as well as curative system of the body, mind, and spirit.14Recently, large numbers of Americans are practicing yoga for its proposed health benefits. Some health professionals are referring their patients to yoga teachers for help in managing a variety of stress-related ailments. Yoga is regarded as a holistic approach to health that not only increases flexibility, strength, and stamina but also fosters self-awareness, emotional stability, and peace of mind. Yoga has become a household word in the West. Millions of men and women read books about yoga, attend classes or seminars, and do the physical exercises for which yoga is famous. Many have tried meditation or some other form of yoga on a regular basis. Clearly, yoga is alive in Western society today.There are various styles of hatha yoga, and each has specific characteristics that reflect a particular approach to the yoga asanas such as Iyengar, Kundalini, Kripalu, and Sivananda. Iyengar, a popular style in the West, is based on the teachings of living yoga master named B.K.S. Iyengar. The method is orderly and progressive. Postures are adjusted to meet the needs and physical conditions of the student. There are specific anatomic guidelines in the execution of the asanas and pranayama.12 As a therapy, yoga is a system designed to refine human physiology. Asanas, or postures, if done properly, are believed to affect every gland and organ in the body. Postures have to be adjusted so that the various organs, joints, and bones are properly positioned so that physiologic changes may occur. Distribution of body weight has to be even on the joints and muscles so that there is no injury. Therapeutic yoga is the performance of postures for treating medical disorders. A key development in this application of yoga is Iyengar's use of props (e.g., chairs, belts, blankets, blocks) to assist the patient in assuming the posture without strain. It is said that each posture has a specific shape to which the body must be adapted and not the asana to the body.23In a disease like osteoarthritis (OA) of the finger joints, asanas are proposed to realign the skeletal structure and loosen stiff joints. Effects may be the result of the geometry of the asana. Many musculoskeletal problems may be mechanical and have to be mechanically considered. Realignment of muscles is proposed to remove the altered stresses and strains and to re-establish anatomic relationships.8
Article
The effects of a low intensity exercise program on strength, flexibility, balance, gait and muscular endurance were determined in sixty-two 60- to 71-year-old men and women. Subjects exercised for 1 hour daily 5 days a week for 3 months. Before and after the exercise program, each participant underwent lower extremity range of motion (ROM) determinations, isometric and dynamic strength testing (Cybex) of the knee and ankle musculature, standing balance tests, a gait examination and a fatigue test for the quadriceps. Thirteen control subjects who did not exercise also were tested at two time periods, 3 months apart. Significant improvements in strength occurred for exercise subjects, particularly at the fastest speed settings on the Cybex. ROM measures of the hip and trunk, and standing balance times improved, but no change in endurance or gait parameters was found. With the exception of muscular endurance, no changes were observed among the controls. Exercise subjects frequently reported improvements in functional capacity and activities of daily living. These results suggest that a low intensity exercise program can improve strength, balance and flexibility in sedentary healthy older people.
Article
We evaluated the gait of 49 nursing home residents (27 of whom had a history of recent falls), and 22 controls. Measures consisted of stride length and walking speed, as well as a videotape-based analysis of 16 facets of gait. The study demonstrates that stride length, walking speed, and the assessment of videotaped gait correlated well with each other and were significantly impaired infallers compared to controls. Arm swing amplitude, upper-lower extremity synchrony, and guardedness of gait were most impaired in fallers. Although subjects who fell were more often demented than controls, it is likely that this represents a selection bias in nursing homes. Visual rating of gait features in the nursing home population is a simple and useful alternative to established methods of gait analysis.
Article
A simple external marker system and algorithms for computing lower extremity joint angle motion during level walking were developed and implemented on a computer-aided video motion analysis system (VICON). The concept of embedded axes and Euler rotation angles was used to define the three-dimensional joint angle motion based on a set of body surface markers. Gait analysis was performed on 40 normal young adults three times on three different test days at least 1 week apart using the marker system. Angular motion of the hip, knee, and ankle joints and of the pelvis were obtained throughout a gait cycle utilizing the three-dimensional trajectories of markers. The effect of uncertainties in defining the embedded axis on joint angles was demonstrated using sensitivity analysis. The errors in the estimation of joint angle motion were quantified with respect to the degree of error in the construction of embedded axes. The limitations of the model and the marker system in evaluating pathologic gait are discussed. The relatively small number of body surface markers used in the system render it easy to implement for use in routine clinical gait evaluations. Additionally, data presented in this paper should be a useful reference for describing and comparing pathologic gait patterns.
Article
The repeatability of gait variables is an important consideration in the clinical use of results of quantitative gait analysis. Statistical measures were used to evaluate repeatability of kinematic, kinetic, and electromyographic data waveforms and spatiotemporal parameters of 40 normal subjects. Subjects were evaluated three times on each test day and on three different test days while walking at their preferred or natural speed. Intrasubject repeatability was excellent for kinematic data in the sagittal plane both within a test day as well as between test days. For joint angle motion in the frontal and transverse planes, the repeatability was good within a test day and poor between test days. Poor between-day repeatability of joint angle motion in the frontal and transverse planes was noted to be partly due to variabilities in the alignment of markers. Vertical reaction and fore-aft shear forces were more repeatable than the mediolateral shear force. Sagittal plane joint moments were more repeatable than frontal or transverse plane moments. For electromyographic data, repeatability within a day was slightly better than between test days. In general, the results demonstrate that with the subjects walking at their natural or preferred speed, the gait variables are quite repeatable. These observations suggest that it may be reasonable to base significant clinical decisions on the results of a single gait evaluation.
Article
Isosorbide dinitrate ointment (100 mg tid) was directly applied to 30 male patients with stable, documented intermittent claudication on the areas where ischemic pain was experienced. The symptom-free distance walked (DWA) and the maximum distance reached (MDR) basally, after one, three, six, and twelve months were evaluated by means of treadmill stress tests (TSTs) (angle 0 degree-velocity constant/patient). After the basal TST, patients were randomly divided into two groups: placebo group and therapy group (double blind), and a further TST was administered one month later. DWA results were 74 +/- 8 m vs 297 +/- 83 m and MDR results were 163 +/- 22 m vs 506 +/- 86 m in the therapy group (basal vs one month TST: p less than .01) and 94 +/- 24 m vs 96 +/- 15 m and 232 +/- 53 m vs 183 +/- 26 m in the placebo group, respectively (basal vs one month TST: NS). Being confident that a significant placebo effect was absent, the authors opened the trial and treated all patients, repeating further TSTs at three, six, and twelve months. The following results were obtained: DWA was 84 +/- 13 m, 316 +/- 63 m, 374 +/- 55 m, and 452 +/- 61 m; and MDR was 197 +/- 29 m, 431 +/- 59 m, 514 +/- 57 m, and 547 +/- 59 m, respectively, in basal conditions and after three, six, and twelve months of treatment (p less than .01 for all the values for both DWA and MDR vs basal values).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
An epidemiologic study in India showed that 50% of the severely disabled (1.8% of the total population) had locomotor disorders. There is a considerable difference in the incidence of disability and disease in rural and urban populations. The deformities from poliomyelitis are encountered predominantly in the rural areas (53.5%). The incidence in urban areas is only 1%. After poliomyelitis, the pathomechanics of deformity are prominent in the lower limbs. In a developing country, the management of contractures differs considerably from treatment in economically advanced nations. The use of postural exercises with body weight is well illustrated by certain Yoga postures such as paschimottansana or ushtrasana and is a prescribed treatment.
Article
A ten-week yoga program was implemented with sixty-one white and forty-five low-income black elders at two community sites, along with a pretest-posttest control group research design with random assignment at each site. White elders attended class regularly, practiced yoga on their own on a daily basis, improved psychological well-being, and lowered their systolic blood pressure level, in comparison to a control group. Black elders, on the other hand, attended the once-a-week class regularly but did not practice on their own on a daily basis. Thus, they did not improve psychological well-being nor reduce blood pressure level in comparison to a control group. Social analysts suggest that low-income minority elders need more frequent contact with structured leadership in order to adhere to a daily routine that may lead to psychological and physical change. Other directions for controlled follow-up studies are suggested.
Article
Serious fall injury represents a little studied, yet common and potentially preventable, cause of morbidity and mortality among older persons. We determined the frequency of, and risk factors for, experiencing serious fall injury events among older persons in the community. A representative sample of 1103 community-living persons aged 72 years and older underwent comprehensive baseline and 1-year evaluations. During a median 31 months of follow-up, fall data were obtained using fall calendars. Injury data were obtained from telephone interviews and from surveillance of emergency room and hospital records. At least one fall was experienced by 546 (49%) participants. A total of 123 participants, representing 23% of fallers and 12% of the cohort, experienced 183 serious fall injury events. The factors independently associated with experiencing a serious injury during a fall included cognitive impairment (adjusted odds ratios 2.2; 95% confidence interval 1.5, 3.2); presence of at least two chronic conditions (2.0; 1.4, 2.9); balance and gait impairment (1.8; 1.3, 2.7); and low body mass index (1.8; 1.2, 2.5). In a separate analysis, including only subjects who fell, female gender (1.8; 1.1, 2.9) as well as most of the above factors were associated with experiencing a fall injury. Several readily identifiable factors appeared to distinguish the subgroup of older fallers at risk for suffering a serious fall injury. These factors should help guide who and what to target in prevention efforts.
Article
Yoga and relaxation techniques have traditionally been used by nonmedical practitioners to help alleviate musculoskeletal symptoms. The objective of this study was to collect controlled observations of the effect of yoga on the hands of patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Patients with OA of the hands were randomly assigned to receive either the yoga program or no therapy. Yoga techniques were supervised by one instructor once/week for 8 weeks. Variables assessed were pain, strength, motion, joint circumference, tenderness, and hand function using the Stanford Hand Assessment questionnaire. The yoga treated group improved significantly more than the control group in pain during activity, tenderness and finger range of motion. Other trends also favored the yoga program. This yoga derived program was effective in providing relief in hand OA. Further studies are needed to compare this with other treatments and to examine longterm effects.
Article
The effect of 12 weeks of resistance and balance training on strength and gait measures in older persons was tested in a randomized control trial. Thirty-one residents of two life-care communities volunteered (mean age, 82.1 years). The exercise group (E) trained three times per week, performing resistance training to fatigue for knee extension, hip abduction, ankle dorsiflexion, hip extension, and knee flexion, and postural control exercises. The control group (C) met weekly for flexibility exercises performed sitting in a chair. The exercise group achieved significant improvements in muscle strength and gait velocity (p < .05). Knee extension one maximum repetition increased 32% (24% to 40%, 95% confidence interval [CI]), from 55 +/- to 72 +/- 4N.m. Isokinetic knee extension torque increased 25% (3% to 47%) from 40 +/- 5 to 50 +/- 5N.m at 120 degrees s-1. Usual gait velocity increased 8% (3% to 13%) in E from 1.04 +/- .07 to 1.12 +/- .06m/s. There was a trend of improvement in maximal gait speed 4% (0 to 8%) from 1.43 +/- 0.1 to 1.49 +/- 0.1m/s, p = 0.054. Gait and strength measures in C were unchanged. A short-term exercise program that trained strength and balance achieved a clinically significant improvement in gait velocity.
Article
The effects of three different procedures, relaxation, visualization and yogic breathing and stretch (pranayama) on perceptions of physical and mental energy and on positive and negative mood states have been assessed in a group of normal volunteers ( N=71, age range 21–76). Pranayama produced a significantly greater increase in perceptions of mental and physical energy and feelings of alertness and enthusiasm than the other two procedures ( P<0.5). Relaxation made subjects significantly more sleepy and sluggish immediately after the session than pranayama ( P < 0.05). Visualization made them more sluggish but less content than pranayama ( P<0.05) and more upset than relaxation after the second session ( P<0.05). ?Thus, a 30 min programme of yogic stretch and breathing exercises which is simple to learn and which can be practised even by the elderly had a markedly ‘invigorating’ effect on perceptions of both mental and physical energy and increased high positive mood. A more extensive investigation is planned to establish whether such a programme can readily be incorporated into everyday life, and with what long-term results.
Article
It is not known whether changes in the biomechanics of elderly gait are related to aging per se, or to reduced walking speed in this population. The goals of the present study were to identify specific biomechanical changes, independent of speed, that might impair gait performance in healthy older people by identifying age-associated changes in the biomechanics of gait, and to determine which of these changes persist at increased walking speed. Stereophotogrammetric and force platform data were collected. Differences in peak joint motion (kinematic) and joint moment and power (kinetic) values between healthy young and elderly subjects at comfortable and increased walking speed were measured. A gait laboratory. Thirty-one healthy elderly (age 65 to 84 years) and 31 healthy young adult subjects (age 18 to 36 years), all without known neurologic, musculoskeletal, cardiac, or pulmonary problems. All major peak kinematic and kinetic variables during the gait cycle. Several kinematic and kinetic differences between young and elderly adults were found that did not persist when walking speed was increased. Differences that persisted at both comfortable and fast walking speeds were reduced peak hip extension, increased anterior pelvic tilt, and reduced ankle plantarflexion and ankle power generation. Gait performance in the elderly may be limited by both subtle hip flexion contracture and ankle plantarflexor concentric weakness. Results of the current study should motivate future experimental trials of specific hip flexor stretching and ankle plantarflexor concentric strengthening exercises to preserve and potentially improve walking performance in the elderly.
Article
Carpal tunnel syndrome is a common complication of repetitive activities and causes significant morbidity. To determine the effectiveness of a yoga-based regimen for relieving symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. Randomized, single-blind, controlled trial. A geriatric center and an industrial site in 1994-1995. Forty-two employed or retired individuals with carpal tunnel syndrome (median age, 52 years; range, 24-77 years). Subjects assigned to the yoga group received a yoga-based intervention consisting of 11 yoga postures designed for strengthening, stretching, and balancing each joint in the upper body along with relaxation given twice weekly for 8 weeks. Patients in the control group were offered a wrist splint to supplement their current treatment. Changes from baseline to 8 weeks in grip strength, pain intensity, sleep disturbance, Phalen sign, and Tinel sign, and in median nerve motor and sensory conduction time. Subjects in the yoga groups had significant improvement in grip strength (increased from 162 to 187 mm Hg; P = .009) and pain reduction (decreased from 5.0 to 2.9 mm; P = .02), but changes in grip strength and pain were not significant for control subjects. The yoga group had significantly more improvement in Phalen sign (12 improved vs 2 in control group; P = .008), but no significant differences were found in sleep disturbance, Tinel sign, and median nerve motor and sensory conduction time. In this preliminary study, a yoga-based regimen was more effective than wrist splinting or no treatment in relieving some symptoms and signs of carpal tunnel syndrome.
Article
A Falls and Balance Clinic for the elderly has been developed with the aim of identifying those at risk of subsequent falls, and recommending intervention strategies to reduce this risk. The physical and functional status of 149 clients referred to the Clinic are reported. Neurological and musculoskeletal pathologies were identified as the cause of falls in the majority of clients. Measures of gait velocity and stride length, and ability to stand on one leg were markedly reduced compared with normative data for healthy elderly. A number of other measures of balance, strength, and function are also reported. The results of a questionnaire about home environment indicated that only 28% of those referred had been assessed in their own home in the previous year. Home environment was considered a potential risk in a further 28% of clients and a home visit was instituted in these cases. Other intervention strategies included referral for further investigations (36%), Day Hospital (33%), provision of a home program of balance or strengthening exercises (27%), and medication change (15%). Issues related to the establishment, operation and long term evaluation of the effectiveness of a specialist Falls and Balance Clinic for the elderly are discussed.
Article
Age and lack of physical activities may both be responsible for poor balance control. Conversely, physical activities may modulate postural control in elderly individuals. We examined which type of exercise might prove most beneficial to retain or regain proper balance. Nineteen healthy subjects, aged over 60, regularly practicing proprioceptive (group I) or bioenergetic (group II) physical activities and 21 controls only walking on a regular basis, were studied. All were submitted to a dynamic posturographic test and to a test evaluating lower limbs muscular strength. Control individuals displayed the poorest balance and muscular performance. Group I subjects had the best postural control with average muscular strength. In group II, muscular strength was significantly increased, but balance control was of poor quality. Proprioceptive exercise therefore appears to have the best impact on balance control.
Article
Increasing emphasis is being placed on physical performance measures as an outcome predictor. It is uncertain whether one or two simple measurements will have predictive value compared with a battery of tests. To assess whether simple performance measures such as walking speed and stride length will predict dependency, mortality, and institutionalization. A 3-year longitudinal study of a random sample of subjects. Older people living in the community in Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region, China. A total of 2032 Chinese subjects aged 70 years and older were recruited territory-wide by proportional random sampling and followed for 3 years. Functional status was measured using the Barthel Index at baseline and follow-up. The time taken to walk a distance of 16 feet and the number of steps taken were measured at baseline. Stride length is estimated by dividing 16 by the average number of steps needed to complete the walk. Outcomes regarding dependency, mortality, and institutionalization at 36 months were recorded. After excluding subjects lost to follow-up and those who had died, data were available for 559 men and 612 women. Univariate analysis showed that reduced walking speed and stride length were associated with increased risk of dependency, mortality, and institutionalization. In multivariate analysis for dependency and mortality, stride length, walking speed, age, and sex were included in the best prediction model (ROC = 0.798 and 0.707, respectively), whereas only stride length was included in the prediction for institutionalization (ROC = 0.764). In terms of prevention or modifying outcomes, these two simple performance measures may be used as indicators for checking for occult disease and for interventional measures such as exercise prescription.
A study was undertaken to observe any beneficial effect of yogic practices during training period on the young trainees. 54 trainees of 20-25 years age group were divided randomly in two groups i.e. yoga and control group. Yoga group (23 males and 5 females) was administered yogic practices for the first five months of the course while control group (21 males and 5 females) did not perform yogic exercises during this period. From the 6th to 10th month of training both the groups performed the yogic practices. Physiological parameters like heart rate, blood pressure, oral temperature, skin temperature in resting condition, responses to maximal and submaximal exercise, body flexibility were recorded. Psychological parameters like personality, learning, arithmetic and psychomotor ability, mental well being were also recorded. Various parameters were taken before and during the 5th and 10th month of training period. Initially there was relatively higher sympathetic activity in both the groups due to the new work/training environment but gradually it subsided. Later on at the 5th and 10th month, yoga group had relatively lower sympathetic activity than the control group. There was improvement in performance at submaximal level of exercise and in anaerobic threshold in the yoga group. Shoulder, hip, trunk and neck flexibility improved in the yoga group. There was improvement in various psychological parameters like reduction in anxiety and depression and a better mental function after yogic practices.
Article
To test the hypothesis that reduced hip extension range during walking, representing a limiting impairment of hip tightness, is a consistent dynamic finding that (1) occurs with increased age and (2) is exaggerated in elderly people who fall. Using a 3-dimensional optoelectronic motion analysis system, we compared full sagittal plane kinematic (lower extremity joint motion, pelvic motion) data during walking between elderly and young adults and between elderly fallers and nonfallers. Comparisons were also performed between comfortable and fast walking speeds within each elderly group. A gait laboratory. Twenty-three healthy elderly subjects, 16 elderly fallers (otherwise healthy elderly subjects with a history of recurrent falls), and 30 healthy young adult subjects. All major peak joint angle and pelvic positi