B-Type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) and Amino-Terminal proBNP in Patients With CKD: Relationship to Renal Function and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, East Kent Hospitals National Health Service Trust, Canterbury, Kent, UK.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases (Impact Factor: 5.9). 10/2005; 46(4):610-20. DOI: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2005.06.017
Source: PubMed


Most patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) develop cardiovascular complications. Natriuretic peptides are novel markers that can be used to identify and monitor heart failure, but the effect of renal disease on these markers is not fully understood. The aim of the present study is to explore the relationship among circulating B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) concentrations and clinical variables in a cohort of patients with CKD.
Plasma BNP and NT-proBNP concentrations and left ventricular (LV) mass index were measured in 213 predialysis patients with CKD.
Plasma BNP and NT-proBNP concentrations increased with declining estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR; P < 0.0001). Estimated GFR had an independent effect on plasma BNP (P = 0.0028) and, to a greater extent, plasma NT-proBNP (P < 0.0001) concentrations: mean BNP concentration increased by 20.6% per 10-mL/min/1.73 m2 (0.17-mL/s) reduction in estimated GFR compared with 37.7% for NT-proBNP. NT-proBNP/BNP ratio increased with CKD stage (P < 0.0001). Median plasma BNP and NT-proBNP concentrations were greater in patients with LV hypertrophy (P < 0.0001), and LV mass index had an independent effect on both BNP (P = 0.0223) and NT-proBNP (P < 0.0017).
Estimated GFR and LV mass index have independent effects on both plasma BNP and NT-proBNP concentrations in patients with CKD. NT-proBNP appears to be affected more by declining kidney function, in keeping with the hypothesis that its clearance is predominantly renal. Our data have significant implications for application of these peptides as cardiac biomarkers in patients with CKD.

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    • "There were no significant differences in the level of pre dialysis ANP and BNP with regards to gender but men in the study tended to have higher levels of post dialysis ANP. A number of studies have reported that natriuretic peptide levels are elevated in HD patients and it has been suggested that factors such as fluid overload, left ventricular dysfunction and impaired renal clearance contribute to this[19,22,30313233. Pre and post dialysis ANP levels correlated strongly with each other as well as with BNP which is unsurprising. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Maintaining optimal fluid balance is essential in haemodialysis (HD) patients but clinical evaluation remains problematic. Other technologies such as bioimpedance are emerging as valuable adjuncts. This study was undertaken to explore the potential utility of the natriuretic peptides – atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in the assessment of fluid status and cardiovascular risk in this setting. Methods This was a cross-sectional study carried out in an unselected cohort of 170 prevalent HD patients. Volume status was assessed by clinical parameters – the presence or absence of peripheral oedema, raised jugular venous pressure and basal lung crepitations; by extracellular fluid volume (ECFV) status determined by whole body bioimpedance; and by serum levels of BNP and ANP (pre- and post –dialysis). The relationships of ANP and BNP levels to clinical and bioimpedance parameters of volume status was determined. Patients were followed up for 5 years to assess the relationship of natriuretic peptide levels to mortality. Results Bioimpedance estimates of ECFV expansion (>105 % of ideal ECFV) was present in 52 % of patients pre-dialysis. A significant proportion (21 %) of pre-dialysis patients had a depleted ECFV (<95 % of ideal ECFV) pre-dialysis. The situation was reversed post-dialysis. A raised JVP >3 cm was the most reliable clinical sign of ECFV expansion inferred from bioimpedance measurements and natriuretic peptide levels. The vast majority of patients with this sign also had lung crepitations or peripheral oedema or both. BNP was a stronger predictor of ECFV expansion than either pre- or post-dialysis ANP. BNP was also a stronger predictor of five-year survival. Conclusion Serum levels of BNP have a strong relationship to both volume status and survival in HD patients. We found no clear role for measurement of ANP, though changes in blood levels may be a sensitive indicator of acute changes in volume status. Whether monitoring levels of these peptides has a role in the management of volume status and cardiovascular risk requires further study.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · BMC Nephrology
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    • "Thirdly, the sensitivity and specificity values for predicting the utility of plasma BNP levels in determining the incidence of compound clinical endpoints are not very high for either groups of patients. A combination of NT-BNP (or BNP) with LVEF has been shown to substantially improve the risk stratification for mortality, HF and new ischemic events (44). "
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    ABSTRACT: Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is used as a prognostic biomarker for patients with heart failure (HF) in clinical practice, however, the correlation between BNP levels and the prognosis of HF in patients with reserved left ventricular systolic function (RLVSF) is not clear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the added value of BNP in the prognosis of HF patients with RLVSF. Inpatients with cardiovascular disease (mean age, 65.7 years; male, 790; female, 625) admitted to the Division of Cardiology at Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University (Shanghai, China) between June 2006 and December 2009 underwent follow-up examinations. Plasma BNP levels were analyzed and measurements of the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were performed by echocardiography. Evaluations of the patients with HF were performed according to the New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification system. The duration of the follow-up period ranged between 21 and 63 months (average duration, 35.8 months) and key events included cardiovascular mortality, readmission due to cardiovascular disease or mortality due to other reasons. Survival times decreased with increasing BNP levels in all the follow-up patients (Spearman's ρ, -0.1877; P<0.0001). Among the 1,415 patients, 1,312 underwent echocardiographic detection. A total of 395 patients with NYHA classes II-IV and a LVEF ≥45% were selected. The incidence of compound endpoint events was significantly higher in the patients that had BNP levels of >100 pg/ml when compared with the patients that had BNP levels of ≤100 pg/ml (37.07 vs. 23.93%; relative risk, 1.55); consequently the survival times were significantly reduced (P=0.0039). A negative correlation was identified between the BNP levels and the survival times in these patients (Spearman's ρ, -0.1738; P=0.0005). These results indicated that the levels of BNP may be used to predict the prognosis of patients with cardiovascular disease. The prognoses of patients with higher BNP levels were worse compared with the patients with lower BNP levels. Furthermore, significant correlations were confirmed in the HF patients with RLVSF.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Experimental and therapeutic medicine
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    • "The serum NT-pro-BNP level is correlated with the stage of HF56 and is associated with age, race7, and body mass index8. Moreover, it has been shown that serum NT-pro-BNP level is also increased in chronic renal dysfunction patients910. "
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular diseases are the most prevalent diseases worldwide. This study intended to analyze peripheral blood miRNA levels and their correlation with NT-pro-BNP and cTN-I in patients with atherosclerosis or pre-atherosclerotic conditions to build a dynamic correlation between vascular diseases and their biomarkers. Serum NT-pro-BNP and cTN-I levels were measured by their respective ELISA kits. The miRNA levels were assayed by quantitative PCR. Unique miRNA signatures were identified for both atherosclerosis and pre-atherosclerosis. The levels of miR-92a, 126, 130a, 222, and 370 levels were decreased in the peripheral blood of pre-atherosclerotic subjects. In atherosclerosis, miR-21, 122, 130a, and 211 were significantly increased whereas miR-92a, 126, and 222 were markedly decreased. Serum levels of NT-pro-BNP and cTN-I correlated with each other and increased with the progression of atherosclerosis. Moreover, the levels of cTN-I and NT-pro-BNP were positively correlated with miR-21 and negatively correlated with miR-126. Integrating specific pattern of miRNA levels with NT-pro-BNP and/or cardiac troponin may improve the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Scientific Reports
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