In the philosophies of some religions , such as the Geeta, Samkhya, Dvaita , Advaita and Vishishtadvaita philosophy of Hinduism, dualistic philosophy of Christianity, Islam, and Judaism, the metaphysical frameworks include interactive substance dualism where mind (includes all mental entities such as Buddhi, Ahamkāra, Atman, Purusha, Brahman and so on) and matter (both fermions and bosons) are on equal footing; they interact (such as Purusha ‘shines’ on Prakriti for creation of universe) with each other but each can exist without other, i.e., they are separable and independent (Vimal, 2011c). This is because theist religions assume that soul (mental entity) separates from the dead body (physical entity) after death, but interacts when we are alive (Vimal, 2011c). However, this framework has problems such as the association or mind-brain interaction problem, the problem of mental causation, the ‘Zombie’ problem, the ‘Ghost’ problem, the neurophysiological many-one/many relation problem, the causal pairing problem, and the developmental problem (Vimal, 2011c).
Advaita Vedanta philosophy of Hinduism postulates non-duality in the sense that all souls are the same and are part of Brahman (Vimal, 2011b). In Adi Shankaracharya’s Advaita Vedanta (Ādi Śankarāchārya, 788-820a, 788-820b; Rosen, 2007), Brahman is the only truth, the world is an illusion, and there is ultimately no difference between Brahman and individual jîva (Brahma satyaṃ jagat mithyā, jīvo brahmaiva nāparah). It is unclear if the there is a distinction between God and matter, but, matter (such as dead body) is also a part of God; In addition there are problems related to Avidya (not-Knowledge) (Vimal, 2011b).
Advaita’s problem was addressed by Vishishtadvaita, where Brahman is assumed to have dual-aspect (mental and physical) and is both cause and effect (implying ‘all in one and one in all’ view). However, this has the problem of theist-atheist phenomenon because Vishishtadvaita is theist’s framework (assumes Brahman as God) and unable to address atheist/science’s framework. We simply cannot ignore the contribution of science in our lives.
Vishishtadvaita’s problem can be addressed by ‘dual-aspect monism with dual-mode along with varying degree of dominance of aspects depending on the levels of entities’; its theist version can be named as modified-Vishishtadvaita. We have now renamed it as the extended Dual-Aspect Monism (eDAM, Dvi-Pakṣa Advaita) framework (see Section 1.4). Here, it is assumed that theist-atheist phenomenon is a subject-specific because scientists seem to have speculated about the existence of ‘God gene’ (Hamer, 2005) (see also its review by (Doughty, 2005)), which when expressed entails subjects to be theist (it may also be acquired); otherwise subject is atheist. In other words, theist subjects can assume the dual-aspect Brahman as God and atheist can assume Brahman as dual-aspect entity at fundamental level (such as physicist’s vacuum, deep quantum potential or Bohm’s Implicate Order) from where all universes (including human beings) emerge via co-evolution. However, this framework has the problem of dual-aspect ‘brute’ fact (that is the way it is!), although it is justified as we clearly have neural-networks of brain (physical aspect) and related subjective experiences (mental aspect); however, it is indeed an assumption. This needs further research. Thus, it appears that the Truth is still unknown and we need to keep on researching!
Other views, such mentalistic idealism, materialism and panpsychism also have problems. We propose modified-Vishishtadvaita framework in all religions, philosophy, psychology, neuroscience and all other sciences because it has the least number of problems. This framework is close to dual-perspective Trika Kashmir Shaivism (Shiva as mental aspect and Shakti as physical aspect), but perhaps these aspects could be separated.
In this article, we have taken an example of Prana Pratistha concept of Sai baba who tried to unify all religions. His three major principles are: (1) Shradha (reverence, belief, respect, faith, trust on each other and on the metaphysics/framework), (2) Saboori (dhairya, patience, endurance, tolerance), and (3) ‘sabakaa maalik ek hae’ (all are one, unity among diversity). They are interpreted in the extended dual-aspect monism framework and it is emphasized that this will have dramatic effect in our daily lives if followed rigorously.