Glycopeptide Resistance vanA Operons in Paenibacillus Strains Isolated from Soil

Université Paris-Sud 11, Orsay, Île-de-France, France
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (Impact Factor: 4.48). 10/2005; 49(10):4227-33. DOI: 10.1128/AAC.49.10.4227-4233.2005
Source: PubMed


The sequence and gene organization of the van operons in vancomycin (MIC of >256 μg/ml)- and teicoplanin (MIC of ≥32 μg/ml)-resistant Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus PT-2B1 and Paenibacillus apiarius PA-B2B isolated from soil were determined. Both operons had regulatory (vanR and vanS), resistance (vanH, vanA, and vanX), and accessory (vanY, vanZ, and vanW) genes homologous to the corresponding genes in enterococcal vanA and vanB operons. The vanAPT operon in P. thiaminolyticus PT-2B1 had the same gene organization as that of vanA operons whereas vanAPA in P. apiarius PA-B2B resembled vanB operons due to the presence of vanW upstream from the vanHAX cluster but was closer to vanA operons in sequence. Reference P. apiarius strains NRRL B-4299 and NRRL B-4188 were found to harbor operons indistinguishable from vanAPA by PCR mapping, restriction fragment length polymorphism, and partial sequencing, suggesting that this operon was species
specific. As in enterococci, resistance was inducible by glycopeptides and associated with the synthesis of pentadepsipeptide
peptidoglycan precursors ending in d-Ala-d-Lac, as demonstrated by d,d-dipeptidase activities, high-pressure liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry. The precursors differed from those in
enterococci by the presence of diaminopimelic acid instead of lysine in the peptide chain. Altogether, the results are compatible
with the notion that van operons in soil Paenibacillus strains and in enterococci have evolved from a common ancestor.

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Available from: Bruno Périchon, Nov 24, 2014
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    • "The actual origin of the genes responsible for high-level vancomycin resistance in enterococci has been linked to soil Paenibacillus spp. (Guardabassi et al 2005). Denitrification, the anaerobic reduction of nitrate (NO 3 − ) to gaseous nitrogen (N 2 ), is a key process in the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle and the primary biological pathway by which biologically fixed or synthetic added nitrogen is converted to a gaseous form and removed from ecosystems. "
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    ABSTRACT: Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes have shown to be omnipresent in the environment. In this study, we investigated the effect of vancomycin (VA) on denitrifying bacteria in river sediments of a Waste Water Treatment Plant, receiving both domestic and hospital waste. We exposed these sediments continuously in flow-through reactors to different VA concentrations under denitrifying conditions (nitrate addition and anoxia) in order to determine potential nitrate reduction rates and changes in sedimentary microbial community structures. The presence of VA had no effect on sedimentary nitrate reduction rates at environmental concentrations, whereas a change in bacterial (16S rDNA) and denitrifying (nosZ) community structures was observed (determined by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis). The bacterial and denitrifying community structure within the sediment changed upon VA exposure indicating a selection of a non-susceptible VA population.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Environmental Science and Pollution Research
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    • "The most common resistance pattern (lincomycin-penicillin) was found in two Bacillus and two Paenibacillus isolates (Table 2); in addition, one strain showed resistance to lincomycin-streptomycin, two strains showed resistant to streptomycin only, and one strain showed resistance to lincomycin only (Table 2). While this is, to our knowledge, the first report of antimicrobial resistant Bacillus and Paenibacillus isolates from milk, previous studies have reported antimicrobial resistance in disease associated Paenibacillus isolates, including (i) resistance to metronidazole [30], tetracycline [39], and glycopeptides [40] in P. larvae, which is associated with disease in honeybees and (ii) multi-drug resistance (to glycopeptide, beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, macrolides and lincosomides) in a Paenibacillus isolated from fertile soil in India [41]. Similarly, antimicrobial resistant Bacillus isolates have previously been isolated from a variety of clinical [42-44] and non-clinical [45] sources. "
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    ABSTRACT: Sporeformers in the order Bacillales are important contributors to spoilage of pasteurized milk. While only a few Bacillus and Viridibacillus strains can grow in milk at 6[degree sign]C, the majority of Paenibacillus isolated from pasteurized fluid milk can grow under these conditions. To gain a better understanding of genomic features of these important spoilage organisms and to identify candidate genomic features that may facilitate cold growth in milk, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of selected dairy associated sporeformers representing isolates that can and cannot grow in milk at 6[degree sign]C. The genomes for seven Paenibacillus spp., two Bacillus spp., and one Viridibacillus sp. isolates were sequenced. Across the genomes sequenced, we identified numerous genes encoding antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, bacteriocins, and pathways for synthesis of non-ribosomal peptide antibiotics. Phylogenetic analysis placed genomes representing Bacillus, Paenibacillus and Viridibacillus into three distinct well supported clades and further classified the Paenibacillus strains characterized here into three distinct clades, including (i) clade I, which contains one strain able to grow at 6[degree sign]C in skim milk broth and one strain not able to grow under these conditions, (ii) clade II, which contains three strains able to grow at 6[degree sign]C in skim milk broth, and (iii) clade III, which contains two strains unable to grow under these conditions. While all Paenibacillus genomes were found to include multiple copies of genes encoding beta-galactosidases, clade II strains showed significantly higher numbers of genes encoding these enzymes as compared to clade III strains. Genome comparison of strains able to grow at 6[degree sign]C and strains unable to grow at this temperature identified numerous genes encoding features that might facilitate the growth of Paenibacillus in milk at 6[degree sign]C, including peptidases with cold-adapted features (flexibility and disorder regions in the protein structure) and cold-adaptation related proteins (DEAD-box helicases, chaperone DnaJ). Through a comparative genomics approach we identified a number of genomic features that may relate to the ability of selected Paenibacillus strains to cause spoilage of refrigerated fluid milk. With additional experimental evidence, these data will facilitate identification of targets to detect and control Gram positive spore formers in fluid milk.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · BMC Genomics
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