Perfluorinated Sulfonamides in Indoor and Outdoor Air and Indoor Dust: Occurrence, Partitioning, and Human Exposure

Lancaster University, Lancaster, England, United Kingdom
Environmental Science and Technology (Impact Factor: 5.33). 10/2005; 39(17):6599-606. DOI: 10.1021/es048340y
Source: PubMed


Perfluorinated alkyl sulfonamides (PFASs) which are used in a variety of consumer products for surface protection were investigated through a comprehensive survey of indoor air, house dust, and outdoor air in the city of Ottawa, Canada. This study revealed new information regarding the occurrence and indoor air source strength of several PFASs including N-methylperfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanol (MeFOSE), N-ethylperfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanol (EtFOSE), N-ethylperfluorooctane sulfonamide (EtFOSA), and N-methylperfluorooctane sulfonamidethylacrylate (MeFOSEA). Passive air samplers consisting of polyurethane foam disks were calibrated and used to conduct the indoor and outdoor survey. Indoor air concentrations for MeFOSE and EtFOSE (1490 and 740 pg m(-3), respectively) were about 10-20 times greater than outdoor concentrations, establishing indoor air as an important source to the outside environment. EtFOSA and MeFOSEA concentrations were lower in indoor air (40 and 29 pg m(-3) respectively) and below detection in outdoor air samples. For indoor dust, highest concentrations were recorded for MeFOSE and EtFOSE with geometric mean concentrations of 110 and 120 ng g(-1), while concentrations for EtFOSA and MeFOSEA were below detection and 7.9 ng g(-1) respectively. MeFOSE and EtFOSE concentrations in house dust followed levels in indoor air. However, resolution of the coupled air and dust data (for the same homes) was not successful using existing KoA-based models for surface-air exchange. The partitioning to house dust was greatly underpredicted. The difficulties with existing models may be due to the high activity coefficient of PFASs in octanol and/or a situation where the dust is greatly oversaturated with respect to the air due to components of the dust being contaminated with PFASs. A human exposure assessment based on median air and dust concentrations revealed that human exposure through inhalation (100% absorption assumed) and dust ingestion were approximately 40 and approximately 20 ng d(-1), respectively. However, for children the dust ingestion pathway was dominant and accounted for approximately 44 ng d(-1).

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    • ". Median concentrations of total precursors (FTOHs, FOSAs and FOSEs) in house dust samples from different countries around the world. Egypt (this work); Spain (Jogsten et al., 2012); UK, Augsberg, Germany, Australia, France and Kazakhstan (Goosey and Harrad, 2011); Bavaria, Germany (Xu et al., 2013); Ohio USA (Strynar and Lindstrom, 2008); Vancouver, Canada (Shoeib et al., 2010); Toronto (Goosey and Harrad, 2011), Ottawa (Shoeib et al., 2005). * mean concentration. "
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    ABSTRACT: PFASs concentrations in dust samples collected from three microenvironments in Cairo ranged from 1.3 to 69 ng g(-1) with FTOHs being dominant. The 8:2 FTOH was detected in all samples. Among the FOSAs and FOSEs the MeFOSE was dominant while among ionic PFASs, PFOS and PFOA were most prominent. The concentrations of PFASs were among the lowest worldwide. Correlations between worldwide concentrations of PFOS + PFOA and country development indexes highlight higher usage and human exposure in more developed countries. Food packaging was analyzed for PFSAs, PFCAs and PAPs. The 6:2 and 8:2 monoPAPs were found to be above the MDL in 18% of the samples. PFOA was detected in 79% of the samples with median concentration of 2.40 ng g(-1). PFOS was detected in 58% of the samples with median concentration of 0.29 ng g(-1) while PFHxS and PFDS were below detection limit. Different human exposure scenarios were estimated.
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    • "Some studies simultaneously measured airborne concentrations of SVOCs (C s þ C sp ) and X dust (Bradman et al., 2006; Bradman, 2009; Batterman et al., 2009; Morgan et al., 2004; Kanazawa et al., 2010). One study measured C sp and X dust (Fromme et al., 2005), and others measured C s and X dust (Abdallah et al., 2008; Bennett et al., 2014; Gevao et al., 2007; Harrad et al., 2009; Imm et al., 2009; Shoeib et al., 2005; Toms et al., 2009; Tue et al., 2013; Wilford et al., 2004, 2005). "
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    • "Polyfluoroalkyl and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been widely detected in wildlife (Giesy and Kannan, 2001), human serum (Hansen et al., 2001) and in various environmental compartments (Shoeib et al., 2005; Ahrens, 2011; Sepulvado et al., 2011a). "
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