Aflatoxin and ochratoxin A content of spices in Hungary. Food Addit Contam
University of Kaposvár, Toponár, Somogy, Hungary Food Additives and Contaminants
(Impact Factor: 2.13).
10/2005; 22(9):856-63. DOI: 10.1080/02652030500198027
In October and November 2004, 91 spice samples (70 ground red pepper, six black pepper, five white pepper, five spice mix and five chilli samples), the majority of which originated from commercial outlets, were analysed for aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) content by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after immunoaffinity column clean-up. Eighteen of the 70 ground red pepper samples contained AFB1, seven of them in a concentration exceeding the 'maximum level' of 5 microg kg(-1) (range 6.1-15.7 microg kg(-1)). Of the other spices assayed, the AFB1 contamination of one chilli sample exceeded 5 microg kg(-1) (8.1 microg kg(-1)). Thirty-two of the 70 ground red pepper samples contained OTA, eight of them in a concentration exceeding the 10 microg kg(-1) 'maximum level' (range 10.6-66.2 microg kg(-1)). One chilli sample was contaminated with OTA at 2.1 microg kg(-1). The AFB1 and OTA contamination of ground red pepper exceeding the 'maximum level' (5 and 10 microg kg(-1), respectively) was obviously the consequence of mixing imported ground red pepper batches heavily contaminated with AFB1 and OTA with red pepper produced in Hungary. This case calls attention to the importance of consistently screening imported batches of ground red pepper for aflatoxin and ochratoxin A content and strictly prohibiting the use of batches containing mycotoxin concentrations exceeding the maximum permitted level.
Available from: Sibel Ozden
- "The Turkish Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs adopted the European Union (EU) limits of OTA in food stuffs (Turkish Food Codex Legislation 2011/28157). While a number of investigations have been carried out worldwide to obtain a general pattern of OTA contamination in spices, particularly in red pepper samples (El-Kady et al. 1995; Patel et al. 1996; Thirumala-Devi et al. 2000; Fazekas et al. 2005; Goryacheva et al. 2006; Hernández Hierro et al. 2008; Shundo et al. 2009; Santos et al. 2010, 2011; Jalili & Jinap 2012; Prelle et al. 2013; Skarkova et al. 2013), specific studies in Turkey are scarce (Heperkan & Ermis 2004; Özbey & Kabak 2012). Therefore, this survey focusses on red pepper flake samples, which is important for Turkish economy due to its export value. "
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Ochratoxin A (OTA) in red pepper flakes commercialized in Turkey. A total of 75 samples were collected from different supermarkets and traditional bazaars in Istanbul during 2012-2013. OTA analysis was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) after immunoaffinity column clean-up. The method was linear in the range 0.05 - 40 μg kg(-1) (r(2)=0.9997). Twenty-seven out of 31 (87.1%) packed red pepper flake samples contained OTA at concentrations ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 μg kg(-1), whereas 100% of the unpacked red pepper flake samples contained OTA, in the range 1.1-31.7 μg kg(-1). Overall, only 4 unpacked samples (5.3%) contained OTA, with a mean value of 23.4 μg kg(-1), which is higher than the European Union limit. It is suggested that OTA content should be carefully considered in red pepper flake samples especially marketed in unpacked form.
Available from: Mehmet Karaaslan
- "Microbial contaminations in spices occur due to poor cleaning and sanitation practices, inadequate facility and equipment design and maintenance, and inadequate ingredient control and handling. In recent years, the natural occurrence and contamination of aflatoxins in spices has been reported by several researchers (Zinedine et al. 2006; Romagnoli et al. 2007; Martins et al. 2001; Fazekas et al. 2005; Aydin et al. 2007; Cho et al. 2008). Aflatoxins are classified as group I carcinogens by the International Agency of Research on Cancer (IARC 1993) and aflatoxin B 1 is the most potent known natural carcinogen and is usually the major aflatoxin produced by toxigenic strains. "
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ABSTRACT: Phytonutrient metabolism in sour cherries takes place during fruit ripening.
This study demonstrated that total phenolic–flavonoid contents decline during ripening while total anthocyanin content significantly increases at the same period. There were no detectable anthocyanins in green cherry fruits. Anthocyanin biosynthesis started concurrently with color formation. Cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside were the early anthocyanins accumulated in fruits and were accompanied with cyanidin-3-sophoroside and cyanidin-3-glucoside in fully ripe fruits. Phenylpropanoid pathway involves anthocyanin biosynthesis, and chalcone synthase (CHS) is one of the key enzymes regulating the pathway. Three CHS genes (PcChs1, PcChs2, PcChs3) were isolated from sour cherry genome, and their transcription profiles were determined using the RT-PCR approach. There was no CHS gene expression before breaker stage, and PcChs1, PcChs2, PcChs3 transcription were upregulated in parallel with pigmentation in sour cherry cells and PcChs1 had the highest transcripts in fully ripe fruits.
Available from: Khalid Ibrahim Sallam
- "The beef luncheon and beef burger we tested were made from meat of ruminants, which have a higher tolerance to OTA exposure than non-ruminants because protozoa in the rumen are able to degrade OTA into ochratoxin a and other less toxic metabolites (Fink-Gremmels, 2008). Therefore, the high contamination rates of these meat products with OTA might be attributed to the growth of OTA-producing fungi on the surface of processed meat products (Iacumin et al., 2009) or more likely from the addition of non-meat additives like cereals and spices (Fazekas et al., 2005; European Commission, 2002). It is difficult to remove or reduce OTA once it is introduced because it is moderately stable and is unaffected by most processes of food storage and preparation (Schiavone et al., 2008) including heating (Monaci, Palmisano, Matrella, & Tantillo, 2005). "
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ABSTRACT: Total aflatoxins (AFT) and ochratoxin A (OTA) levels were estimated using the VICAM AflaTest and OchraTest immunoaffinity fluorometric method in a total of 50 meat products (25 each of beef luncheon and beef burger) purchased from different supermarkets in Mansoura city, Egypt. All the meat samples analyzed were contaminated with both AFT and OTA with mean values of 1.1μg/kg and 5.23μg/kg, respectively, for beef luncheon and mean values of 3.22μg/kg and 4.55μg/kg, respectively, for beef burger. None of the beef luncheon and burger samples analyzed exceeded the permissible limits set by FDA for AFT, but 40% of beef burgers exceeded the FAO AFT permissible limit. Similarly, 52% and 36% of beef luncheon and beef burger samples exceeded the FAO OTA permissible limit. Application of the immunoaffinity fluorometric method is an accurate, safe and rapid method for mycotoxins determination in meat products to ensure their safety for human consumption.
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