The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Clinical Psychology Review, 36, 17-31

Drexel University, Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
Clinical Psychology Review (Impact Factor: 7.18). 02/2006; 26(1):17-31. DOI: 10.1016/j.cpr.2005.07.003
Source: PubMed


This review summarizes the current meta-analysis literature on treatment outcomes of CBT for a wide range of psychiatric disorders. A search of the literature resulted in a total of 16 methodologically rigorous meta-analyses. Our review focuses on effect sizes that contrast outcomes for CBT with outcomes for various control groups for each disorder, which provides an overview of the effectiveness of cognitive therapy as quantified by meta-analysis. Large effect sizes were found for CBT for unipolar depression, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, social phobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and childhood depressive and anxiety disorders. Effect sizes for CBT of marital distress, anger, childhood somatic disorders, and chronic pain were in the moderate range. CBT was somewhat superior to antidepressants in the treatment of adult depression. CBT was equally effective as behavior therapy in the treatment of adult depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Large uncontrolled effect sizes were found for bulimia nervosa and schizophrenia. The 16 meta-analyses we reviewed support the efficacy of CBT for many disorders. While limitations of the meta-analytic approach need to be considered in interpreting the results of this review, our findings are consistent with other review methodologies that also provide support for the efficacy CBT.

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    • "Cognitive behavioural treatment (CBT) for depression has been studied extensively and has proved to be a clinically effective psychotherapy (Butler et al., 2006;). More recently, studies have shown that CBT for depression can be effectively administered in web-based settings (Andersson & Cuijpers, 2009; Andrews, Cuijpers, Craske, McEvoy, & Titov, 2010; Kelders, Bohlmeijer, Pots, & van Gemert-Pijnen, 2015; Richards & Richardson, 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Blended care combines face-to-face treatment with web-based components in mental health care settings. Blended treatment could potentially improve active patient participation, by letting patients work though part of the protocol autonomously. Further, blended treatment might lower the costs of mental health care, by reducing treatment duration and/or therapist contact. However, knowledge on blended care for depression is still limited.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Internet Interventions
    • "Developing non-pharmacological treatments is essential . The psychological therapy of choice for anxiety and depression in the general population is cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) (Butler et al. 2006). CBT teaches behavioral skills including graded exposure, activity scheduling, relaxation and social skills, and cognitive skills such as challenging unhelpful thoughts (Beck, 1995). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Anxiety and depression are common following traumatic brain injury (TBI), often co-occurring. This study evaluated the efficacy of a 9-week cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program in reducing anxiety and depression and whether a three-session motivational interviewing (MI) preparatory intervention increased treatment response. Method: A randomized parallel three-group design was employed. Following diagnosis of anxiety and/or depression using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, 75 participants with mild-severe TBI (mean age 42.2 years, mean post-traumatic amnesia 22 days) were randomly assigned to an Adapted CBT group: (1) MI + CBT (n = 26), or (2) non-directive counseling (NDC) + CBT (n = 26); or a (3) waitlist control (WC, n = 23) group. Groups did not differ in baseline demographics, injury severity, anxiety or depression. MI and CBT interventions were guided by manuals adapted for individuals with TBI. Three CBT booster sessions were provided at week 21 to intervention groups. Results: Using intention-to-treat analyses, random-effects regressions controlling for baseline scores revealed that Adapted CBT groups (MI + CBT and NDC + CBT) showed significantly greater reduction in anxiety on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [95% confidence interval (CI) -2.07 to -0.06] and depression on the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (95% CI -5.61 to -0.12) (primary outcomes), and greater gains in psychosocial functioning on Sydney Psychosocial Reintegration Scale (95% CI 0.04-3.69) (secondary outcome) over 30 weeks post-baseline relative to WC. The group receiving MI + CBT did not show greater gains than the group receiving NDC + CBT. Conclusions: Findings suggest that modified CBT with booster sessions over extended periods may alleviate anxiety and depression following TBI.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Psychological Medicine
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    • "llere dayalı ve defalarca etkililiği kanıtlanmış olan bir psikoterapi türüdür. BDT'nin tek uçlu depresyon, yaygın anksiyete bozukluğu, agorafobinin eşlik ettiği ve etmediği panik bozukluk, sosyal fobi, travma sonrası stres bozukluğu, bulimiya, obsesif-kompulsif bozukluk ve şizofreni gibi birçok ruhsal sorunun tedavisinde etkili olduğu görülmüştür (Butler ve ark. 2006). Ancak, diğer ruh sağlığı müdahaleleri gibi, BDT'nin de tüm ruhsal sorunlar için tek çare olduğu söylenemez ve bu konuda hala cevaplanmamış bazı sorular vardır (Kingdon ve ark. 2007)."

    Full-text · Dataset · Dec 2015
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