A Randomized Trial of Low-Protein Diet in Type 1 and in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients With Incipient and Overt Nephropathy
Centre d'Investigation Clinique, INSERM-APHM, Marseille, France. Journal of Renal Nutrition
(Impact Factor: 1.87).
10/2005; 15(4):398-406. DOI: 10.1053/j.jrn.2005.07.003
The efficacy of a low-protein diet in the secondary prevention of diabetic nephropathy is not established in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus. To determine whether a low-protein diet slows the decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and decreases the albumin excretion rate (AER) in diabetic patients with incipient and overt nephropathy, we performed a 2-year prospective, randomized controlled trial comparing the effects of a low-protein diet (0.8 g/kg/day) with a usual-protein diet.
The study was conducted in a University hospital and included 63 type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients with either incipient or overt nephropathy and mild renal failure (prestudy GFR, 80 +/- 20 mL/min). The primary outcome measures were decreased in GFR and 24-hour AER.
In the low-protein-diet group, patients were younger (52 +/- 12 versus 63 +/- 9 years old) and more often were type 2 diabetic. During the follow-up period, according to dietary records the low-protein-diet group consumed 16% +/- 3% of total caloric intakes as compared with 19% +/- 4% in the usual-protein-diet group (P < .02), but 24-hour urinary urea excretions did not differ between the two groups. The 2-year GFR decrease was 7 +/- 11 mL/min in the low-protein-diet group and 5 +/- 15 mL/min in the usual-protein-diet group (P = not significant). AER did not increase significantly in the two diet groups during the follow-up period. Blood pressure and glycemic control were similar in the two groups all along the study. The decrease in GFR and AER were also similar in 6 compliant patients according to dietary records and to 24-hour urinary urea excretions from the low-protein-diet group and in 12 patients from the usual-protein-diet group.
A 2-year low-protein diet did not alter the course of GFR or of AER in diabetic patients with incipient or overt nephropathy receiving renin-angiotensin blockers with strict blood pressure control.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "Thus, the treatment strategies for renal failure, including the use of protein-restricted diets , have gained increased interest for the treatment of patients with diabetic nephropathy. Despite the few studies that suggest that protein intake restriction fails to improve renal prognosis in type 1 or type 2 diabetic patients with incipient or overt nephropathy and confers renoprotection, several findings have demonstrated that a low-protein diet preserves renal function and structure in animal models  and in type 2 diabetic patients with macroalbuminuria and improves disease prognosis, low-grade inflammation and proteinuria and depressive symptoms. However, there has been increasing concern regarding the risk of the subsequent development of malnutrition due to these diets. "
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ABSTRACT: A low-protein diet supplemented with ketoacids maintains nutritional status in patients with diabetic nephropathy. The activation of autophagy has been shown in the skeletal muscle of diabetic and uremic rats. This study aimed to determine whether a low-protein diet supplemented with ketoacids improves muscle atrophy and decreases the increased autophagy observed in rats with type 2 diabetic nephropathy. In this study, 24-week-old Goto-Kakizaki male rats were randomly divided into groups that received either a normal protein diet (NPD group), a low-protein diet (LPD group) or a low-protein diet supplemented with ketoacids (LPD+KA group) for 24 weeks. Age- and weight-matched Wistar rats served as control animals and received a normal protein diet (control group). We found that protein restriction attenuated proteinuria and decreased blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels. Compared with the NPD and LPD groups, the LPD+KA group showed a delay in body weight loss, an attenuation in soleus muscle mass loss and a decrease of the mean cross-sectional area of soleus muscle fibers. The mRNA and protein expression of autophagy-related genes, such as Beclin-1, LC3B, Bnip3, p62 and Cathepsin L, were increased in the soleus muscle of GK rats fed with NPD compared to Wistar rats. Importantly, LPD resulted in a slight reduction in the expression of autophagy-related genes; however, these differences were not statistically significant. In addition, LPD+KA abolished the upregulation of autophagy-related gene expression. Furthermore, the activation of autophagy in the NPD and LPD groups was confirmed by the appearance of autophagosomes or autolysosomes using electron microscopy, when compared with the Control and LPD+KA groups. Our results showed that LPD+KA abolished the activation of autophagy in skeletal muscle and decreased muscle loss in rats with type 2 diabetic nephropathy.
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