Article

Sociosexuality from Argentina to Zimbabwe: A 48-Nation Study of Sex, Culture, and Strategies of Human Mating

Department of Psychology, Bradley University, Peona, IL 62625, USA.
Behavioral and Brain Sciences (Impact Factor: 20.77). 04/2005; 28(2):247-75; discussion 275-311. DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X05000051
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The Sociosexual Orientation Inventory (SOI; Simpson & Gangestad 1991) is a self-report measure of individual differences in human mating strategies. Low SOI scores signify that a person is sociosexually restricted, or follows a more monogamous mating strategy. High SOI scores indicate that an individual is unrestricted, or has a more promiscuous mating strategy. As part of the International Sexuality Description Project (ISDP), the SOI was translated from English into 25 additional languages and administered to a total sample of 14,059 people across 48 nations. Responses to the SOI were used to address four main issues. First, the psychometric properties of the SOI were examined in cross-cultural perspective. The SOI possessed adequate reliability and validity both within and across a diverse range of modem cultures. Second, theories concerning the systematic distribution of sociosexuality across cultures were evaluated. Both operational sex ratios and reproductively demanding environments related in evolutionary-predicted ways to national levels of sociosexuality. Third, sex differences in sociosexuality were generally large and demonstrated cross-cultural universality across the 48 nations of the ISDP, confirming several evolutionary theories of human mating. Fourth, sex differences in sociosexuality were significantly larger when reproductive environments were demanding but were reduced to more moderate levels in cultures with more political and economic gender equality. Implications for evolutionary and social role theories of human sexuality are discussed.

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    • "E. Fisher, Aron, Mashek, Li, & Brown, 2002). The third research area derived from the biobehavioral approach is in cross-cultural research as reflected in the works ofJankowiak and Fischer (1992);Jankowiak and Paladino (2008);Jankowiak (1995Jankowiak ( , 2008);Buss (2003);Schmitt (2005Schmitt ( , 2006);Hewlett and Hewlett (2008); deKorotayev (1999, 2007); and deMunck et al. (de Munck, Korotayev, & Khaltourina, 2009;de Munck, Korotayev, Khaltourina, & de Munck, 2010). These researchers want to demonstrate that romantic love is a cultural universal or examine various corollaries that follow as a result. "
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    ABSTRACT: We seek to advance cultural models theory by contributing to issues related to theory, methods, and testing the external validity of a cultural model. We propose that cultural models are learned as if they were truly properties of collectivities but have no primary existence except in individual representations of them. The shared aspect of cultural models also implies collective awareness of the if–then entailments of cultural models. We use inductive ethnographic methods of freelisting (n = 80) and pile sorting (n = 39) to derive a cultural model of romantic love in the United States. From these tasks, we developed a cultural model of successful romantic love consisting of normative scenarios. For successful romantic love relations, a person would feel excited about meeting their beloved; make passionate and intimate love as opposed to only physical love; feel comfortable with the beloved, behaving in a companionable, friendly way with one’s partner; listen to the other’s concerns, offering to help out in various ways if necessary; and, all the while, keeping a mental ledger of the degree to which altruism and passion are mutual. Our model is supported through an examination of two extended case studies. Further research is required, of course, but we believe we have a rather novel and dynamic cultural model that is falsifiable and predictive of successful love relationships. The model is unique in that it combines passion with comfort and friendship as properties of romantic love.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · SAGE Open
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    • "Similarly, population measures of human sociosexuality (i.e., a measure of individual differences in human mating strategies) vary across nations with social and ecological characteristics of the local environment (Schmitt, 2005). For example, in environments with higherrates ofmortality andlower indicesof economic resources, national levels of sociosexuality trend toward patterns that promote monogamy and greater investment in long-term relationships , whereas in environments with lower rates of mortality and higher indices of economic resources, there are trends toward promiscuous mating systems in which individuals are quicker to have sex and experience less romantic relationship closeness (Lippa, 2009; Schmitt, 2005; Simpson & Gangestad, 1991). Trade-offs in parenting effort versus mating effort (i.e., long-term versus short-term mating strategies) (Buss & Schmitt, 1993) predict these variations in human mating systems (Gangestad & Simpson, 2000). "

    Full-text · Dataset · Dec 2015
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    • "Similarly, population measures of human sociosexuality (i.e., a measure of individual differences in human mating strategies) vary across nations with social and ecological characteristics of the local environment (Schmitt, 2005). For example, in environments with higher rates of mortality and lower indices of economic resources, national levels of sociosexuality trend toward patterns that promote monogamy and greater investment in long-term relationships, whereas in environments with lower rates of mortality and higher indices of economic resources, there are trends toward promiscuous mating systems in which individuals are quicker to have sex and experience less romantic relationship closeness (Lippa, 2009; Schmitt, 2005; Simpson & Gangestad, 1991). Trade-offs in parenting effort versus mating effort (i.e., long-term versus short-term mating strategies) (Buss & Schmitt, 1993) predict these variations in human mating systems (Gangestad & Simpson, 2000). "
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