Spatial Distribution of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Coastal Marine Sediments Receiving Industrial Effluents in Kuwait
The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in surficial sediments receiving industrial and municipal effluents in Kuwait. The SigmaPCB concentrations varied by two orders of magnitude ranging from 0.4 to 84 microg kg(-1) dw. The homologue distribution in the study favored the more chlorinated congeners and generally followed the order: penta-PCBs > hexa-PCBs > tetra-PCBs approximately hepta-PCBs, with the dominant congeners being 138, 101, 110, 180, 153, 132, 149, and 118. The spatial distribution revealed significant intersite difference in concentration, with high levels encountered close to a harbor and several wastewater outlets suggesting that point source input is the primary delivery mechanism of PCBs to the sediment. This study suggests that atmospheric deposition of PCBs may not be a significant delivery mechanism to sediments in Kuwait possibly due to low annual precipitation and high annual temperatures that are experienced in the Arabian Gulf. The implication of this observation is that PCBs in air are likely to remain in the gas phase long enough to be subject to long-range atmospheric transport to other regions.
Available from: Nadeem Ali
- "Unlike these coastal sites from different countries, Kuwait coastal area host scarce population with relatively minimum shipping activities and electronic industries. Moreover, in our studied samples, PBDEs distributional patterns clearly indicated the major contribution of penta-and octa-BDEs and their levels in our samples are in agreement with other studies from Kuwait (Gevao et al., 2006), Pakistan (Zehra et al., 2015), Europe (Johansson et al., 2006) and USA (Oros et al., 2005). According to Ramu et al. (2007) "
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ABSTRACT: Several classes of Organohalogenated contaminants (OHCs) were determined in sediments and bivalves collected from Kuwait coast. The levels and profile of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were compared in both sediments and bivalves. PCB-153 and -138 were the major contributors towards total OHCs followed by DDT and its metabolites (DDTs). The higher contribution of DDTs (~40%) and BDE-47 (~15%) in bivalves as compared to that in associated sediments indicated high biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAF). Higher BSAF (values for heavier PCBs, DDTs and PBDEs) also indicated their high accumulation potential from sediment into associated biota at most of the studied locations. Overall, OHCs in sediments and bivalves measured in current study were lower than those reported in the literature worldwide. Most of the sediment concentrations of OHCs (ng/g, dry weight) were in the range of permissible guideline values proposed by Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines (CSQGs), with few exceptions for DDTs (5 ng/g) and PCBs (22.7 ng/g). Similarly, 10% of bivalve samples contained high levels (ng/g, lipid weight) of PCBs (300) and DDTs (150) and were above the set safety benchmarks. This study establishes baseline for future monitoring programs.
Available from: Awadhesh N Jha
- "Studies to-date have mainly focused on metal and petroleum/combustion hydrocarbon contamination, with only a small number of reports documenting other priority POPs (PCBs, PBDEs and dioxins). Where studies have documented elevated levels of contamination they have tended to be localised and associated with specific point sources of contamination , such as the major industrial facilities based at Doha, Sulaibikhat Bay and the SIA (Al-Ghadban et al., 2002;Al-Sarawi et al., 2002b;Beg et al., 2003b;Gevao et al., 2006a;2006b;Gevao et al., 2009;Tarique et al., 2012). The risk posed by such pollution hot spots remain to be fully assessed and while attempts have been made to empirically evaluate risk (Beg et al., 2003a;2003b;Alshemmari et al., 2010), they must be viewed with a degree of caution as natural background levels of certain contaminants (e.g. "
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ABSTRACT: The rapid expansion of industry, along with previous pollution events linked to conflicts in the region, have led to a variety of contaminants being inadvertently or deliberately discharged into Kuwait's marine environment. These include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and trace metals, from the petrochemical industry, and contaminated brine from the region's desalination industries. The present paper has reviewed over 60 studies that have reported the levels of contaminants, including PAHs, metals and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) present in seawater, sediment and representative marine organisms. Most of the reviewed literature confirmed that while Kuwait's marine environment has been subjected to a wide array of pollution events, the actual levels of contamination remains relatively low. However, sediment contamination hotspots associated with point sources of industrial contamination, such as originating from the Shuaiba industrial area, do exist at a number of locations around the coast.
Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Available from: Abdulaziz Mansour Aba
- "Recently, however, some attempts have been made to report on the levels of POPs in Kuwait's marine environment (Gevao et al. 2006a, b, 2008, 2009, 2010). We previously reported on the spatial distribution of PCBs in sediments facing a major industrial complex in southern Kuwait (Gevao et al. 2006b). Here we reconstruct the input chronology of PCBs in sediments from the northwestern Arabian Gulf from which to assess the impact of control measures on the use of PCBs in the region. "
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ABSTRACT: Surficial sediment samples were obtained from 25 locations within Kuwait Bay and outside the Bay, in the Northwestern Arabian Gulf, to access recent pollution in Kuwait. The historical deposition of PBDEs to this portion of the Arabian Gulf was reconstructed by collecting a sediment core at the entrance of Kuwait Bay. The mean (and range) in concentrations of ∑11PBDEs in surficial sediments was 0.164±0.09 (0.06-0.44) pg/gdw. The concentrations measured in Kuwait Bay were generally higher than those measured in the open Gulf. When the concentrations were normalized to organic carbon, the average ∑11PBDEs concentrations measured in Kuwait Bay were seven times higher than average concentrations outside the Bay. The historical record, reconstructed from a sediment core collected at the entrance of Kuwait Bay, showed that Σ11PBDE concentrations were generally low in deeper sediment sections. The concentrations started to increase above background in the mid-1950s and increased sharply to a maximum Σ11PBDE concentration of ca 1100pg/g in the late 1980s. Concentrations decreased thereafter until another pulse in concentrations was observed around the early 2000 followed by a decrease in subsequent years. It is likely that the initial pulse in concentration recorded in sediments is related to inputs from the Gulf war of 1991. The penta congeners were observed throughout the length of the core although the concentrations were low. The congeners present in the Deca-PBDE technical mixture, particularly BDE 209 which is the main congener in the Deca-BDE mixture, occurred in sediment cores around the 1980s, and the concentrations increased rapidly thereafter being the most dominant congener since their first detection in sediments. The presence of nona-BDE congeners in proportions exceeding those in commercial mixtures may be suggestive of debromination of BDE 209 in sediments.
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