Longitudinal Assessment of Stereotypic, Proto‐Injurious, and Self-Injurious Behavior Exhibited by Young Children With Developmental Delays

University of Maryland Baltimore County, Psychology, MD 21784, USA.
American journal of mental retardation: AJMR (Impact Factor: 2.51). 12/2005; 110(6):439-50. DOI: 10.1352/0895-8017(2005)110[439:LAOSPA]2.0.CO;2
Source: PubMed


Twelve children (CA, 12 to 32 months) with developmental delay were observed in their homes during monthly analogue functional analysis probes to document patterns of emerging self-injurious behavior. Two patterns of emerging self-injury were observed for 5 participants: (a) The topography and functional analysis pattern remained the same, but the behavior eventually caused tissue damage; or (b) a new topography emerged that was similar to an established stereotypic motor behavior. Functional analysis results were inconclusive for the majority of target behaviors across participants due to undifferentiated responding across conditions. One participant exhibited two topographies that appeared to become sensitive to positive reinforcement over time. Results are discussed in terms of implications for future research on early intervention and prevention of self-injury.

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Available from: David M. Richman, Jan 31, 2014
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    • "As regards stereotyped behaviours, the presence of high-frequency repetitive or ritualistic behaviour was described as a robust risk marker for SIB (Oliver et al. 2012). Some studies have suggested that stereotypies are often similar in topography to SIB and that they may be a precursor of SIB in certain cases (Guess & Carr 1991; Berkson et al. 2001; Richman et al. 2005). As expected, SIB at adolescence were related to severity of autism symptoms, adaptive skills, intellectual functioning and language level, as found in the literature with different age ranges (Baghdadli et al. 2003; Murphy et al. 2009; Richards et al. 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Self-injurious behaviours (SIB) are highly prevalent in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and have deleterious effects on the individual and their environment. The aim of this study was to examine SIB prevalence and associated features in a population of 152 adolescents with ASD and to determine risk factors for SIB. The present study uses a subset of data of a longitudinal follow-up of 152 children with ASD. The presence of a low or high level of self-injury was assessed at adolescence through the Aberrant Behaviour Checklist completed by parents. Clinical and social variables regarding severity of autism symptoms, psychological development, adaptive behaviours, parental quality of life and total intervention time were collected during childhood (mean age = 5 years, SD = 1.6) and at adolescence (mean age = 15 years, SD = 1.3). About 35.8% of adolescents with ASD in our sample displayed self-injury, which was frequently associated with other challenging behaviours and was related to severity of autism symptoms, adaptive skills, intellectual functioning and language level (P < 0.001). The main risk factor for SIB at adolescence was severity of autism symptoms (P = 0.04). Cognitive development during childhood was found to be a protective factor (P = 0.03) whereas at adolescence, the main protective factor was communicative abilities (P = 0.04). These data showed that SIB remained highly prevalent at adolescence and yielded risk and protective factors for developing SIB at this period of life. Limitations and perspectives for future research are discussed. © 2015 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of Intellectual Disability Research
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    • "This finding is difficult to interpret in terms of the current literature on proto-injurious behavior, given that there does not appear to be any topographical association between stereotyped behaviors that predicted SIB, especially with regard to yelling. That is, previous research (Guess & Carr, 1991; Richman & Lindauer, 2005) has suggested that some forms of SIB may evolve from topographically similar forms of stereotyped behavior such as hand flapping in the head and shoulder region evolving into head hitting. However, body-rocking as a potential risk marker for later development of gross motor SIB may be easier to explain if we allow for an extension of the proto-injurious behavior model of SIB. "
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the relation between stereotyped behavior and self-injurious behavior (SIB) for 1871 individuals with intellectual disabilities who had a score of >0 on the Behavior Problem Inventory (BPI-01; Rojahn et al., 2001). We report three main findings: First, structural equation modeling techniques (SEM) revealed that the BPI-01stereotyped behavior subscale scores predicted BPI-01 SIB subscale scores. Second, when stereotyped behavior was modeled as a predictor of SIB, mixture-modeling techniques revealed two groups of individuals: one in which stereotyped behavior was a strong, statistically significant predictor of SIB (69% of the sample), and another one in which stereotyped behavior was not a predictor of SIB (31%). Finally, two specific stereotyped behavior topographies (i.e., body rocking and yelling) were identified that significantly predicted five different SIB topographies (i.e., self-biting, head hitting, body hitting, self-pinching, and hair pulling). Results are discussed in terms of future research needed to identify bio-behavioral variables correlated with cases of SIB that can, and cannot, be predicted by the presence of stereotyped behavior.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Research in Developmental Disabilities
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    • "Multimodal assessment of behavior problems was used, similar to previous studies on the early development of behavior problems such as SIB (e.g. Kurtz et al. 2012; Richman and Lindauer 2005). The main dependent variable was the frequency scores the Behavior Problem Inventory (BPI-01; Rojahn et al. 2001). "
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    ABSTRACT: Severe problem behaviors, like aggression, self-injury, and repetitive behaviors, in people with intellectual and developmental disabilities often appear during early development and may persist without early intervention. The frequencies of self-injurious behavior, aggression, tantrums, property destruction and stereotyped behavior among 17 infants and toddlers at risk for developmental delays and severe behavior problems were assessed using two methods: 1) direct observation of responses during 10 s partial interval recording during analogue functional analysis and 2) the Behavior Problem Inventory-01 (BPI-01; Rojahn et al. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 577–588, 2001), an informant rating scale. Analogue functional analysis results suggested that the most common function for problem behavior was automatic reinforcement, followed by negative reinforcement in the form of escape from demands. Agreement across the two types of measurement systems as to occurrence of the behaviors reported on the BPI-01 and direct observations during analogue functional analyses was greater than 75 % across aggression, self-injury, and stereotyped behavior. Agreement at a more molecular level of the ranking of the most commonly occurring specific behaviors was considerably lower. Results are discussed in terms of future research on identifying conditions that set the occasion for high levels of agreement between indirect and direct measurement systems for severe behavior problems.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities
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