Cognitive profiles of individual patients with Parkinson's disease and dementia: Comparison with dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease
We describe the pattern of cognitive profiles within a community-based sample of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia (PDD) using cluster analyses, and compare the results with data from patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Fifty patients with PDD and 39 with AD from Stavanger, Norway, and 62 patients with DLB from San Diego, CA, USA were diagnosed by either standardized clinical procedures or criteria (all PDD and all AD cases) or necropsy (all DLB cases). Four subgroups were identified: two subgroups with a subcortical cognitive profile (one with mild and one with moderate dementia severity), one subgroup with global impairment and severe dementia, and one subgroup with a cortical cognitive profile and moderate dementia. Of the patients with PDD and with DLB, 56% and 55%, respectively, had a subcortical cognitive profile, compared with only 33% of the AD patients. Conversely, 30% of the patients with PDD and 26% of those with DLB had a cortical cognitive profile, compared with 67% of the patients with AD. These findings suggest that in some patients with PDD, frontosubcortical changes are the main contributing factor to dementia, whereas in other patients, cortical and hippocampal changes are more important.