Ocular Complications after Organ and Bone Marrow Transplantation in Children

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States
Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (Impact Factor: 1). 10/2005; 9(5):426-32. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaapos.2005.06.002
Source: PubMed


Organ and bone marrow transplantation commonly are performed in children. Ocular complications usually are described as secondary to post-transplantation medications. The complication rate is unknown.
A retrospective chart review was performed of 93 children who were younger than 18 years of age and had transplantation surgery from 1989 to 2004. The rate and type of ocular complications, including those requiring ocular surgery, were analyzed. Medications and visual loss associated with adverse effects also were studied.
Of the 93 patients, 74 patients met the entry criteria. Sixty-one patients had at least 1 year of follow-up, and the longest follow-up duration was 14 years. The 1-year post-transplantation complication rate was 16.0% (95% confidence interval 6.8-24.4%). Adverse effects included cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis, cataract, graft-versus-host disease, lymphoproliferative disorder, persistent strabismus, and transient visual loss. Four patients underwent eye surgery, including lensectomy for cataract, tarsorrhaphy for corneal ulcer, and iris biopsy. They had surgery 0.9 to 4.7 years after transplantation. Most patients were taking prednisone and cyclosporine when their complication was diagnosed. One patient's visual acuity deteriorated to no light perception in one eye and 20/250 in the other eye secondary to CMV retinitis. Most patients had a final visual acuity > or =20/40.
Transplantation surgery in children produces a significant risk of ocular impairment. The 1-year complication rate was 16.0%. Eye surgery may be required within the first few years after transplantation. Although most patients maintained a final visual acuity of 20/40 or better, one patient became bilaterally legally blind.

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    • "Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is a severe sight-threatening disease which predominantly affects patients with AIDS [1-3]. CMV retinitis may also occur in patients who are lymphopenic secondary to immunosuppressive therapy after bone marrow or solid organ transplantation [4,5]. Unless effective treatment is promptly initiated, the disease may lead to progressive visual loss and blindness [6,7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To present a possible coincidence of cytomegalovirus retinitis and intraocular lymphoma in a patient with systemic non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Case presentation A 47-year-old woman presented with decreased visual acuity associated with white retinal lesions in both eyes. A history of pneumonia of unknown aetiology closely preceded the deterioration of vision. Five years previously the patient was diagnosed with follicular non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. She was treated with a chemotherapy regimen comprised of cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristin, and prednisone with later addition of the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab. She experienced a relapse 19 months later with involvement of the retroperitoneal lymph nodes, and commenced treatment with rituximab and 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan. A second relapse occurred 22 months after radioimmunotherapy and was treated with a combination of fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and mitoxantrone followed by rituximab. The patient experienced no further relapses until the current presentation (April, 2010). Pars plana vitrectomy with vitreous fluid analysis was performed in the right eye. PCR testing confirmed the presence of cytomegalovirus in the vitreous. Atypical lymphoid elements, highly suspicious of malignancy were also found on cytologic examination. Intravenous foscarnet was administered continually for three weeks, followed by oral valganciclovir given in a dose of 900 mg twice per day. In addition, the rituximab therapy continued at three monthly intervals. Nevertheless, cessation of foscarnet therapy was followed by a recurrence of retinitis on three separate occasions during a 3-month period instigating its reinduction to the treatment regime after each recurrence. Conclusions Cytomegalovirus retinitis is an opportunistic infection found in AIDS patients as well as in bone marrow and solid organ transplant recipients being treated with systemic immunosuppressive drugs. This case presents a less common incidence of cytomegalovirus retinitis occurring in a patient with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. We demonstrated a possible coexistence of cytomegalovirus retinitis and intraocular lymphoma in this particular patient. The final diagnosis was based on clinical manifestations together with the course of uveitis and its response to treatment alongside the results of vitreous fluid analysis. This report highlights the importance of intraocular fluid examination in cases with nonspecific clinical manifestations. Such an examination allows for the detection of simultaneously ongoing ocular diseases of differing aetiologies and enables the prompt initiation of effective treatment.
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