Dietary prebiotic oligosaccharides are detectable in the faeces of formula-fed infants. Acta Paediatr

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Ferrara, Ferrare, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway: 1992). Supplement 10/2005; 94(449):27-30. DOI: 10.1080/08035320510043510
Source: PubMed


Human milk oligosaccharides are not digested during intestinal passage and can be detected in stools. In this study it was investigated whether a prebiotic mixture of low-molecular-weight galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and high-molecular-weight fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) can be detected in stool samples of formula-fed infants. The test formula was supplemented with 0.8 g/dl oligosaccharides (GOS+FOS). In the control formula, maltodextrins were used as placebo. Fecal flora was assessed at the beginning (day 1) and at the end of a 28-d feeding period (day 2). At day 2 the content of galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides in the stool samples were measured. On study day 1, the number of bifidobacteria was not different among the groups (supplemented group: 7.7 (6.2) CFU/g; placebo group: 8.0 (6.0) CFU/g). At the end of the 28-d feeding period, the number of bifidobacteria was significantly higher in the group fed the supplemented formula when compared to placebo (supplemented group: 9.8 (0.7) CFU/g stool; placebo group: 7.1 (4.7) CFU/g stool; p<0.001). In all infants fed the supplemented formula, GOS and FOS could be identified in the stool samples. That was not the case in infants fed the non-supplemented formula.
Conclusion: The present data confirm the bifidogenicity of oligosaccharides and indicate that dietary galacto-oligosaccharides and long chain fructo-oligosaccharides remain during the whole passage in the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract, similarly to human milk oligosaccharides.

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    • "The impact of freeze-drying on the extraction of oligosaccharides from samples is unknown. Several methods have been developed for oligosaccharide extraction for both wet and freeze-dried fecal samples, using analytical techniques such as high-performance anion-exchange chromatography, colorimetric methods, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Sabharwal et al., 1984;Sabharwal, Sjoblad &amp; Lundblad, 1991;Moro et al., 2005). These methods have been successful in extracting oligosaccharides from wet and lyophilized feces, but to our knowledge there has not been a study showing whether freeze-drying fecal samples affects the integrity of the sample and analyses. "
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    ABSTRACT: Infant fecal samples are commonly studied to investigate the impacts of breastfeeding on the development of the microbiota and subsequent health effects. Comparisons of infants living in different geographic regions and environmental contexts are needed to aid our understanding of evolutionarily-selected milk adaptations. However, the preservation of fecal samples from individuals in remote locales until they can be processed can be a challenge. Freeze-drying (lyophilization) offers a cost-effective way to preserve some biological samples for transport and analysis at a later date. Currently, it is unknown what, if any, biases are introduced into various analyses by the freeze-drying process. Here, we investigated how freeze-drying affected analysis of two relevant and intertwined aspects of infant fecal samples, marker gene amplicon sequencing of the bacterial community and the fecal oligosaccharide profile (undigested human milk oligosaccharides). No differences were discovered between the fecal oligosaccharide profiles of wet and freeze-dried samples. The marker gene sequencing data showed an increase in proportional representation of Bacteriodes and a decrease in detection of bifidobacteria and members of class Bacilli after freeze-drying. This sample treatment bias may possibly be related to the cell morphology of these different taxa (Gram status). However, these effects did not overwhelm the natural variation among individuals, as the community data still strongly grouped by subject and not by freeze-drying status. We also found that compensating for sample concentration during freeze-drying, while not necessary, was also not detrimental. Freeze-drying may therefore be an acceptable method of sample preservation and mass reduction for some studies of microbial ecology and milk glycan analysis.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · PeerJ
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    • "Moro 2003 [75] Full Term None/Not clear Mohan 2006 [76] Pre-Term None/Not clear Moro 2005 [77] Full Term None/Not clear Reuman1986 [78] Pre-Term None/Not clear Moro 2006 [79] Arslanoglu 2007 [80] Arslanoglu 2008 [81] Van Hoffen 2009 [82] Schouten 2011 [83] Full Term Numico Riskin 2009 [84] Pre-Term None/Not clear Piemontese 2011 [85] Full Term Danone Rouge 2009 [86] Pre-Term French Ministry of Health "
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    ABSTRACT: There is little or no information available on the impact of funding by the food industry on trial outcomes and methodological quality of synbiotics, probiotics and prebiotics research in infants. The objective of this study was to compare the methodological quality, outcomes of food industry sponsored trials versus non industry sponsored trials, with regards to supplementation of synbiotics, probiotics and prebiotics in infant formula. A comprehensive search was conducted to identify published and unpublished randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Cochrane methodology was used to assess the risk of bias of included RCTs in the following domains: 1) sequence generation; 2) allocation concealment; 3) blinding; 4) incomplete outcome data; 5) selective outcome reporting; and 6) other bias. Clinical outcomes and authors' conclusions were reported in frequencies and percentages. The association between source of funding, risk of bias, clinical outcomes and conclusions were assessed using Pearson's Chi-square test and the Fisher's exact test. A p-value < 0.05 was statistically significant. Sixty seven completed and 3 on-going RCTs were included. Forty (59.7%) were funded by food industry, 11 (16.4%) by non-industry entities and 16 (23.9%) did not specify source of funding. Several risk of bias domains, especially sequence generation, allocation concealment and blinding, were not adequately reported. There was no significant association between the source of funding and sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding and selective reporting, majority of reported clinical outcomes or authors' conclusions. On the other hand, source of funding was significantly associated with the domains of incomplete outcome data, free of other bias domains as well as reported antibiotic use and conclusions on weight gain. In RCTs on infants fed infant formula containing probiotics, prebiotics or synbiotics, the source of funding did not influence the majority of outcomes in favour of the sponsors' products. More non-industry funded research is needed to further assess the impact of funding on methodological quality, reported clinical outcomes and authors' conclusions.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · BMC Medical Research Methodology
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    • "The results for each study are therefore reported separately. Four studies showed that prebiotics significantly increased bifidobacteria: Fanaro 2005 [42] (MD 0.30, 95% CI: 0.13 to 0.47, n = 46); Moro 2005 [47] (MD 2.70, 95% CI: 0.37 to 5.03, n = 32); Xiao-Ming 2004 [53] (MD 1.90, 95% CI: 1.51 to 2.29, n = 121); Xiao-Ming 2008 [54] (MD 0.85, 95% CI: 0.16 to 1.54, n = 38). The prebiotic results for the two types of prebiotics (acidic oligosaccharides with maltodextrin or neutral GOS FOS) in Fanaro 2005 [42] were combined before meta-analysis using combined mean and pooled SD. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics are being added to infant formula to promote growth and development in infants. Previous reviews (2007 to 2011) on term infants given probiotics or prebiotics focused on prevention of allergic disease and food hypersensitivity. This review focused on growth and clinical outcomes in term infants fed only infant formula containing synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics. Methods Cochrane methodology was followed using randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared term infant formula containing probiotics, prebiotics or synbiotics to conventional infant formula with / without placebo among healthy full term infants. The mean difference (MD) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported for continuous outcomes, risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. Where appropriate, meta-analysis was performed; heterogeneity was explored using subgroup and sensitivity analyses. If studies were too diverse a narrative synthesis was provided. Results Three synbiotic studies (N = 475), 10 probiotics studies (N = 933) and 12 prebiotics studies (N = 1563) were included. Synbiotics failed to significantly increase growth in boys and girls. Use of synbiotics increased stool frequency, had no impact on stool consistency, colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. Probiotics in formula also failed to have any significant effect on growth, stool frequency or consistency. Probiotics did not lower the incidence of diarrhoea, colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. Prebiotics in formula did increase weight gain but had no impact on length or head circumference gain. Prebiotics increased stool frequency but had no impact on stool consistency, the incidence of colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. There was no impact of prebiotics on the volume of formula tolerated, infections and gastrointestinal microflora. The quality of evidence was compromised by imprecision, inconsistency of results, use of different study preparations and publication bias. Authors’ conclusions There is not enough evidence to state that supplementation of term infant formula with synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics does result in improved growth or clinical outcomes in term infants. There is no data available to establish if synbiotics are superior to probiotics or prebiotics.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Nutrition Journal
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