Article

Dietary prebiotic oligosaccharides are detectable in the faeces of formula-fed infants. Acta Paediatr

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Ferrara, Ferrare, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway: 1992). Supplement 10/2005; 94(449):27-30. DOI: 10.1080/08035320510043510
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Human milk oligosaccharides are not digested during intestinal passage and can be detected in stools. In this study it was investigated whether a prebiotic mixture of low-molecular-weight galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and high-molecular-weight fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) can be detected in stool samples of formula-fed infants. The test formula was supplemented with 0.8 g/dl oligosaccharides (GOS+FOS). In the control formula, maltodextrins were used as placebo. Fecal flora was assessed at the beginning (day 1) and at the end of a 28-d feeding period (day 2). At day 2 the content of galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides in the stool samples were measured. On study day 1, the number of bifidobacteria was not different among the groups (supplemented group: 7.7 (6.2) CFU/g; placebo group: 8.0 (6.0) CFU/g). At the end of the 28-d feeding period, the number of bifidobacteria was significantly higher in the group fed the supplemented formula when compared to placebo (supplemented group: 9.8 (0.7) CFU/g stool; placebo group: 7.1 (4.7) CFU/g stool; p<0.001). In all infants fed the supplemented formula, GOS and FOS could be identified in the stool samples. That was not the case in infants fed the non-supplemented formula.
Conclusion: The present data confirm the bifidogenicity of oligosaccharides and indicate that dietary galacto-oligosaccharides and long chain fructo-oligosaccharides remain during the whole passage in the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract, similarly to human milk oligosaccharides.

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    • "The impact of freeze-drying on the extraction of oligosaccharides from samples is unknown. Several methods have been developed for oligosaccharide extraction for both wet and freeze-dried fecal samples, using analytical techniques such as high-performance anion-exchange chromatography, colorimetric methods, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Sabharwal et al., 1984;Sabharwal, Sjoblad &amp; Lundblad, 1991;Moro et al., 2005). These methods have been successful in extracting oligosaccharides from wet and lyophilized feces, but to our knowledge there has not been a study showing whether freeze-drying fecal samples affects the integrity of the sample and analyses. "
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    • "Moro 2003 [75] Full Term None/Not clear Mohan 2006 [76] Pre-Term None/Not clear Moro 2005 [77] Full Term None/Not clear Reuman1986 [78] Pre-Term None/Not clear Moro 2006 [79] Arslanoglu 2007 [80] Arslanoglu 2008 [81] Van Hoffen 2009 [82] Schouten 2011 [83] Full Term Numico Riskin 2009 [84] Pre-Term None/Not clear Piemontese 2011 [85] Full Term Danone Rouge 2009 [86] Pre-Term French Ministry of Health "
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    ABSTRACT: There is little or no information available on the impact of funding by the food industry on trial outcomes and methodological quality of synbiotics, probiotics and prebiotics research in infants. The objective of this study was to compare the methodological quality, outcomes of food industry sponsored trials versus non industry sponsored trials, with regards to supplementation of synbiotics, probiotics and prebiotics in infant formula. A comprehensive search was conducted to identify published and unpublished randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Cochrane methodology was used to assess the risk of bias of included RCTs in the following domains: 1) sequence generation; 2) allocation concealment; 3) blinding; 4) incomplete outcome data; 5) selective outcome reporting; and 6) other bias. Clinical outcomes and authors' conclusions were reported in frequencies and percentages. The association between source of funding, risk of bias, clinical outcomes and conclusions were assessed using Pearson's Chi-square test and the Fisher's exact test. A p-value < 0.05 was statistically significant. Sixty seven completed and 3 on-going RCTs were included. Forty (59.7%) were funded by food industry, 11 (16.4%) by non-industry entities and 16 (23.9%) did not specify source of funding. Several risk of bias domains, especially sequence generation, allocation concealment and blinding, were not adequately reported. There was no significant association between the source of funding and sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding and selective reporting, majority of reported clinical outcomes or authors' conclusions. On the other hand, source of funding was significantly associated with the domains of incomplete outcome data, free of other bias domains as well as reported antibiotic use and conclusions on weight gain. In RCTs on infants fed infant formula containing probiotics, prebiotics or synbiotics, the source of funding did not influence the majority of outcomes in favour of the sponsors' products. More non-industry funded research is needed to further assess the impact of funding on methodological quality, reported clinical outcomes and authors' conclusions.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · BMC Medical Research Methodology
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    • "The results for each study are therefore reported separately. Four studies showed that prebiotics significantly increased bifidobacteria: Fanaro 2005 [42] (MD 0.30, 95% CI: 0.13 to 0.47, n = 46); Moro 2005 [47] (MD 2.70, 95% CI: 0.37 to 5.03, n = 32); Xiao-Ming 2004 [53] (MD 1.90, 95% CI: 1.51 to 2.29, n = 121); Xiao-Ming 2008 [54] (MD 0.85, 95% CI: 0.16 to 1.54, n = 38). The prebiotic results for the two types of prebiotics (acidic oligosaccharides with maltodextrin or neutral GOS FOS) in Fanaro 2005 [42] were combined before meta-analysis using combined mean and pooled SD. "
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