T cells and cytokines in atherogenesis
The Catholic University of America, Washington, Washington, D.C., United States Lupus
(Impact Factor: 2.2).
02/2005; 14(9):732-5. DOI: 10.1191/0961203305lu2210oa
Recent findings suggest that inflammation plays a key role in atherosclerosis from the earliest stage of lesion initiation, to the ultimate complication of thrombosis. In patients who died because of acute coronary syndromes (ACS), coronary atherosclerotic plaques are characterized by the presence of macrophages, and to a lesser extent T-lymphocytes, at the immediate site of either plaque rupture or superficial erosion. The rupture-related inflammatory cells are activated, indicating ongoing inflammation. ACS patients are also characterized by activated circulating lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils, and by increased concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and of the highly sensitive acute phase reactant C-reactive protein. Interestingly, an unusual subset of T cells, CD4+ CD28null T cells, involved in vascular complication of rheumatoid arthritis because of their functional profile predisposing for vascular injury, are expanded in the peripheral blood and infiltrate the coronary lesions of ACS patients. The presence of activated T lymphocytes implies antigenic stimulation, but the nature of such antigen(s) remains to be investigated. Several autoantigens expressed in the atherosclerotic plaque, including oxidized LDL and heat shock proteins, and infectious agents are able to elicit an immune response. The inflammatory component is not localized to the 'culprit' plaque, but it is diffused to the entire coronary vascular bed, and involves also the myocardium.
Available from: Girish Mody
- "Interestingly, numerous mechanisms of HSP-mediated inhibition of cell death have been described [20,21]. Since RA-PBLs exist in a milieu of inflammatory mediators such as tumor-necrosis-factor-α (TNFα) and C-reactive protein (CRP) , it is likely that exacerbated stress responses may interfere with transmission of apoptotic signals. "
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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease, which causes synovial damage. Persistence of lymphocyte infiltrates in the rheumatoid synovium has been attributed to abnormal apoptosis. While not comprehensively investigated, perturbations in peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) apoptosis may also be involved in perpetuation of autoimmune processes in RA.
We investigated total, CD4+ and CD19+ PBL apoptosis in our study cohort by monitoring the translocation of phosphatidylserine using the Annexin-V assay. To examine the role of death receptor mediated apoptosis as well as activation-induced-cell-death (AICD), PBLs were labeled with CD95/Fas and CD69 markers and enumerated by flow cytometry. Proteolytic activity of initiator and executioner caspases was determined by luminometry. DNA fragmentation assays were used to examine whether apoptotic signals were transduced to the nucleus. Quantitative PCR arrays were used to investigate apoptotic pathways associated with RA-PBLs. Since heat-shock-protein-70 (HSP70) is an inducible protein which modulates apoptotic signals, we determined HSP70 levels by intra-cellular flow cytometry and western blots.
The RA-PBLs showed signs of elevated apoptosis whilst in circulation. These include increases in the loss of plasma membrane asymmetry, indicated by increased externalization of phosphatidylserine (especially in B-lymphocytes). RA-PBLs showed a bias to CD95/Fas mediated apoptotic pathways, but low levels of the CD69 marker suggested that this was not associated with immune activation. Although downstream markers of apoptosis such as caspase-3/7 activity, were increased, no DNA fragmentation was observed in RA-PBLs. Interestingly, elevated levels of apoptosis did not correlate with absolute lymphocyte counts in RA patients. Levels of HSP70 were highly elevated in RA-PBLs compared to controls.
The results suggest that while apoptosis may be initiated in RA-PBLs, they may lack commitment to fully executing the apoptotic program. This may be related to inhibition on apoptotic transduction by HSP70. This study provides evidence that abnormalities in RA-PBLs apoptosis may occur whilst still in circulation and may contribute to pathogenesis of the disease.
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ABSTRACT: Structural proteins such as elastin and collagen can be readily imaged by using two-photon excitation and second-harmonic generation microscopic techniques, respectively, without physical or biochemical processing of the tissues. This time- and effort-saving advantage makes these imaging techniques convenient for determining the structural characteristics of blood vessels in vivo. Fibrillar collagen is a well-known element involved in the formation of atherosclerotic lesions. It is also an important component of the fibrous cap responsible for structural stability of atherosclerotic plaques. High resolution in vivo microscopic imaging and characterization of atherosclerotic lesions in animal models can be particularly useful for drug discovery. However, it is hindered by the limitations of regular microscope objectives to gain access of the tissues of interest and motional artifacts. We report a technique that facilitates in vivo microscopic imaging of carotid arteries of rodents using conventional microscope objectives, and at the same time avoids motional artifacts. As a result, collagen, elastin, leukocytes, cell nuclei, and neutral lipids can be visualized in three dimensions in live animals. We present and discuss in vivo imaging results using a flow cessation mouse model of accelerated atherosclerosis.
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ABSTRACT: Knowledge of caries bacteria and the inflammatory responses they elicit in the dental pulp is prerequisite to our understanding of the pathogenesis of pulpitis. Recent advances in immunology and neurophysiology can now explain some of the clinical manifestations of pulpitis. The purpose of this review is twofold. The first purpose is to review the literature of the caries microflora, the host immune responses they elicit, and how they do so. The relationship between both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and pulpitis is discussed. The proinflammatory properties of lipoteichoic acid, which is a common virulence factor among Gram-positive bacteria such as those found among the caries bacteria, are reviewed. The second purpose is to review how bacteria and their metabolites, as well as pulpal immune and inflammatory reactions to them, modify the pain sensation in pulpitis.
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