Article

Childhood Asthma and Exposure to Traffic and Nitrogen Dioxide

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Abstract

Evidence for a causal relationship between traffic-related air pollution and asthma has not been consistent across studies, and comparisons among studies have been difficult because of the use of different indicators of exposure. We examined the association between traffic-related pollution and childhood asthma in 208 children from 10 southern California communities using multiple indicators of exposure. Study subjects were randomly selected from participants in the Children's Health Study. Outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was measured in summer and winter outside the home of each child. We also determined residential distance to the nearest freeway, traffic volumes on roadways within 150 meters, and model-based estimates of pollution from nearby roadways. Lifetime history of doctor-diagnosed asthma was associated with outdoor NO2; the odds ratio (OR) was 1.83 (95% confidence interval=1.04-3.22) per increase of 1 interquartile range (IQR=5.7 ppb) in exposure. We also observed increased asthma associated with closer residential distance to a freeway (1.89 per IQR; 1.19-3.02) and with model-based estimates of outdoor pollution from a freeway (2.22 per IQR; 1.36-3.63). These 2 indicators of freeway exposure and measured NO2 concentrations were also associated with wheezing and use of asthma medication. Asthma was not associated with traffic volumes on roadways within 150 meters of homes or with model-based estimates of pollution from nonfreeway roads. These results indicate that respiratory health in children is adversely affected by local exposures to outdoor NO2 or other freeway-related pollutants.

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... Air pollution has long been linked to increased morbidity and mortality of pulmonary diseases such as COPD and asthma [1][2][3][4]. Increased exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) has been shown to strongly correlate with negative health outcomes, including reduced lung function [5], increased hospitalizations [6], and premature death [7]. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP), which result from the incomplete combustion of diesel fuel, are a major component of airborne PM and have been largely studied for their role in enhancing immune responses in allergic diseases such as asthma. ...
... Exposure to airborne PM has long been linked to increased pulmonary disease morbidity and mortality [1][2][3][4]. Exposure to tra c-related air pollution has also been linked to the development of pulmonary conditions such as asthma [5,[35][36][37]. While PM like DEP has been shown to act as an inhaled adjuvant, enhancing the immune response to common allergens such as house dust mite [38] and ragweed pollen [39], little work has investigated the impact of DEP on the epithelial barrier function of the lung. ...
... Despite this possibility of Occludin reorganization following DEP exposure, our study demonstrated that a loss of Tricellulin through siRNA mediated knockdown can cause a signi cant decrease in barrier function as measured by both reduced TEER and increased permeability to FITC-Dextran, suggesting that a loss of Tricellulin is su cient to signi cantly impact barrier function. Exposure to tra c related air pollution such as diesel exhaust has been implicated in the development and exacerbation of pulmonary diseases including asthma [5,[35][36][37]. This relation has mostly been linked to the adjuvanticity of PM [46][47][48], with little attention paid to changes in the pulmonary epithelium due to such exposures. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: While exposure to diesel exhaust particles has been linked to aberrant immune responses in allergic diseases such as asthma, little attention has been paid to their effects on the airway epithelial barrier. In this study, we sought to determine the effect of diesel exhaust exposure on airway epithelial barrier function and composition using in vitro and in vivo model systems. Methods: 16HBE14o- human bronchial epithelial cells were grown on collagen coated Transwell inserts and exposed to 5 to 50 µg/cm 2 SRM 2975 diesel particulate matter (DEP) suspended in cell culture medium or vehicle controls. Changes in barrier function were assessed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and permeability to 4 kDa FITC Dextran. Neonatal BALB/c mice were exposed to aerosolized DEP (255 ±89 µg/m 3 ; 2 hours per day for 5 days) and changes in the tight junction protein Tricellulin were assessed two weeks post exposure. Results: A six-hour incubation of epithelial cells with diesel exhaust particles caused a significant concentration-dependent reduction in epithelial barrier integrity as measured by decreased TEER and increased permeability to 4 kDa FITC-Dextran. This reduction in epithelial barrier integrity corresponded to a significant reduction in expression of the tight junction protein Tricellulin. siRNA mediated knockdown of Tricellulin recapitulated changes in barrier function caused by DEP exposure. Neonatal exposure to aerosolized DEP caused a significant reduction in lung Tricellulin two weeks post exposure at both the protein and mRNA level. Conclusion: Short term exposure to DEP causes a significant reduction in epithelial barrier integrity through a reduction in the tight junction protein Tricellulin. Neonatal exposure to aerosolized DEP caused a significant and sustained reduction in Tricellulin protein and mRNA in the lung, suggesting that early life exposure to inhaled DEP may cause lasting changes in airway epithelial barrier function.
... Studies that have developed spatially resolved air pollution surfaces have advanced understanding of the relation between intraurban gradients of air pollution exposure and asthma morbidity, particularly for data not routinely collected at the community level (e.g., prevalence, survey, and symptom data). These studies have furthered our understanding of the relation of TRAP and asthma incidence (Gauderman et al. 2005;Jerrett et al. 2008;Brauer et al. 2002) and subacute markers of asthma morbidity (Bose et al. 2018;Milanzi et al. 2018;Clifford et al. 2018). However, the preponderance of studies that link spatially resolved air quality to respiratory health measures has assigned exposures based on home location. ...
... Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) was used as a marker for TRAP. Previous studies have also used NO 2 as a proxy for the complex mixture of pollutants in motor vehicle exhaust and have found significant associations with respiratory symptoms and incident asthma (Gauderman et al. 2005;McConnell et al. 2010). NO 2 values were derived from LUR to quantify TRAP at participating schools and residences. ...
... Previous studies have also used NO 2 to quantify trafficrelated exposures and found significant associations with respiratory symptoms and incident asthma (Gauderman et al. 2005;Jerrett et al. 2008;Kim et al. 2004). However, other pollutants, such as black carbon, may also reflect TRAP with different gradients and hence exposure profiles compared to NO 2 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Epidemiologic studies that implement area-based ambient air pollution measures to understand population-level health outcomes primarily use home address to assign exposure values to participants. However, as children spend a considerable amount of time at school, ambient air pollution levels at school locations may also be associated with health outcomes, particularly for pediatric asthma. We evaluated the impact of assigning a location-weighted average of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a marker of traffic-related air pollution, on self-reported asthma symptoms in an urban cohort of middle school children based on combined school and home locations compared to home and school location alone. Middle school students in Oakland, CA (n = 4017), were administered a survey based on a modified International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. Annual average NO2 values were assigned to students’ home address, school address, and a time-weighted average of the two locations from an annual land use regression model for the county. We implemented logistic regression to compare quartiles of home, school, and location-weighted average NO2 exposure for the eleven symptoms collected in the survey. Based on survey responses, for children classified as “current asthma,” significant associations between NO2 exposure and asthma symptoms were found at home locations only. Students in the 2nd quartile of exposure were more likely to report wheezing and trouble sleeping compared to students in the 1st quartile of exposure at home (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.152, 95% CI: 1.042, 2.310, and OR = 1.531, 95% CI: 1.020, 2.296, respectively). School-based exposures maintained lower, non-significant OR with wheezing and trouble sleeping for students in the 2nd quartile of NO2 (OR = 1.125, 95% CI: 0.748, 1.694 and OR = 1.262, 95% CI: 0.832, 1.916, respectively), while location-weighted average OR for both symptoms were attenuated compared to both locations and not statistically significant. Studies that assign area-based pollution measures at home only may not account for total pollution exposures, especially for children who spend a considerable portion of time in school locations.
... Air pollution has long been linked to increased morbidity and mortality of pulmonary diseases such as COPD and asthma [1][2][3][4]. Increased exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) has been shown to strongly correlate with negative health outcomes, including reduced lung function [5], increased hospitalizations [6], and premature death [7]. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP), which result from the incomplete combustion of diesel fuel, are a major component of airborne PM and have been largely studied for their role in enhancing immune responses in allergic diseases such as asthma. ...
... Exposure to airborne PM has long been linked to increased pulmonary disease morbidity and mortality [1][2][3][4]. Exposure to tra c-related air pollution has also been linked to the development of pulmonary conditions such as asthma [5,[35][36][37]. While PM like DEP has been shown to act as an inhaled adjuvant, enhancing the immune response to common allergens such as house dust mite [38] and ragweed pollen [39], little work has investigated the impact of DEP on the epithelial barrier function of the lung. ...
... Despite this possibility of Occludin reorganization following DEP exposure, our study demonstrated that a loss of Tricellulin through siRNA mediated knockdown can cause a signi cant decrease in barrier function as measured by both reduced TEER and increased permeability to FITC-Dextran, suggesting that a loss of Tricellulin is su cient to signi cantly impact barrier function. Exposure to tra c related air pollution such as diesel exhaust has been implicated in the development and exacerbation of pulmonary diseases including asthma [5,[35][36][37]. This relation has mostly been linked to the adjuvanticity of PM [44][45][46], with little attention paid to changes in the pulmonary epithelium due to such exposures. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: While exposure to diesel exhaust particles has been linked to aberrant immune responses in allergic diseases such as asthma, little attention has been paid to their effects on the airway epithelium. In this study, we sought to determine the effect of diesel exhaust exposure on airway epithelial barrier function and composition using in vitro and in vivo model systems. Methods: 16HBE14o- human bronchial epithelial cells were grown on collagen coated Transwell inserts and exposed to 5 to 50 µg/cm2 SRM 2975 diesel particulate matter (DEP) suspended in cell culture medium or vehicle controls. Changes in barrier function were assessed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and permeability to 4 kDa FITC Dextran. Neonatal BALB/c mice were exposed to aerosolized DEP (255 ± 89 µg/m3; 2 hours per day for 5 days) and changes in the tight junction protein Tricellulin were assessed two weeks post exposure. Results: A six-hour incubation of epithelial cells with diesel exhaust particles caused a significant concentration-dependent reduction in epithelial barrier integrity as measured by decreased TEER and increased permeability to 4 kDa FITC-Dextran. This reduction in epithelial barrier integrity corresponded to a significant reduction in expression of the tight junction protein Tricellulin. siRNA mediated knockdown of Tricellulin recapitulated changes in barrier function caused by DEP exposure. Neonatal exposure to aerosolized DEP caused a significant reduction in lung Tricellulin two weeks post exposure at both the protein and mRNA level. Conclusion: Short term exposure to DEP causes a significant reduction in epithelial barrier integrity through a reduction in the tight junction protein Tricellulin. Neonatal exposure to aerosolized DEP caused a significant and sustained reduction in Tricellulin protein and mRNA in the lung, suggesting that early life exposure to inhaled DEP may cause lasting changes in airway epithelial barrier function.
... EPISODE, ADMS and AirViro) (Gruzieva et al., 2017(Gruzieva et al., , 2013Idavain et al., 2019;Melén et al., 2008;Modig and Forsberg, 2007;Nordling et al., 2008;Oftedal et al., 2009;Schultz et al., 2017;Sommar et al., 2014). More than half of the studies investigated Traffic-Related Air Pollution (TRAP) that may require dispersion models such as the CALINE4 and RLINE (Batterman et al., 2014a;Delfino et al., 2014Delfino et al., , 2009Franklin and Fruin, 2017;Ganguly et al., 2015;Gauderman et al., 2005;McConnell et al., 2010;Pennington et al., 2018Pennington et al., , 2017Pershagen et al., 1995;Shankardass et al., 2009). ...
... It is, therefore, rational that TRAP is extensively investigated in asthma research. However, as we aim to show, the methodological steps used in the exposure estimation approach may lead compromising studies comparison (Gauderman et al., 2005;Gruzieva et al., 2017). Fifteen studies were selected for further investigation due to their contradictory findings. ...
... As markers of TRAP, the most investigated emission source in the literature, they received special attention in asthma studies in recent years. A total of eighteen studies investigated NO X or NO 2 alone (Bougas et al., 2018;Castell et al., 2018;Franklin and Fruin, 2017;Gauderman et al., 2005;Khreis et al., 2018;Klaeboe et al., 2000;Lindgren et al., 2013;McConnell et al., 2010;Melén et al., 2008;Modig et al., 2009;Modig and Forsberg, 2007;Oftedal et al., 2009;Pershagen et al., 1995;Rancière et al., 2017;Reungoat et al., 2005;Shankardass et al., 2009;Sommar et al., 2014;Tonne et al., 2010). ...
Article
There is substantial evidence that air pollution exposure is associated with asthma prevalence that affects millions of people worldwide. Air pollutant exposure can be determined using dispersion models and refined with receptor models. Dispersion models offer the advantage of giving spatially distributed outdoor pollutants concentration while the receptor models offer the source apportionment of specific chemical species. However, the use of dispersion and/or receptor models in asthma research requires a multidisciplinary approach, involving experts on air quality and respiratory diseases. Here, we provide a literature review on the role of dispersion and receptor models in air pollution and asthma research, their limitations, gaps and the way forward. We found that the methodologies used to incorporate atmospheric dispersion and receptor models in human health studies may vary considerably, and several of the studies overlook features such as indoor air pollution, model validation and subject pathway between indoor spaces. Studies also show contrasting results of relative risk or odds ratio for a health outcome, even using similar methodologies. Dispersion models are mostly used to estimate air pollution levels outside the subject's home, school or workplace; however, very few studies addressed the subject's routines or indoor/outdoor relationships. Conversely, receptor models are employed in regions where asthma incidence/prevalence is high or where a dispersion model has been previously used for this assessment. Road traffic (vehicle exhaust) and NOx are found to be the most targeted source and pollutant, respectively. Other key findings were the absence of a standard indicator, shortage of studies addressing VOC and UFP, and the shift toward chemical speciation of exposure.
... The research on the links between health outcomes and exposure to pollution from automobile traffic is exemplary in this respect. Because the expected negative health effects of this mechanism diminish quickly with distance, precision is at a premium [17][18][19][20][21][22]. This literature has explicitly dealt with issues of positional accuracy related to geocoding [20,[23][24][25][26][27] as well as the significance of taking measurements only at place of residence [22]. ...
... Because the expected negative health effects of this mechanism diminish quickly with distance, precision is at a premium [17][18][19][20][21][22]. This literature has explicitly dealt with issues of positional accuracy related to geocoding [20,[23][24][25][26][27] as well as the significance of taking measurements only at place of residence [22]. While these studies demonstrate how significant precise geographical and spatio-temporal measurement are to health outcomes, they leverage detailed data sources such as activity diaries and orthographic photogrammetry to gain precision [17,27]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background The growth of geolocated data has opened the door to a wealth of new research opportunities in the health fields. One avenue of particular interest is the relationship between the spaces where people spend time and their health outcomes. This research model typically intersects individual data collected on a specific cohort with publicly available socioeconomic or environmental aggregate data. In spatial terms: individuals are represented as points on map at a particular time, and context is represented as polygons containing aggregated or modeled data from sampled observations. Uncertainty abounds in these kinds of complex representations. Methods We present four sensitivity analysis approaches that interrogate the stability of spatial and temporal relationships between point and polygon data. Positional accuracy assesses the significance of assigning the point to the correct polygon. Neighborhood size investigates how the size of the context assumed to be relevant impacts observed results. Life course considers the impact of variation in contextual effects over time. Time of day recognizes that most people occupy different spaces throughout the day, and that exposure is not simply a function residential location. We use eight years of point data from a longitudinal study of children living in rural Pennsylvania and North Carolina and eight years of air pollution and population data presented at 0.5 mile (0.805 km) grid cells. We first identify the challenges faced for research attempting to match individual outcomes to contextual effects, then present methods for estimating the effect this uncertainty could introduce into an analysis and finally contextualize these measures as part of a larger framework on uncertainty analysis. Results Spatial and temporal uncertainty is highly variable across the children within our cohort and the population in general. For our test datasets, we find greater uncertainty over the life course than in positional accuracy and neighborhood size. Time of day uncertainty is relatively low for these children. Conclusions Spatial and temporal uncertainty should be considered for each individual in a study since the magnitude can vary considerably across observations. The underlying assumptions driving the source data play an important role in the level of measured uncertainty.
... Teori´ t´ potwierdzajà liczne doniesienia naukowe. W jednym z badaƒ wykazano, ie kspozycja na zbyt wysokie st´˝enia dwutlenku azotu (NO 2 ) jest zwiàzana z cz´stszymi zg∏oszeniami si´ dzieci do szpitala z powodu obturacji dróg oddechowych, ze Êwiszczàcym oddechem i zwi´kszonym zu˝yciem leków przeciwastmatycznych u pacjentów pediatrycznych ze zdiagnozowanà astmà (14,15). Dodatkowo, u wszystkich dzieci eksponowanych na podwy˝szone st´˝enie NO 2 w powietrzu atmosferycznym obserwowano równiep rzewlek∏e objawy ze strony dolnych dróg oddechowych, takie jak kaszel, Êwiszczàcy oddech i zapalenia oskrzeli. ...
... Warunkiem skutecznego oczyszczania dróg oddechowych ze szkodliwych czàstek jest nieuszkodzona b∏ona Êluzowa dróg oddechowych (44). Liczne badania wykaza∏y, ˝e mieszkanie w pobli˝u ulic o du˝ym nat´˝eniu ruchu drogowego powoduje upoÊledzenie funkcji uk∏adu oddechowego, prowadzàc do rozwini´cia si´ astmy u dzieci (15,36,42). Ostatnie badania na zwierz´tach dowiod∏y, ˝e myszy nara˝one na sta∏e dzia∏anie PM2,5 mia∏y niealergiczne eozynofilowe zapalenia b∏ony Êluzowej nosa i zatok obocznych nosa, a tak˝e dysfunkcj´ bariery nab∏onkowej w górnych drogach oddechowych (45). ...
... Exposure to traffic-related air pollution has also been linked to the development of pulmonary conditions such as asthma [5,[35][36][37]. While PM like DEP has been shown to act as an inhaled adjuvant, enhancing the immune response to common allergens such as house dust mite [38] and ragweed pollen [39], little work has investigated the impact of DEP on the epithelial barrier function of the lung. ...
... Despite this possibility of Occludin reorganization following DEP exposure, our study demonstrated that a loss of Tricellulin through siRNA mediated knockdown can cause a significant decrease in barrier function as measured by both reduced TEER and increased permeability to FITC-Dextran, suggesting that a loss of Tricellulin is sufficient to significantly impact barrier function. Exposure to traffic related air pollution such as diesel exhaust has been implicated in the development and exacerbation of pulmonary diseases including asthma [5,[35][36][37]. This relation has mostly been linked to the adjuvanticity of PM [46][47][48], with little attention paid to changes in the pulmonary epithelium due to such exposures. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background While exposure to diesel exhaust particles has been linked to aberrant immune responses in allergic diseases such as asthma, little attention has been paid to their effects on the airway epithelial barrier. In this study, we sought to determine the effect of diesel exhaust exposure on airway epithelial barrier function and composition using in vitro and in vivo model systems. Methods 16HBE14o- human bronchial epithelial cells were grown on collagen coated Transwell inserts and exposed to 5 to 50 μg/cm ² SRM 2975 diesel particulate matter (DEP) suspended in cell culture medium or vehicle controls. Changes in barrier function were assessed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and permeability to 4 kDa FITC Dextran. Neonatal BALB/c mice were exposed to aerosolized DEP (255 ± 89 μg/m ³ ; 2 h per day for 5 days) and changes in the tight junction protein Tricellulin were assessed 2 weeks post exposure. Results A six-hour incubation of epithelial cells with diesel exhaust particles caused a significant concentration-dependent reduction in epithelial barrier integrity as measured by decreased TEER and increased permeability to 4 kDa FITC-Dextran. This reduction in epithelial barrier integrity corresponded to a significant reduction in expression of the tight junction protein Tricellulin. siRNA mediated knockdown of Tricellulin recapitulated changes in barrier function caused by DEP exposure. Neonatal exposure to aerosolized DEP caused a significant reduction in lung Tricellulin 2 weeks post exposure at both the protein and mRNA level. Conclusion Short term exposure to DEP causes a significant reduction in epithelial barrier integrity through a reduction in the tight junction protein Tricellulin. Neonatal exposure to aerosolized DEP caused a significant and sustained reduction in Tricellulin protein and mRNA in the lung, suggesting that early life exposure to inhaled DEP may cause lasting changes in airway epithelial barrier function.
... Although mobile sources are responsible for the highest domestic anthropogenic release of NO X into the atmosphere, stationary fossil fuel combustion represents a significant portion of annual domestic NO X emissions. Outdoor exposure to NO X has been found to increase asthma and bronchitis diagnoses in children (Orehek et al., 1976;Pershagen et al., 1995;Chauhan et al., 2003;Gauderman et al., 2005), and on older populations (Schlenker and Walker, 2016). This pollutant can also react in the presence of heat and sunlight in the atmosphere to create ground-level ozone, a harmful chemical associated with lung diseases and premature deaths (Bell et al., 2004(Bell et al., , 2005. ...
Article
Full-text available
Renewable energy can yield social benefits through local air quality improvements and their subsequent effects on human health. We estimate some of these benefits using data gathered during the rapid adoption of large-scale solar power generation in Chile over the last decade. Relying on exogenous variation from incremental solar generation capacity over time, we find that solar energy displaces fossil fuel generation (primarily coal-fired generation) and curtails hospital admissions, particularly those due to lower respiratory diseases. These effects are noted mostly in cities downwind of displaced fossil fuel generation and are present across all age groups. Our results document the existence of an additional channel through which renewable energy can increase social welfare.
... Children are particularly vulnerable to coal-related substances due to differential exposure (increased rate of inhaled air mass to body weight, more outdoor time) and pronounced susceptibility (immaturity of their immune and enzyme systems). Air pollutants adversely affect lung development in children which often precedes the development of chronic pulmonary diseases, increasing the risk of asthma and reducing the maximum lung function level in adulthood (Gauderman et al 2005, Khreis et al 2017, Orellano et al 2017. Markandya and Wilkinson (2007) estimated the health burden of generating electricity from coal in Europe at 24.5 excess deaths, 225 serious illnesses including hospital admissions, congestive heart failure and chronic bronchitis, and 13 288 minor illnesses for every Terrawatt-hour (TWh) of electricity produced from coal. ...
Article
Full-text available
We studied the contribution of coal-fired power plant (CPP) emissions (SO2 and NOx) to air pollution levels and annual excess mortality by cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in Europe, based on fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations computed with a regional atmospheric chemistry-transport model. The health burden of European CPP emission-induced PM2.5, estimated with the Global Exposure Mortality Model, amounts to at least 16 800 (CI95 14 800–18 700) excess deaths per year over the European domain. We identified an underestimation of the emissions magnitude and correcting for it doubles CPP-attributed annual excess mortality to 33 900 (CI95 33 000–37 600) per year. Due to the non-linearity of exposure-responses, especially at relatively low concentrations, these estimates represent lower limits of possible health benefits for the EU-28 states. CPP emission phase-out would avoid 18 400 (CI95 16 000–20 500) excess deaths annually assuming background PM2.5 levels of 10 μg m⁻³, 25 500 (CI95 22 600–28 200) per year if pollution levels from other sources are reduced by 50% in parallel, and 105 900 (CI95 89 900–121 700) deaths by drastically reducing anthropogenic pollution from other sources to 2.4 μg m⁻³ that represents the threshold for health impacts. Depending on the emission scenario, large health gains can be achieved from the phase-out of CPP emissions, which calls for coordinated air pollution control strategies at the European level.
... It may also cause increased bronchial reactivity in asthmatic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Arbex et al. 2007). Many studies have linked NO 2 to cardiopulmonary mortality, lung cancer, and asthma exacerbations (Beelen et al. 2008;Filleul et al. 2005;Gauderman et al. 2005). The indoor concentration limit established by WHO of nitrogen dioxide is 200 μg m −3 for 1 h and 40 μg m −3 as an annual average (World Health Organization. ...
Article
Full-text available
The lockdown to prevent the coronavirus spread resulted in an immediate reduction in gas concentration worldwide. This fact shows the importance of nitrogen dioxide as a pollutant gas directly associated with human activities. For indoor exposure, NO2 has been associated with effects on the respiratory system. In outdoor environments, ozone reaches a maximum after NO2 peaks, and acid rain arises with NO2 oxidation to forms nitric acid. Therefore, monitoring the NO2 concentration in atmospheric air can help prevent respiratory diseases and lower the concentration of other atmospheric pollutants. The experiment proposed in this article uses a low-cost passive sampler for the NO2 collection. An innovative and straightforward technique to determine the gas concentration through a gel-dyed formation and based on digital image analysis RGB colors channel are split by the software ImageJ. Results of digital image analysis and spectrophotometry were statistically agreed at a 95% confidence level. The advantages of the technique include low cost, the ready availability of components, ease of use, and sensitivity. The achievable resolution of nitrogen dioxide concentrations is 9 ppb for 24-h sampling. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11270-021-05031-4.
... Bouarab [20] a révélé l'existence de 9 clusters à haut risque, répartis en trois zones. La première est zone est formée de 5 clusters et située au Nord Le lien entre l'exposition au NO2 et l'incidence des pathologies respiratoires a fait l'objet de plusieurs études épidémiologiques qui ont prouvé l'existence de corrélations très positives [31], [32], [33], [34]. ...
Article
Full-text available
For the monitoring of spatio-temporal variations of the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) content, passive diffusive samplers have been deployed in 14 near-road and residential sites for 14 days to measure NO2. In parallel with the winter campaign to measure this tracer, road traffic counting sessions were carried out on the city's main roads. The coupling of the results of the measurement campaigns and the counting sessions under Arcgis 9.3 made it possible to determine the areas most affected by automobile pollution and to carry out a high spatial resolution mapping of the pollutant prospected. The results of this study show that atmospheric NO2 concentrations reach maximum values in the city center and decrease towards its periphery. The analysis of the epidemiological situation of the principal diseases related to air pollution in the city of Meknes during the study period (2010-2014) showed that among subjects aged 5 years and older, acute respiratory diseases occurred more in women and that the age group most affected was between 15 and 49 years, while asthma attacks were noted mainly among women aged 50 years and older. Acute respiratory illness and asthma attacks were more prevalent in the winter and fall. Among children under 5 years of age, the age group most affected by pneumonia was under 11 months of age. The use of spatialized GIS-based health indicators of these diseases, as well as the location of stationary and mobile sources of air pollution and measured NO2 levels, has made it possible to detect that residents in areas with heavy road traffic are likely to be more affected than those near areas of industrial activity. The type of habitat also contributes significantly to the development and exacerbation of the pathologies studied, especially in the districts of the old Medina
... There is mounting evidence that living near heavy traffic is associated with increased rates of asthma, cardiovascular disease, and dementia [26][27][28][29][30]. Additionally, air pollution exposure gradients at small scales such as neighborhoods are associated with adverse health effects [31,32]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Asthma in children poses a significant clinical and public health burden. We examined the association between reported neighborhood traffic (a proxy for traffic-related air pollution) and asthma among 855 multi-racial children aged 4–8 years old who participated in the Environmental Influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) cohort. We hypothesized that high neighborhood traffic density would be associated with the prevalence of asthma. Asthma/asthma-like symptoms (defined as current and/or past physician diagnosed asthma, past wheezing, or nighttime cough or wheezing in the past 12 months) was assessed by parental report. The relationship between neighborhood traffic and asthma/asthma-like symptoms was assessed using logistic regression. The prevalence of asthma/asthma-like symptoms among study participants was 23%, and 15% had high neighborhood traffic. Children with significant neighborhood traffic had a higher odds of having asthma/asthma-like symptoms than children without neighborhood traffic [adjusted OR = 2.01 (95% CI: 1.12, 3.62)] after controlling for child’s race-ethnicity, age, sex, maternal education, family history of asthma, play equipment in the home environment, public parks, obesity and prescribed asthma medication. Further characterization of neighborhood traffic is needed since many children live near high traffic zones and significant racial/ethnic disparities exist.
... ‫فروشانی‬ ‫محمدی‬ ‫سمیرا‬ ( Gauderman et al., 2005;Hajat et al., 2001;Krämer et al., 2000;McConnell et al., 2010;Pénard-Morand et al., 2005;Zmirou et al., 2004 ) . (Breysse et al., 2010;Leung et al., 2011;McConnell et al., 2002;Nicolai et al., 2003;Peat et al., 1996;Rumchev et al., 2004) ...
Conference Paper
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Allergic diseases such as asthma are an important health problem around the world, especially in urbanization countries. The prevalence of these diseases varies in different regions, and this indicates that the prevalence of this disease can depend on several factors. The person can prevent the start of the attack by recognizing and avoiding contact with the initiators of asthma symptoms; Therefore, identifying allergy factors is the best way to prevent sensitivity. Since many environmental factors are involved in exacerbating the disease, it can be helped to prevent the disease by collecting information from the environment. The purpose of this research is to investigate previous research on the factors affecting the prevalence of asthma and the relationship between this disease and environmental factors. Identifying these factors and preventing exposure to prevent the exacerbation of the disease and its effective management and forms for the development of new therapeutic interventions. After examining the relevant research and identifying important factors in the prevalence of this disease, methods used to determine the effects of different factors on asthma are investigated. Finally, the framework is provided to prevent people with information and environmental characteristics around individuals, by analyzing the data and awareness of people from the prevalence of people to this disease or asthma aggravation in people with this disease. For this, it is necessary to identify artificial intelligence methods and data analysis algorithms with the potential risk of asthma resonance, Afterwards, awareness is needed to prevent exposure to pollutants in all places and times, so far, it can be taken with an appropriate step in effective management of this disease in the long run.
... Depending on its source, composition and size distribution, particulate matter (PM) can vary in toxicity (Delfino et al. 2010;Strak et al. 2013). In 1992, the Children's Health Study (CHS) was launched to study the chronic effects of air pollution exposure on the respiratory health of children in southern California (CA) communities Peters et al. 1999aPeters et al. , 1999bPeters, Thomas, and Avol et al. 1999), including lung function and asthma (Gauderman et al. 2005;Gilliland et al. 2001;McConnell et al. 1999;Peters, McConnell, and Berhane et al. 2002). Southern CA is impacted by several natural and anthropogenic sources of PM, with vehicular and truck traffic being one of the major contributors, along with ports, airports, freight rail, biomass burning, dust, and secondary formation processes among others (Hasheminassab et al. 2014b). ...
Introduction: Exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) in the near-roadway environment is associated with multiple adverse health effects. Aim: To characterize the relative contribution of tailpipe and non-tailpipe TRAP sources to particulate matter (PM) in the quasi-ultrafine (PM0.2), fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) size fractions and identify their spatial determinants in southern California (CA). Methods: Month-long integrated PM0.2, PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 samples (n= 461, 265 and 298, respectively) were collected across cool and warm seasons in 8 southern CA communities (2008-9). Concentrations of PM mass, elements, carbons and major ions were obtained. Enrichment ratios (ER) in PM0.2 and PM10 relative to PM2.5 were calculated for each element. The Positive Matrix Factorization model was used to resolve and estimate the relative contribution of TRAP sources to PM in three size fractions. Generalized additive models (GAMs) with bivariate loess smooths were used to understand the geographic variation of TRAP sources and identify their spatial determinants. Results: EC, OC, and B had the highest median ER in PM0.2 relative to PM2.5. Six, seven and five sources (with characteristic species) were resolved in PM0.2, PM2.5 and PM2.5-10, respectively. Combined tailpipe and non-tailpipe traffic sources contributed 66%, 32% and 18% of PM0.2, PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 mass, respectively. Tailpipe traffic emissions (EC, OC, B) were the largest contributor to PM0.2 mass (58%). Distinct gasoline and diesel tailpipe traffic sources were resolved in PM2.5. Others included fuel oil, biomass burning, secondary inorganic aerosol, sea salt, and crustal/soil. CALINE4 dispersion model nitrogen oxides, trucks and intersections were most correlated with TRAP sources. The influence of smaller roadways and intersections became more apparent once Long Beach was excluded. Conclusions: Non-tailpipe emissions constituted ~8%, 11% and 18% of PM0.2, PM2.5 and PM2.5-10, respectively, with important exposure and health implications. Future efforts should consider non-linear relationships amongst predictors when modeling exposures.
... The mid-latitude westerlies and local prevailing winds enable the long-range transport of mineral aerosols originating from Middle East and North African deserts. This dust transport mechanism forms an extra load on air quality and public health in the receiving environment [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19]. This phenomenon also leads to increased expenditures on services provided by central and local authorities, such as environmental management, public health, and transportation. ...
Article
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Turkey is located in the heart of complex transition geography between Eurasia and the Middle East. In the grand scheme, the so-called eastern Mediterranean Basin is located almost in the middle of the dusty belt, and is a hot spot of climate change. The downstream location of dust-carrying winds from close desert sources reveals Turkey as an open plane to particulate matter exposure throughout the year. In order to clarify this phenomenon, this paper aims to determine the desert dust climatology of Turkey via CALIPSO onboard Lidar. This prominent instrument enables us to understand clouds, aerosols and their types, and related climatic systems, with its valuable products. In this study, a 9-year CALIPSO-derived pure dust product dataset was formed to explain horizontal and vertical distributions, transport heights and case incidences. The results indicated that the pure dust extinction coefficient increased as the location shifted from west to east. Moreover, in the same direction of west to east, the dominant spring months changed to summer and autumn. Mountain range systems surrounding Anatolia were the main obstacles against lofted and buoyant dust particles travelling to northern latitudes. Even if high ridges accumulated mass load on the southern slopes, they also enabled elevated particles to reach the ground level of the inner cities.
... Various clinical and environmental risk factors for asthma exacerbations have been identified. Previous studies have shown that outdoor air pollution, including fine particulate matter and gaseous pollutants from traffic and power generation can increase symptoms in children who have already been diagnosed with asthma [5][6][7][8][9]. ...
Article
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Background Asthma exacerbations in children often require medications, urgent care, and hospitalization. Multiple environmental triggers have been associated with asthma exacerbations, including particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) and ozone, which are primarily generated by motor vehicle exhaust. There is mixed evidence as to whether proximity to highways increases risk of asthma exacerbations. Methods To evaluate the impact of highway proximity, we assessed the association between asthma exacerbations and the distance of child’s primary residence to two types of roadways in Durham County, North Carolina, accounting for other patient-level factors. We abstracted data from the Duke University Health System electronic health record (EHR), identifying 6208 children with asthma between 2014 and 2019. We geocoded each child’s distance to roadways (both 35 MPH+ and 55 MPH+). We classified asthma exacerbation severity into four tiers and fitted a recurrent event survival model to account for multiple exacerbations. Results There was a no observed effect of residential distance from 55+ MPH highway (Hazard Ratio: 0.98 (95% confidence interval: 0.94, 1.01)) and distance to 35+ MPH roadway (Hazard Ratio: 0.98 (95% confidence interval: 0.83, 1.15)) and any asthma exacerbation. Even those children living closest to highways (less 0.25 miles) had no increased risk of exacerbation. These results were consistent across different demographic strata. Conclusions While the results were non-significant, the characteristics of the study sample – namely farther distance to roadways and generally good ambient environmental pollution may contribute to the lack of effect. Compared to previous studies, which often relied on self-reported measures, we were able to obtain a more objective assessment of outcomes. Overall, this work highlights the opportunity to use EHR data to study environmental impacts on disease.
... Previous studies have shown that outdoor air pollution, including ne particulate matter and gaseous pollutants from tra c and power generation can increase symptoms in children who have already been diagnosed with asthma. [5][6][7][8][9] Speci cally, particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) and ozone (O 3 ), which form from motor vehicle exhaust, are well studied environmental triggers of asthma symptoms. [10][11][12] Areas close to major roadways can have high PM2.5 and CO levels, 13,14 and there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that proximity to car tra c sources can negatively affect asthma severity. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Asthma exacerbations in children often require medications, urgent care, and hospitalization. Multiple environmental triggers have been associated with asthma exacerbations, including particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) and ozone, which are primarily generated by motor vehicle exhaust. There is mixed evidence as to whether proximity to highways increases risk of asthma exacerbations. Methods: To evaluate the impact of highway proximity, we assessed the association between asthma exacerbations and the distance of child’s primary residence to two types of roadways in Durham County, North Carolina, accounting for other patient-level factors. We abstracted data from the Duke University Health System electronic health record (EHR), identifying 6,208 children with asthma between 2014 – 2019. We geocoded each child’s distance to roadways (both 35 MPH+ and 55 MPH+). We classified asthma exacerbation severity into four tiers and fitted a recurrent event survival model to account for multiple exacerbations. Results: There was a no observed effect of residential distance from 55+ MPH highway (Hazard Ratio: 0.98 (95% confidence interval: 0.94, 1.01)) and distance to 35+ MPH roadway (Hazard Ratio: 0.98 (95% confidence interval: 0.83, 1.15)) and any asthma exacerbation. Even those children living closest to highways (less 0.25 miles) had no increased risk of exacerbation. These results were consistent across different demographic strata. Conclusions: While the results were non-significant, the characteristics of the study sample – namely farther distance to roadways and generally good ambient environmental pollution may contribute to the lack of effect. Compared to previous studies, which often relied on self-reported measures, we were able to obtain a more objective assessment of outcomes. Overall, this work highlights the opportunity to use EHR data to study environmental impacts on disease.
... [20][21][22][23][24][25] There is mounting evidence that living near heavy tra c is associated with increased rates of asthma, cardiovascular disease, and dementia. [26][27][28][29][30] Additionally, air pollution exposure gradients at small scales such as neighborhoods are associated with adverse health effects. 31,32 Although direct assessment of individual TRAP exposure is ideal, it presents a myriad of logistical challenges in population-based studies. ...
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Background: Respiratory symptoms and asthma in children pose a significant clinical and public health burden. Our aim was to examine exposures to environmental air pollution in relation to asthma and related symptoms in a multi-racial cohort of children. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis evaluating the association between reported neighborhood traffic (a proxy for traffic-related air pollution) and asthma among 855 children aged 4 to 8 years old who participated in the Environmental Influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) cohort. The primary outcome, asthma/asthma like symptoms (defined as current and/or past physician diagnosed asthma, past wheezing, or nighttime cough or wheezing in the past 12 months), was assessed by parental report via questionnaire. The relationship between the primary exposure and asthma/asthma like symptoms was examined using logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of asthma/asthma like symptoms was 23%. Fifteen percent of parents responded “Agree” or “Strongly Agree” to the question, “There is so much traffic along the streets that it makes it difficult or dangerous to walk with my child in my neighborhood” (n=129/855). Children whose parents had affirmed significant neighborhood traffic had a higher odds of having asthma/asthma like symptoms than children without significant neighborhood traffic [adjusted OR=1.78 (95% CI: 1.10, 2.88)] after controlling for child’s race-ethnicity, age, sex, maternal education level, family history of asthma, presence of play equipment in the home environment, public parks in the neighborhood and obesity. Other factors significantly associated with asthma/asthma like symptoms were: non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic race/ethnicity [OR=2.53 (95% CI: 1.43, 4.50)] and [OR=2.25 (95% CI: 1.28, 3.94), respectively, vs. non-Hispanic White referent], play equipment in the home environment or backyard [OR=1.60 (95% CI: 1.09, 2.35)], obese status [OR=2.54 (95% CI: 1.55, 4.17)], male sex [OR=1.53 (1.06, 2.22)] and family history of asthma [OR=3.19 (2.20, 4.64)]. Conclusions: Reported neighborhood traffic, non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic race/ethnicity, male sex, play equipment within the home environment, obesity, and family history of asthma were associated with greater odds for asthma/asthma like symptoms. Further characterization of neighborhood traffic patterns is needed, since many children live near this source of environmental air pollution and significant racial/ethnic disparities exist.
... 11 Soll-Johanning et al. (1998). 12 Beatty and Shimshack (2014), Gauderman et al. (2005), Gendron-Carrier et al. (2018), Clougherty and Kubzansky (2008). that children born to mothers who lived close to bus routes with older (dirtier) buses see modest reductions in infant birth weight and gestational age compared with those living near routes with newer, cleaner, buses. ...
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Coal ash accounts for one third of industrial water pollution in the United States. In Chapter 1, I assess the relationship between coal ash surface water discharges and three relevant outcomes: surface water quality, municipal system water quality, and fetal health indicators from a birth certificate database in North Carolina. Identification relies on geographic variation in downstream status of monitoring sites and municipal water intake locations, plant closures or conversions, and the relative quantity of coal ash released over time. I find that coal ash releases are associated with higher conductivity and pH in both downstream surface waters and municipal water supplies sourced from these waters. Water systems affected by coal ash tend to have more Safe Drinking Water Act violations for disinfectant byproducts, inorganic chemicals, and health-based violations. I quantify the costs of coal ash water pollution with respect to fetal health and home sales. Exploiting variation arising from mothers' moves, I find that a newborn potentially exposed to coal ash water pollution is 1.7 percentage points more likely to have low birthweight compared to an unexposed sibling. I conclude by estimating how a legislative act mandating drinking well testing affected home sale prices in regions around coal ash plants. After the act, sale prices of homes within 1 mile of coal ash ponds declined by 12-14%, or over $37,000. Chapter 2 investigates how school-age children are affected by diesel emissions from school buses. Diesel emissions from school buses expose children to high levels of air pollution; retrofitting bus engines can substantially reduce this exposure. Using variation from 2,656 retrofits across Georgia, we estimate effects of emissions reductions on district-level health and academic achievement. We demonstrate positive effects on respiratory health, measured by a statewide test of aerobic capacity. Placebo tests on body mass index show no impact. We also find that retrofitting districts experience significant test score gains in English and smaller gains in math. Our results suggest that engine retrofits can have meaningful and cost-effective impacts on health and cognitive functioning. Chapter 3 explores farm-to-school policies. School meal provision represents one of the largest food markets in the country. In 2015, 42,000 schools serving 23.6 million students engaged in farm-to-school nutrition sourcing policies. Yet, little is known about how much school systems actually source their food locally or about the average relationship between farm-to-school policy adoption and local sourcing of school food. I link 17 years of school district nutrition expenditures across the state of Georgia to a unique commodity-by-county survey of agricultural revenues to assess how much school systems source food from within their county and neighboring counties. I then incorporate four years of survey-based information on district farm-to-school policies to test how farm-to-school programs differentially impact local sourcing patterns. Identification comes from spatiotemporal variation in school district adoption of a farm-to-school policy and variation in expenditures associated with the community eligibility provision of the Healthy Hunger Free Kids Act. Results suggest that as much as $966M of school nutrition expenditures flow to producers within the same county. Of this, perhaps as much as $680M, or 0.6% of all agricultural revenues in the state from 2001-2017, are associated with adoption of farm-to-school policies by school districts.
... Previous studies have shown that outdoor air pollution, including ne particulate matter and gaseous pollutants from tra c and power generation can increase symptoms in children who have already been diagnosed with asthma. [5][6][7][8][9] Speci cally, particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) and ozone (O 3 ), which form from motor vehicle exhaust, are well studied environmental triggers of asthma symptoms. [10][11][12] Areas close to major roadways can have high PM2.5 and CO levels, 13,14 and there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that proximity to car tra c sources can negatively affect asthma severity. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Asthma exacerbations in children often require medications, urgent care, and hospitalization. Multiple environmental triggers have been associated with asthma exacerbations, including particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) and ozone, which are primarily generated by motor vehicle exhaust. There is mixed evidence as to whether proximity to highways increases risk of asthma exacerbations. Methods: To evaluate the impact of highway proximity, we assessed the association between asthma exacerbations and the distance of child’s primary residence to two types of roadways in Durham County, North Carolina, accounting for other patient-level factors. We abstracted data from the Duke University Health System electronic health record (EHR), identifying 6,208 children with asthma between 2014 – 2019. We geocoded each child’s distance to roadways (both 35 MPH+ and 55 MPH+). We classified asthma exacerbation severity into four tiers and fitted a recurrent event survival model to account for multiple exacerbations. Results: There was a no observed effect of residential distance from 55+ MPH highway (Hazard Ratio: 0.98 (95% confidence interval: 0.94, 1.01)) and distance to 35+ MPH roadway (Hazard Ratio: 0.98 (95% confidence interval: 0.83, 1.15)) and any asthma exacerbation. Conclusions: While the results were non-significant, the characteristics of the study sample – namely farther distance to roadways and generally good ambient environmental pollution may contribute to the lack of effect. Compared to previous studies, which often relied on self-reported measures, we were able to obtain a more objective assessment of outcomes. Overall, this work highlights the opportunity to use EHR data to study environmental impacts on disease.
... Previous studies have shown that outdoor air pollution, including ne particulate matter and gaseous pollutants resulting from tra c and power generation can increase symptoms in children who have already been diagnosed with asthma. [5][6][7][8][9] Speci cally, Particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO), which result primarily from motor vehicle exhaust, are well studied environmental triggers of asthma symptoms. [10][11][12] Areas close to major roadways can have high PM2.5 and CO levels, 13,14 and there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that proximity to car tra c sources can negatively affect asthma severity. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Asthma exacerbations in children often require medications, urgent care, and hospitalization. Multiple environmental triggers have been associated with asthma exacerbations, including particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO), which are primarily generated by motor vehicle exhaust. There is mixed evidence as to whether proximity to highways increases risk of asthma exacerbations. Methods: To test this hypothesis, we assessed the association between asthma exacerbations and the distance to two types of roadways in Durham County, accounting for other patient-level factors. We abstracted data from the Duke University Health System electronic health record (EHR), identifying 6,208 children with asthma between 2014 – 2019. We geocoded each child’s distance to roadways (both 35 MPH+ and 55 MPH+). We classified asthma exacerbation severity into four tiers and fitted a recurrent event survival model to account for multiple exacerbations. Results: There was a consistent weak effect of residential distance from 55+ MPH highway and any asthma exacerbation (Hazard Ratio: 0.98 (95% confidence interval: 0.94, 1.01)), but there was no effect from distance to 35+ MPH roadway (Hazard Ratio: 0.98 (95% confidence interval: 0.83, 1.15)). Conclusions: While the results were negative, characteristics of a study sample – namely farther distance to roadways and generally good ambient environmental pollution may contribute to this. Compared to previous work which often relied on self-report measures, we are able to obtain a more objective assessment of outcomes. Overall, this work highlights the opportunity to use EHR data to study environmental impacts of disease.
... Limitations of our study included the fact that each evaluated subject was assigned the same average exposure level computed for the community of residence. However, our results remain consistent with previously conducted studies [50]. The individual elements measured and associated with asthma and respiratory disease may not be directly involved with the elicitation of symptoms, but may instead reflect other covarying pollutants or the interplay of several factors. ...
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Exposure to outdoor air pollution has been shown to increase asthma symptoms. We assessed the potential role of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm (PM 2.5) on respiratory condition in schoolchildren in the south Mediterranean area. A total of 2400 children aged 11-14 years were recruited, and data on their symptoms were collected through an ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood)-based questionnaire. Outdoor PM 2.5 was collected for 48 consecutive hours in the schoolyards of their schools and selected residential outdoor areas. The levels of PM 2.5 were measured, along with its elemental composition. The prevalence of an acute respiratory illness within the first 2 years of life was higher amongst Sicilian children when compared to Maltese children (29.7% vs. 13.5% respectively, p < 0.0001). Malta had a significantly higher prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma, when compared to Sicily (18.0% Malta vs. 7.5% Sicily, p < 0.0001). Similarly, current asthma (7.8% vs. 2.9%, p < 0.0001) and use of asthma medication in the last 12 months (12.1% vs. 4.9%, p < 0.0001) were more frequent amongst Maltese children. Total median PM 2.5 was 12.9 µg/m 3 in Sicily and 17.9 µg/m 3 in Malta. PM 2.5 levels were highest in the Maltese urban town of Hamrun (23.6 µg/m 3), while lowest in the rural Sicilian town of Niscemi (10.9 µg/m 3 , p < 0.0001). Hamrun also exhibited the highest levels of nickel, vanadium, lead, zinc, antimony, and manganese, whilst the Sicilian city of Gela had the highest levels of cadmium, and the highest level of PM 2.5 when compared to rural Sicily. Elevated levels of PM 2.5 were positively associated with the prevalence of doctor diagnosed asthma (odds ratio (OR) 1.05), current asthma (OR 1.06), and use of asthma medication (OR 1.06). All elements in PM 2.5 showed increased OR for doctor diagnosed asthma, while higher concentrations of Cd and Mn were associated with higher prevalence of rhinitis.
... In general-pediatric population studies that assessed risk of wheeze (current, historical, or recurrent) or asthma and residential proximity exposure to TRAP, results have been inconsistent and often found weak or no association [15][16][17][18][19][35][36][37][38][39]. The Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS) study found that infants (<1 year of age) living within 100 m of a moving traffic sources (e.g., highways) at birth did not have significant higher risk of recurrent wheeze [19]. ...
Article
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Air pollution exposures have been suggested as risk factors for childhood respiratory diseases. We investigated proximity to major roads, an indicator of air pollution exposure, and its associations with childhood recurrent wheeze and asthma. We used data from a multicenter prospective cohort study of 921 infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis and recruited from 14 U.S. states. Primary exposure was residential proximity to the nearest major road at birth through age 3 years. Residential distance from nearest major road was divided into four categories: <100, 100–200, 201–300, and >300 m. Outcomes were parent-reported recurrent wheeze by age 3 years and asthma by age 5 years. Associations between residential proximity to major roads and respiratory outcomes were investigated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards modeling and logistic regression, adjusted for confounders. Out of 920 participants with home address data, pooled estimates identified 241 (26%) participants resided within 300 m of a major road, 296 (32%) developed recurrent wheeze by age 3, and 235 out of 858 participants (27%) developed asthma by 5 years. Participants who resided close to a major road had the highest risk of recurrent wheeze (adjusted hazards ratio for <100 m, 1.59, 95%CI: 1.08–2.33) and asthma (adjusted odds ratio for 201–300 m, 1.62, 95%CI: 1.16–2.25), compared to those residing >300 m from a major road. Proximity to major roads is associated with increased risks of recurrent wheeze and asthma in young children.
... For example, Neidell (2004) observed both greater exposure and greater effects of air pollution on asthmatic children of lower socio-economic status (SES) in California, USA (the authors cite affordability of living in areas with cleaner air as an impediment to lower SES families responding to/avoiding higher exposure). Children are particularly vulnerable and their exposure to these pressures can result in life-long impacts (Salthammer et al., 2016), not only in terms of health and well-being (Gauderman et al., 2005;McConnell et al., 2010), but also in terms of socio-economic mobility (Wargocki and Wyon, 2007). Additionally, differences in all-cause or selected-cause mortality have not been shown to be associated with extent of green space at the city-scale e.g. in the US (Richardson et al., 2012) and England (Bixby et al., 2015). ...
Article
The benefits of urban green and blue infrastructure (UGI) are widely discussed, but rarely take into account local conditions or contexts. Although assessments increasingly consider the demand for the ecosystem services that UGI provides, they tend to only map the spatial pattern of pressures such as heat, or air pollution, and lack a wider understanding of where the beneficiaries are located and who will benefit most. We assess UGI in five cities from four continents with contrasting climate, socio-political context, and size. For three example services (air pollution removal, heat mitigation, accessible greenspace), we run an assessment that takes into account spatial patterns in the socio-economic demand for ecosystem services and develops metrics that reflect local context, drawing on the principles of vulnerability assessment. Despite similar overall levels of UGI (from 35 to 50% of urban footprint), the amount of service provided differs substantially between cities. Aggregate cooling ranged from 0.44 °C (Leicester) to 0.98 °C (Medellin), while pollution removal ranged from 488 kg PM2.5/yr (Zomba) to 48,400 kg PM2.5/yr (Dhaka). Percentage population with access to nearby greenspace ranged from 82% (Dhaka) to 100% (Zomba). The spatial patterns of pressure, of ecosystem service, and of maximum benefit within a city do not necessarily match, and this has implications for planning optimum locations for UGI in cities.
... Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) is a deleterious air pollutant primarily resulting from the high-temperature combustion of fossil fuels (Jacob 1999). It is linked to increased incidence of pediatric asthma (Gauderman et al 2005, Khreis et al 2017, Achakulwisut et al 2019, and respiratory-related mortality (Samoli 2006, He et al 2020. NO 2 , itself a noxious compound, also photochemically reacts in the atmosphere in the presence of volatile organic compounds to create ozone (O 3 ) and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), additional harmful pollutants (Jacob 2000). ...
Article
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Emission inventory development for air pollutants, by compiling records from individual emission sources, takes many years and involves extensive multi-national effort. A complementary method to estimate air pollution emissions is in the use of satellite remote sensing. In this study, NO2 observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument are combined with re-analysis meteorology to estimate urban nitrogen oxide (NO X ) emissions for 80 global cities between 2005 and 2019. The global average downward trend in satellite-derived urban NOX emissions was 3.1%-4.0% yr-1 between 2009 and 2018 while inventories show a 0%-2.2% yr-1 drop over the same timeframe. This difference is primarily driven by discrepancies between satellite-derived urban NO X emissions and inventories in Africa, China, India, Latin America, and the Middle East. In North America, Europe, Korea, Japan, and Australasia, NOX emissions dropped similarly as reported in the inventories. In Europe, Korea, and Japan only, the temporal trends match the inventories well, but the satellite estimate is consistently larger over time. While many of the discrepancies between satellite-based and inventory emissions estimates represent real differences, some of the discrepancies might be related to the assumptions made to compare the satellite-based estimates with inventory estimates, such as the spatial disaggregation of emissions inventories. Our work identifies that the three largest uncertainties in the satellite estimate are the tropospheric column measurements, wind speed and direction, and spatial definition of each city.
... Regardless of human intrusion, natural-originated or anthropogenic substances can be defined as pollutants in the atmosphere due to changes in their abundance. This situation leads to health and environmental quality degradation [1][2][3][4][5][6][7]. In order to determine these abundance changes and associated epidemiological and environmental impacts, inventory and climatology studies should be conducted, and prepared outcomes should be kept up to date. ...
Preprint
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Turkey is located in the heart of complex transition geography between Eurasia and the Middle East. In the grand scheme, the so-called Eastern Mediterranean Basin is almost amidst the dusty belt and a hot spot of climate change. The downstream location of dust carrying winds from the closer desert sources reveals Turkey as an open plane to particulate matter exposure throughout the year. In order to clarify this phenomenon, it is aimed to find out the desert dust climatology of Turkey via CALIPSO onboard Lidar. This prominent instrument enables us to understand clouds, aerosols and their types and relatedly climatic systems with its valuable products. In this study, 9-year CALIPSO derived pure dust product is formed to explain horizontal and vertical distributions, transport heights and case incidences. Results indicated mass and conditional abundancy are higher with the location shifts from west to east. In the same direction, dominant spring months change to summer and autumn. Mountain range systems surrounding Anatolia are the main obstacles against lofted and buoyant dust particles travelling to northern latitudes. Even if high ridges accumulate mass load on the southern slopes, it also enables elevated particles to reach the ground level of the inner cities.
... Many allergies are triggered by pollen and the allergic effect can be increased with the concomitant exposure to combustion aerosols and Particulate Matter (PM) derived from fossil fuels. Several epidemiological studies have related the adjuvant effect of anthropogenic combustion aerosols to the exacerbation of allergic diseases (Beck et al., 2013;Bettiol et al., 2021;Gauderman et al., 2005;Hauptman et al., 2020;Lipsett et al., 1997;McCreanor et al., 2007;Strand et al., 1998). Diesel exhaust is constantly changing in composition, and environmental pollution is (in most places) steadily declining (Hesterberg et al., 2011;Lee et al., 2019;Milando et al., 2016;Santos et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Pollen related allergic diseases have been increasing for decades. The reasons for this increase are unknown, but environmental pollution like diesel exhaust seem to play a role. While previous studies explored the effects of pollen extracts, we studied here for the first time priming effects of diesel exhaust on native pollen exposure using a novel experimental setup. Methods Human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells were exposed to native birch pollen (real life intact pollen, not pollen extracts) at the air-liquid interface (pollen-ALI). BEAS-2B cells were also pre-exposed in a diesel-ALI to diesel CAST for 2 h (a model for diesel exhaust) and then to pollen in the pollen-ALI 24 h later. Effects were analysed by genome wide transcriptome analysis after 2 h 25 min, 6 h 50 min and 24 h. Selected genes were confirmed by qRT-PCR. Results Bronchial epithelial cells exposed to native pollen showed the highest transcriptomic changes after about 24 h. About 3157 genes were significantly up- or down-regulated for all time points combined. After pre-exposure to diesel exhaust the maximum reaction to pollen had shifted to about 2.5 h after exposure, plus the reaction to pollen was desensitised as only 560 genes were differentially regulated. Only 97 genes were affected synergistically. Of these, enrichment analysis showed that genes involved in immune and inflammatory response were involved. Conclusion Diesel exhaust seems to prime cells to react more rapidly to native pollen exposure, especially inflammation related genes, a factor known to facilitate the development of allergic sensitization. The marker genes here detected could guide studies in humans when investigating whether modern and outdoor diesel exhaust exposure is still detrimental for the development of allergic disease.
... [10][11][12][13][14] Beyond its role in PM 2·5 and ozone formation, NO 2 itself has been associated with adverse health outcomes including asthma exacerbation. 15,16 Epidemiological studies have also found associations between transportationrelated air pollutants and new onset asthma in children. 17,18 Toxicological and gene environment research indicates that transportation-related air pollutants cause airway inflammation and remodelling due to oxidative stress, resulting in asthma development in some individuals. ...
Article
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Background Combustion-related nitrogen dioxide (NO2) air pollution is associated with paediatric asthma incidence. We aimed to estimate global surface NO2 concentrations consistent with the Global Burden of Disease study for 1990–2019 at a 1 km resolution, and the concentrations and attributable paediatric asthma incidence trends in 13 189 cities from 2000 to 2019. Methods We scaled an existing annual average NO2 concentration dataset for 2010–12 from a land use regression model (based on 5220 NO2 monitors in 58 countries and land use variables) to other years using NO2 column densities from satellite and reanalysis datasets. We applied these concentrations in an epidemiologically derived concentration–response function with population and baseline asthma rates to estimate NO2-attributable paediatric asthma incidence. Findings We estimated that 1·85 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 0·93–2·80 million) new paediatric asthma cases were attributable to NO2 globally in 2019, two thirds of which occurred in urban areas (1·22 million cases; 95% UI 0·60–1·8 million). The proportion of paediatric asthma incidence that is attributable to NO2 in urban areas declined from 19·8% (1·22 million attributable cases of 6·14 million total cases) in 2000 to 16·0% (1·24 million attributable cases of 7·73 million total cases) in 2019. Urban attributable fractions dropped in high-income countries (–41%), Latin America and the Caribbean (–16%), central Europe, eastern Europe, and central Asia (–13%), and southeast Asia, east Asia, and Oceania (–6%), and rose in south Asia (+23%), sub-Saharan Africa (+11%), and north Africa and the Middle East (+5%). The contribution of NO2 concentrations, paediatric population size, and asthma incidence rates to the change in NO2-attributable paediatric asthma incidence differed regionally. Interpretation Despite improvements in some regions, combustion-related NO2 pollution continues to be an important contributor to paediatric asthma incidence globally, particularly in cities. Mitigating air pollution should be a crucial element of public health strategies for children. Funding Health Effects Institute, NASA.
... TRAP was identified as the largest anthropogenic contributor to ambient air pollution in many cities (77). Many studies have reported the association between asthma-symptoms and local variation in traffic patterns within communities or neighborhoods (78). Although this evidence indicates that living near heavy traffic is associated with increased rates of asthma symptoms, some well-designed studies have found weak or no association (79). ...
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Objective: Various associations between different environmental exposures and asthma have been reported in different countries and populations. We aimed to investigate the associations between family, neighbourhood and psychosocial environmental factors and asthma-symptoms in Australia by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources: We analyzed the primary research studies conducted in Australia across multiple databases, including PubMed, EMBASE and Scopus, published between 2000 and 2020. Study selections: The reviews and analyses focused on the overall association of different environmental exposures with the exacerbation of asthma-symptoms or asthma-related hospital visits. Quality-effect meta-analysis was done to estimate the pooled odds ratio for different environmental exposures for asthma-symptoms. Results: Among the 4,799 unique published articles found, 46 were included here for systematic review and 28 for meta-analysis. Our review found that psychosocial factors, including low socioeconomic condition, maternal depression, mental stress, ethnicity, and discrimination, are associated with asthma-symptoms. Pooled analysis was conducted on family and neighbourhood environmental factors and revealed that environmental tobacco smoking (ETS) (OR 1·69, 95% CI 1·19–2·38), synthetic bedding (OR 1·91, 95% CI 1·48–2·47) and gas heaters (OR 1·40, 95% CI 1·12–1·76) had significant overall associations with asthma-symptoms in Australia. Conclusion: Although the studies were heterogeneous, both systematic review and meta-analysis found several psychosocial and family environmental exposures significantly associated with asthma-symptoms. Further study to identify their causal relationship and modification may reduce asthma-symptoms in the Australian population.
... Reaction 3 is a significant source of NO 2 other than anthropogenic sources such as fossil fuel combustion and vehicle emissions, and natural sources such as soil emissions, lightning, natural combustion of biomass, photochemical smog, and acid deposition [26,27]. Ground-level NO 2 is closely associated with premature mortality [28,29], respiratory diseases [30,31], and patterns of environmental injustice and inequality [32]. Similarly, the formation of ground-level O 3 causes many adverse health effects including shortness of breath, aggravated lung diseases, and premature deaths [33,34]. ...
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In conventional modeling of air pollution dispersion, pollutants are treated as passive scalars or inert species even though most of them are chemically reactive [1]. Chemical reactions contribute to pollutant dispersion via the generation and depletion of pollutants, in addition to other two mechanisms: advection and turbulent diffusion. This study investigated how chemical reactions affect near-field pollution dispersion by integrating the simple NOx-O3 chemistry into RANS-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. CFD simulation was used to model a mixed emission of NO and NO2 from a short stack attached to a building into ambient O3, prompting chemical reactions between the NO, NO2, and O3. Various degrees of chemical reactivity were modeled by varying the Damkhöler number (Da) between 0.073 and 4.363. The results showed significant chemical reactivity for cases where Da[NO] > 1, while cases with Da[NO] < 1 had pollutant dispersion patterns similar to inert species. Noticeable modifications in concentrations were detected at ground level, where the NO concentration was depleted and NO2 concentration increased significantly. A budget analysis revealed major contributions of chemistry and turbulent diffusion to plume dispersion in the surroundings, while advection mainly carried the pollutants downstream from the source.
... [20][21][22][23] Because traffic is oen assumed to be a dominant source of UFP, exposure to UFP is sometimes approximated based on more commonly observed traffic-related air pollutants (commonly NO x or NO 2 ) as indicator values. [24][25][26][27][28][29] However, the strength of correlation between UFP and other traffic-related air pollutants (TRAPs, including NO, NO 2 , CO, and BC) varies among sites. [30][31][32][33][34][35] In this study we examine conditions under which the spatiotemporal signatures of UFP may differ meaningfully from those of other TRAPs. ...
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In the absence of routine monitoring of ultrafine particles (UFP, Dp < 100 nm), air pollution epidemiology studies often use other co-emitted pollutants as a proxy for UFP, with NOx (NO + NO2) considered a good choice. We use long term fixed site measurements along with extensive mobile monitoring data to evaluate the spatiotemporal correlation of UFP and NOx. We incorporate 6 years of hourly particle number (PN, an approximation of UFP) concentration data from multiple fixed sites across the San Francisco Bay Area that include near-highway, urban, suburban, and rural sites. In addition, we incorporate observations from a 32 month mobile monitoring campaign comprising >1000 h of coverage of a range of road types and land uses. Across all fixed sites, PN concentrations show prominent mid-day peaks during the summer – characteristic of new particle formation – which are not observed for other co-emitted pollutants (NOx, BC, CO). While we find moderate correlation in diurnal patterns of NOx and UFP at sites with high traffic, the correlation drops significantly for low traffic areas, especially during high insolation (e.g., summer daytime) periods. Mobile monitoring data yields similar results: NOx is observed to have weaker correlation with PN for non-highway roads during high insolation periods. The spatiotemporal profiles of UFP can differ strongly from other co-emitted air pollutants when new particle formation contributes a significant share of UFP.
... TRAP was identified as the largest anthropogenic contributor to ambient air pollution in many cities (77). Many studies have reported the association between asthma-symptoms and local variation in traffic patterns within communities or neighborhoods (78). Although this evidence indicates that living near heavy traffic is associated with increased rates of asthma symptoms, some well-designed studies have found weak or no association (79). ...
... 54 Increased particulate matter is linked to exacerbations of respiratory illnesses and increases in emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations. 55,56 Particulate matter from wildfires (e.g., particles from vegetation, wood, toxic building materials) 57 has been linked to asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations, leading to increased utilization of ED services. 50,58 The presence of sunlight and heat during fossil fuel combustion raises ambient ozone levels, 59 which increases the incidence of asthma and worsens existing lung diseases. ...
Article
Issue As U.S. healthcare systems plan for future physician workforce needs, the systemic impacts of climate change, a worldwide environmental and health crisis, have not been factored in. The current focus on increasing the number of trained physicians and optimizing efficiencies in healthcare delivery may be insufficient. Graduate medical education (GME) priorities and training should be considered in order to prepare a climate-educated physician workforce. Evidence: We used a holistic lens to explore the available literature regarding the intersection of future physician workforce needs, GME program priorities, and resident education within the larger context of climate change. Our interinstitutional, transdisciplinary team brought perspectives from their own fields, including climate science, climate and health research, and medical education to provide recommendations for building a climate-educated physician workforce. Implications: Acknowledging and preparing for the effects of climate change on the physician workforce will require identification of workforce gaps, changes to GME program priorities, and education of trainees on the health and societal impacts of climate change. Alignment of GME training with workforce considerations and climate action and adaptation initiatives will be critical in ensuring the U.S. has a climate-educated physician workforce capable of addressing health and healthcare system challenges. This article offers a number of recommendations for physician workforce priorities, resident education, and system-level changes to better prepare for the health and health system impacts of climate change.
... Children are particularly vulnerable to some of these pressures and exposure to them can result in life-long impacts (Salthammer et al., 2016), not only in terms of health and well-being (e.g. PM 2.5 -related impaired lung development, increased respiratory symptoms, increased prevalence of childhood asthma - Gauderman et al., 2005;McConnell et al., 2010), but also in terms of social mobility. For instance, studies have shown that increased temperatures in education environments can have negative impacts on learning ability (Wargocki & Wyon, 2007) and similar impacts of elevated PM 2.5 air pollution on educational attainment have also been observed (e.g. ...
... Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) is a primary constituent of traffic-related air pollution and has well-established harmful environmental and human-health impacts (US Environmental Protection Agency (2016)). For example, exposure to NO 2 is associated with increased all-cause mortality (Hoek et al. (2013)), myocardial infarction (Rosenlund et al. (2006(Rosenlund et al. ( , 2009), coronary heart disease (Rosenlund et al. (2008)), cardiovascular events (Alexeeff et al. (2018)), asthma (Gauderman et al. (2005)), autism spectrum disorders (Volk et al. (2013)) and impaired neurological development and other neurological disorders (Xu, Ha and Basnet (2016)). Additionally, atmospheric oxides of nitrogen, including NO 2 , are precursors to hazardous acid rain (Schindler (1988)), tropospheric ozone (US Environmental Protection Agency (1999)), fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) (US Environmental Protection Agency (1999)) and can result in negative ecological (Schindler (1988)) and economic impacts (Mauzerall et al. (2005)). ...
Article
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... Numerous epidemiological studies have reported that significant proportions of cardiopulmonary mortalities, incidences of lung cancer, and asthma exacerbations are attributable to air pollution [1][2][3][4][5]. Tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is one of the major pollutants affecting human health [6,7]; it is also an important precursor of tropospheric ozone, OH radicals, and aerosols [8][9][10][11][12]. Information on average long-term exposure to air pollution is key to epidemiological studies; however, it is subject to uncertainties due to substantial spatiotemporal variations. ...
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Since April 2018, the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) has provided data on tropospheric NO2 column concentrations (CTROPOMI) with unprecedented spatial resolution. This study aims to assess the capability of TROPOMI to acquire high spatial resolution data regarding surface NO2 mixing ratios. In general, the instrument effectively detected major and moderate sources of NO2 over South Korea with a clear weekday–weekend distinction. We compared the CTROPOMI with surface NO2 mixing ratio measurements from an extensive ground-based network over South Korea operated by the Korean Ministry of Environment (SKME; more than 570 sites), for 2019. Spatiotemporally collocated CTROPOMI and SKME showed a moderate correlation (correlation coefficient, r = 0.67), whereas their annual mean values at each site showed a higher correlation (r = 0.84). The CTROPOMI and SKME were well correlated around the Seoul metropolitan area, where significant amounts of NO2 prevailed throughout the year, whereas they showed lower correlation at rural sites. We converted the tropospheric NO2 from TROPOMI to the surface mixing ratio (STROPOMI) using the EAC4 (ECMWF Atmospheric Composition Reanalysis 4) profile shape, for quantitative comparison with the SKME. The estimated STROPOMI generally underestimated the in-situ value obtained, SKME (slope = 0.64), as reported in previous studies.
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Colorimetry is widely used in chemical sensing due to its high sensitivity and high selectivity. However, most colorimetric sensors are one-time use because the color-producing reactions or bindings are usually irreversible. In addition, traditional colorimetric sensors like the detection tubes are bulky and packed individually, making parallel sensing of multiple analytes difficult. Here, we demonstrate a gradient-based colorimetric array sensor (GCAS) to overcome these limitations. Different colorimetric sensing elements are inkjet-printed as parallel straight lines on a porous substrate. Lateral transport of analytes across the substrate creates color gradients on the sensing elements. The color gradients shift along the transport direction over time, and GCAS tracks the gradient shifts and converts them into analyte concentrations in real time. Using a low-cost complementary metal-oxide semiconductor imager, we show detection of three air pollutants using a single GCAS chip and 24 h continuous monitoring of ambient ozone.
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Houston, Texas is a major U.S. urban and industrial area where poor air quality is unevenly distributed and a disproportionate share is located in low-income, non-white, and Hispanic neighborhoods. We have traditionally lacked city-wide observations to fully describe these spatial heterogeneities in Houston and in cities globally, especially for reactive gases like nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Here, we analyze novel high-spatial-resolution (250 m × 500 m) NO2 vertical columns measured by the NASA GCAS airborne spectrometer as part of the September-2013 NASA DISCOVER-AQ mission and discuss differences in population-weighted NO2 at the census-tract level. Based on the average of 35 repeated flight circuits, we find 37 ± 6% higher NO2 for non-whites and Hispanics living in low-income tracts (LIN) compared to whites living in high-income tracts (HIW) and report NO2 disparities separately by race ethnicity (11-32%) and poverty status (15-28%). We observe substantial time-of-day and day-to-day variability in LIN-HIW NO2 differences (and in other metrics) driven by the greater prevalence of NO x (≡NO + NO2) emission sources in low-income, non-white, and Hispanic neighborhoods. We evaluate measurements from the recently launched satellite sensor TROPOMI (3.5 km × 7 km at nadir), averaged to 0.01° × 0.01° using physics-based oversampling, and demonstrate that TROPOMI resolves similar relative, but not absolute, tract-level differences compared to GCAS. We utilize the high-resolution FIVE and NEI NO x inventories, plus one year of TROPOMI weekday-weekend variability, to attribute tract-level NO2 disparities to industrial sources and heavy-duty diesel trucking. We show that GCAS and TROPOMI spatial patterns correspond to the surface patterns measured using aircraft profiling and surface monitors. We discuss opportunities for satellite remote sensing to inform decision making in cities generally.
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Advancements in environmental sensors and laboratory instrumentation are inherently linked with Big Data in environmental chemistry. Technological advancements in instrumentation have greatly increased the throughput and precision of measuring chemical, biological, and physical variability and have also resulted in the generation of vast quantities of digital data that can be used to monitor the fate of chemicals in the environment. However, many challenges to accessing and analyzing these data are proving persistent. This review provides a brief overview of the technological advancements that enabled the age of Big Data in the environmental chemistry, the current status of data integration in the environmental sciences, and areas of opportunity for more efficient data integration and comprehensive environmental study, particularly accessibility and use by a multidisciplinary audience.
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Estimating the ambient concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is challenging because NO2 generated by local fossil fuel combustion varies greatly in concentration across space and time. This study demonstrates an integrated hybrid approach combining dispersion modeling and land use regression (LUR) to predict daily NO2 concentrations at a high spatial resolution (e.g., 50 m) in the New York tri-state area. The daily concentration of traffic-related NO2 was estimated at the Environmental Protection Agency's NO2 monitoring sites in the study area for the years 2015–2017, using the Research LINE source (R-LINE) model with inputs of traffic data provided by the Highway Performance and Management System and meteorological data provided by the NOAA Integrated Surface Database. We used the R-LINE-predicted daily concentrations of NO2 to build mixed-effects regression models, including additional variables representing land use features, geographic characteristics, weather, and other predictors. The mixed model was selected by the Elastic Net method. Each model's performance was evaluated using the out-of-sample coefficient of determination (R²) and the square root of mean squared error (RMSE) from ten-fold cross-validation (CV). The mixed model showed a good prediction performance (CV R²: 0.75–0.79, RMSE: 3.9–4.0 ppb). R-LINE outputs improved the overall, spatial, and temporal CV R² by 10.0%, 18.9% and 7.7% respectively. Given the output of R-LINE is point-based and has a flexible spatial resolution, this hybrid approach allows prediction of daily NO2 at an extremely high spatial resolution such as city blocks.
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We derive causal property value impacts of the coal-to-gas fuel switching conversion implemented by several power plants in the United States. We use an extensive dataset of property transactions around the country and adopt several spatial difference-in-difference approaches that use records of residential property transactions of homes with pollution exposure and proximity to the fuel-switching plants before and after the switch. The use of homes near coal-fired plants that did not innovate strengthens these estimations. The results suggest that the shutdown of coal-fired generators increased property values by roughly 12%–20% within 1 mile of distance from fuel-switching stations. These effects significantly increase once we consider wind exposure of homes around these plants, which brings to light the strong and localized disamenity effect of coal-fired power stations. Conservative back-of-the-envelope calculations suggest that the fuel-switching led to a $70-million increase in property values around the country.
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Traffic congestion increases travel time and is a major source of pollution and health damage in developing-country cities. Data scarcity frequently confines traffic improvement projects to sites where congestion can be easily measured. This article uses spatiotemporal data from new global sources to revisit the siting problem in Dhaka, Bangladesh, where local congestion measures are augmented by estimates of citywide travel time, pollution exposure, and pollution vulnerability. We combine Google Traffic data with an econometric model linking traffic, pollution readings from a local monitoring station, and weather data to estimate the spatial distribution of vehicular pollution. We explore pollution-vulnerability implications by incorporating spatial distributions of poor households, children, and the elderly. Using the Open Source Routing Machine and OpenStreetMaps, we estimate systemwide travel-time gains from reducing congestion at each point in a grid covering the Dhaka metro area. We find a large divergence of siting priorities in single-dimensional exercises that focus exclusively on local congestion, citywide travel time, vehicular pollution, or vulnerable-resident pollution exposure. By implication, optimal siting requires a social objective function with explicit weights assigned to each of the four dimensions. The new global information sources permit extending this multidimensional approach to many cities throughout the developing world.
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Concentrations of various particulate matter (PM) in urban areas have attracted great attention, due to the increasing demand on life quality. Many studies have highlighted the spatial variability of PM2.5 in urban areas, and found that there are significant differences between residents' exposure and background levels. Different from the strategy of establishing large-scale Airbox stations or utilizing mobile stations with portable instruments to measure residents' exposures, this study develops an on-vehicle monitoring system (OVMS), which is based on the technology of Internet of Things, to increase the spatial resolution of the monitoring data in an economical way. The parameters measured by the OVMS include PM2.5, time, location, moving speed, ambient temperature, and relative humidity. According to the experimental results, the effects of the moving speed of the OVMS on PM2.5 measurements are negligible (r =0.024), when the moving speed is below 57 km/hr. The correlation between the dynamic measurements provided by the OVMS and a standard instrument is high (r =0.601). These results show that the OVMS can accurately monitor PM2.5 as it moves. The data of PM2.5 obtained by the OVMS also reveal the impacts of traffic and community pollution in urban areas on residents' exposure. In addition, this study proposes a visualized map that shows real-time PM2.5 measurements as the OVMS travels. Map users can choose a less-polluted path to get to their destinations based on the PM2.5 information. In addition, the OVMS measurements can be integrated with the Airbox measurements, so the visualized map can provide detailed spatial interpolation results on PM2.5 exposures. Thus, the OVMS can be a great help in evaluating the PM2.5 levels in certain areas of urban streets where Airbox stations are not installed.
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Weekly personal NO2 exposures of 246 children aged 3-6 years were measured with Palmes tubes during 13 weeks in winter and spring in 1991. Measurements were made in eight day-care centers in the downtown and suburban areas of Helsinki, Finland. At the same time, inside and outside NO2 concentration of the day-care centers and the ambient air fixed site measurements were conducted. Palmes tubes were found to be applicable for NO2 exposure measurements of preschool children, but rather high sample losses could be expected. The geometric mean of personal NO2 exposure levels of 13-week period was 26.5 micrograms/m3 in the downtown and 17.5 micrograms/m3 in the suburban area. Gas stove and smoking at home increased significantly personal exposure to NO2. The weekly population NO2 exposure correlated rather poorly with the fixed site ambient air NO2 levels (R2 = 0.37), but much better with the NO2 levels inside and outside the day-care centers (R2 = 0.88 and 0.86). In the suburban and downtown groups the between children variations in the NO2 exposures were only 14% and 28% of the total variations, which were dominated by the within child variation. Stationary measurements at the ambient air fixed sites and inside and outside the day-care centers explained the variation in personal exposures of the children well during the spring, but not during the winter. A regression model, where data from outside day-care center measurements, fixed ambient air monitors, residential area and home characteristics (i.e., gas stove, smoking inside at home, type of dwelling) were included, explained 32% of the personal NO2 exposure variation in winter and 67% in spring. In the absence of personal exposure measurements, both stationary measurements and questionnaire information are useful in estimating variations in personal exposures.
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To study the possible chronic respiratory effects of air pollutants, we designed and initiated a 10-yr prospective study of Southern California public schoolchildren living in 12 communities with different levels and profiles of air pollution. The design of the study, exposure assessment methods, and survey methods and results related to respiratory symptoms and conditions are described in the accompanying paper. Pulmonary function tests were completed on 3,293 subjects. We evaluated cross-sectionally the effects of air pollution exposures based on data collected in 1986-1990 by existing monitoring stations and data collected by our study team in 1994. Expected relationships were seen between demographic, physical, and other environmental factors and pulmonary function values. When the data were stratified by sex, an association was seen between pollution levels and lower pulmonary function in female subjects, with the associations being stronger for the 1994 exposure data than the 1986-1990 data. After adjustment, PM10, PM2.5, and NO2 were each significantly associated with lower FVC, FEV1, and maximal midexpiratory flow (MMEF); acid vapor with lower FVC, FEV1, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), and MMEF; and O3 with lower PEFR and MMEF. Effects were generally larger in those girls spending more time outdoors. Stepwise regression of adjusted pulmonary function values for girls in the 12 communities showed that NO2 was most strongly associated with lower FVC (r = -0.74, p < 0.01), PM2.5 with FEV1 (r = -0.72, p < 0.01), O3 with PEFR (r = -0.75, p < 0.005), and PM2.5 with MMEF (r = -0.80, p < 0.005). There was a statistically significant association between ozone exposure and decreased FVC and FEV1 in girls with asthma. For boys, significant associations were seen between peak O3 exposures and lower FVC and FEV1, but only in those spending more time outdoors. These findings underline the importance of follow-up of this cohort.
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To investigate the relation between local road traffic activity and the occurrence, severity, and persistence of wheeze in children. Data on wheeze and asthma were collected in a cross sectional questionnaire survey of 22,968 primary school children (age 4-11) and 27,826 secondary school children (age 11-16) in the Nottingham area. Direct measures of road traffic flow were made in the locality of each school and combined with Local Authority traffic data for major roads to estimate local traffic activity in vehicle metres/day/km2. Assessment of the effects of potential confounders was performed in nested case-control groups of 6576 primary and 5936 secondary children. Data on frequency of wheeze were collected for the cases to study disease severity. Longitudinal data on a historical cohort of 883 children who reported wheeze when aged 4-11 in 1988 were used to study the persistence of wheeze into adolescence. Unadjusted prevalence of wheeze in the past year within schools varied widely but was not associated with traffic activity in the school locality (weighted regression coefficient beta = -0.01, p = 0.93 for primary schools, beta = -0.18, p = 0.26 for secondary schools). The risk of wheeze in individual primary school children was not associated with traffic activity analysed as a continuous variable, although there was some suggestion of a weak, non-linear plateau effect. Similar effects were found for diagnosed asthma and recent cough. There was no evidence of any relation between traffic activity and risk of wheeze in secondary school children. There were positive but non-significant dose related effects of traffic activity on wheeze severity in primary and secondary children and on persistence of wheeze in the longitudinal cohort. Traffic activity in the school locality is not a major determinant of wheeze in children.
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Whether exposure to air pollution adversely affects the growth of lung function during the period of rapid lung development that occurs between the ages of 10 and 18 years is unknown. In this prospective study, we recruited 1759 children (average age, 10 years) from schools in 12 southern California communities and measured lung function annually for eight years. The rate of attrition was approximately 10 percent per year. The communities represented a wide range of ambient exposures to ozone, acid vapor, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter. Linear regression was used to examine the relationship of air pollution to the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) and other spirometric measures. Over the eight-year period, deficits in the growth of FEV(1) were associated with exposure to nitrogen dioxide (P=0.005), acid vapor (P=0.004), particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 microm (PM(2.5)) (P=0.04), and elemental carbon (P=0.007), even after adjustment for several potential confounders and effect modifiers. Associations were also observed for other spirometric measures. Exposure to pollutants was associated with clinically and statistically significant deficits in the FEV(1) attained at the age of 18 years. For example, the estimated proportion of 18-year-old subjects with a low FEV(1) (defined as a ratio of observed to expected FEV(1) of less than 80 percent) was 4.9 times as great at the highest level of exposure to PM(2.5) as at the lowest level of exposure (7.9 percent vs. 1.6 percent, P=0.002). The results of this study indicate that current levels of air pollution have chronic, adverse effects on lung development in children from the age of 10 to 18 years, leading to clinically significant deficits in attained FEV(1) as children reach adulthood.
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We studied 110 children (59 boys and 51 girls, who were 10 yr of age at enrollment and 15 yr of age at follow-up) who had moved from communities participating in a 10-yr prospective study of respiratory health (The Children's Health Study [CHS]) to determine whether changes in air quality caused by relocation were associated with changes in annual lung function growth rates. The subjects were given health questionnaires and underwent spirometry in their homes across six western states, according to a protocol identical to evaluations performed annually on the CHS cohort in school. Changes in annual average exposure to particulate matter with a mean diameter of 10 mum (PM10) were associated with differences in annual lung function growth rates for FEV1, maximal mid-expiratory flow, and peak expiratory flow rate. As a group, subjects who had moved to areas of lower PM10 showed increased growth in lung function and subjects who moved to communities with a higher PM10 showed decreased growth in lung function. A stronger trend was found for subjects who had migrated at least 3 yr before the follow-up visit than for those who had moved in the previous 1 to 2 yr. We conclude that changes in air pollution exposure during adolescent growth years have a measurable and potentially important effect on lung function growth and performance.
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OBJECTIVES To investigate the relation between local road traffic activity and the occurrence, severity, and persistence of wheeze in children. METHODS Data on wheeze and asthma were collected in a cross sectional questionnaire survey of 22 968 primary school children (age 4–11) and 27 826 secondary school children (age 11–16) in the Nottingham area. Direct measures of road traffic flow were made in the locality of each school and combined with Local Authority traffic data for major roads to estimate local traffic activity in vehicle metres/day/km2. Assessment of the effects of potential confounders was performed in nested case-control groups of 6576 primary and 5936 secondary children. Data on frequency of wheeze were collected for the cases to study disease severity. Longitudinal data on a historical cohort of 883 children who reported wheeze when aged 4–11 in 1988 were used to study the persistence of wheeze into adolescence. RESULTS Unadjusted prevalence of wheeze in the past year within schools varied widely but was not associated with traffic activity in the school locality (weighted regression coefficient β=−0.01, p=0.93 for primary schools, β=−0.18, p=0.26 for secondary schools). The risk of wheeze in individual primary school children was not associated with traffic activity analysed as a continuous variable, although there was some suggestion of a weak, non-linear plateau effect. Similar effects were found for diagnosed asthma and recent cough. There was no evidence of any relation between traffic activity and risk of wheeze in secondary school children. There were positive but non-significant dose related effects of traffic activity on wheeze severity in primary and secondary children and on persistence of wheeze in the longitudinal cohort. CONCLUSIONS Traffic activity in the school locality is not a major determinant of wheeze in children.
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In order to assess exposure to air pollution from traffic of subjects living near motorways, traffic related air pollutants were measured indoors and outdoors in six city districts near motorways in the West of the Netherlands. Outdoor measurements of PM10, PM2.5, black smoke and benzene were conducted at four different distances from the roadside in two of the six city districts. NO2 was measured in all city districts. Indoor concentrations of PM10 and NO2 were measured in 12 schools in the same six city districts. Reflectance of indoor PM10 filters was measured to get an impression of black smoke concentrations indoors. Outdoor concentrations of black smoke and NO2 declined with distance from the roadside. No gradient was found for PM10, PM2.5 and benzene. The gradients for NO2 and black smoke were curvilinear and more evident in periods that the city districts had been downwind from the motorway for at least 33% of the time. PM10 concentrations in schools were high compared to outdoor concentrations and were not correlated with distance of the school from the motorway, traffic intensity and percentage of time downwind. Indoor black smoke concentrations were significantly correlated with truck traffic intensity and percentage of time downwind. NO2 concentrations in classrooms were significantly correlated with car and total traffic intensity, percentage of time downwind and distance of the school from the motorway.
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Some of the approaches that have been developed in the Aeronomy Laboratory and used to determine the rate and amount of ozone that is photochemically produced in the atmosphere from human-made and natural ozone precursors are reviewed below. The results were obtained from analysis of our field measurements that were made in the United States of the concentrations of O3, O3-precursors, the photochemical intermediates, and other photochemical products, as well as other atmospheric parameters. The utility of these approaches to identify the individual processes that lead to the formation and loss of ozone and O3-precursors are described and some of the crucial uncertainties that still remain are identified. The information obtained using these observational approaches include: (1) the apportionment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (CO) and the oxides of nitrogen (NOx=NO+NO2) among the various anthropogenic sources; (2) the importance of natural VOCs/CO and NOx relative to anthropogenic VOCs/CO and NOx in photochemical ozone production; (3) identification of the mechanism for the photochemical chemical production and photochemical processing; (4) the determination of the instantaneous rate of photochemical production of O3; (5) the efficiency of tropospheric ozone production relative to the NOx concentrations; (6) the importance of NOx relative to VOCs and CO in determining observed O3 levels.
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Several studies have reported chronic health effects related to living near major roads. Exposure to traffic-related air pollution has generally not been well characterised in these studies. We therefore performed a study to evaluate differences in concentration of air pollutants outside and inside homes in streets with low and high traffic intensity in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The study was performed in the framework of the Small Area Variation in Air quality and Health (SAVIAH) study. In the first phase of the study, an NO2-map was produced based upon a dense network and traffic intensity information. The present study was also designed to evaluate whether other pollutants exhibited similar spatial variation. Pollutants measured were particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), the reflectance (`blackness') of the PM10 and PM2.5 filters, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and volatile organic compounds (VOC). Measurements were performed during 19 days in the winter and spring of 1995. Per day two to four homes were measured. In total 36 homes without major indoor sources of air pollution such as smoking were included in the study, 18 in major streets and 18 in quiet streets. Outdoor PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were 15–20% higher at homes located in high traffic intensity streets compared to low traffic homes, similar to contrasts in predicted NO2. A substantially larger contrast (about a factor two) was found for outdoor concentration of the particulate components BaP, total PAH, absorption coefficient (`soot') and the gas-phase components benzene and total VOC. The contrasts for these pollutants were substantially larger than the estimated contrast in average NO2 (22%). Differences of a similar magnitude were also found in indoor air in these homes, with the exception of the VOCs. We conclude that PM10 and PM2.5 are not specific indicators of exposure to traffic-related air pollution. In the present study the (outdoor) contrasts of BaP, total PAH, absorption coefficient, benzene and total VOC were highly correlated, suggesting that any of these could have been selected to represent exposure to traffic air pollution. Also, the study indicated that the earlier developed NO2-map reflected even larger contrasts in other traffic-related pollutants.
Article
The Southern California Children's Health Study (CHS) investigated the relationship between air pollution and children's chronic respiratory health outcomes. Ambient air pollutant measurements from a single CHS monitoring station in each community were used as surrogates for personal exposures of all children in that community. To improve exposure estimates for the CHS children, we developed an Individual Exposure Model (IEM) to retrospectively estimate the long-term average exposure of the individual CHS children to CO, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, and elemental carbon (EC) of ambient origin. In the IEM, pollutant concentrations due to both local mobile source emissions (LMSE) and meteorologically transported pollutants were taken into account by combining a line source model (CALINE4) with a regional air quality model (SMOG). To avoid double counting, local mobile sources were removed from SMOG and added back by CALINE4. Limited information from the CHS survey was used to group each child into a specific time-activity category, for which corresponding Consolidated Human Activity Database (CHAD) time-activity profiles were sampled. We found local traffic significantly increased within-community variability of exposure to vehicle-related pollutants. PM-associated exposures were influenced more by meteorologically transported pollutants and local non-mobile source emissions than by LMSE. The overall within-community variability of personal exposures was highest for NO2 (±20–40%), followed by EC (±17–27%), PM10 (±15–25%), PM2.5 (±15–20%), and CO (±9–14%). Between-community exposure differences were affected by community location, traffic density, and locations of residences and schools in each community. Proper siting of air monitoring stations relative to emission sources is important to capture community mean exposures.
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Traffic emissions are a major source of air pollution in Western industrialized countries. To investigate the association between traffic-related air pollution and parameters of atopy, we studied 317 children 9 years of age living near major roads in two urban areas and one suburban area of a city in West Germany. Atopic sensitization was analyzed by skin-prick testing and determination of allergen-specific serum immunoglobulin E. Parents recorded allergic symptoms in a symptom diary, and physicians assessed allergic diseases. Personal NO2 exposure and NO2 concentrations in front of each child's home were measured. Outdoor NO2 was a good predictor for traffic exposure but a poor predictor for NO2 exposure at the personal level. Atopy was found to be related to outdoor NO2 (odds ratio for the association between symptoms of allergic rhinitis and outdoor NO2 = 1.81; 95% confidence interval = 1.02-3.21) but not to personal NO2 (odds ratio for the association between symptoms of allergic rhinitis and personal NO2 = 0.99; 95% confidence interval = 0.55-1.79). When the analysis was restricted to urban areas, we found that hay fever, symptoms of allergic rhinitis, wheezing, sensitization against pollen, house dust mites or cats, and milk or eggs were associated with outdoor NO2. The results indicate that traffic-related air pollution leads to increased prevalence of atopic sensitizations, allergic symptoms, and diseases.
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A new type of personal sampler for gases in air, originally reported from this laboratory, has been adapted to measurement of NO2. The sampler depends on the transfer of NO2 by diffusion to a triethanolamine coated collector at the sealed end of a tube; the open end of the tube is exposed to the test environment. The devices are accurate, light, simple to use and have very good shelf life before and after sampling.
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Clinical, physiologic, and questionnaire approaches can be used to identify subjects with asthma in an epidemiologic investigation. Each method, however, may select differing subsets of the population. At present, a comprehensive asthma questionnaire is unavailable; the difficulty of defining asthma in operational terms has been a major obstacle in the development of such a questionnaire. This review describes the questionnaires prepared by the British Medical Research Council and the American Thoracic Society and suggests modifications.
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This study examined the relationship between residence near major roads, traffic flow, and risk of hospital admission for asthma in children younger than 5 y of age living in Birmingham, United Kingdom. Area of residence and traffic flow patterns were compared for children admitted to the hospital for asthma, children admitted for nonrespiratory reasons, and a random sample of children from the community. Children admitted with an asthma diagnosis were significantly more likely to live in an area with high traffic flow (> 24,000 vehicles/24 h) located along the nearest segment of main road than were children admitted for nonrespiratory reasons (p < .02) or children from the community (p < .002). A significant linear trend was observed for traffic flow (p < .006) for children living less than 500 m from a main road but not for those living farther away. Children admitted for nonrespiratory reasons were more likely to be admitted than children in the community sample if they lived within 200 m of a main road (p < .02), irrespective of traffic flow.
Article
Proposals to widen the section of the M25 motorway that passes through East Surrey caused considerable concern and claims that the traffic on the road was responsible for an increasing prevalence of asthma. This study was designed to ascertain the prevalence of asthma-related symptoms among schoolchildren in the District and determine whether there was an association with proximity to a motorway. A total of 2387 children aged between 13 and 14 from 17 schools in East Surrey were invited to participate in a survey of the prevalence of asthma-related respiratory symptoms. The survey instrument used was the core asthma questionnaire of the International Survey on Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). The children were grouped according to electoral ward of residence and comparisons were made between urban and rural wards, and the presence or absence of a section of motorway. The prevalence of reported symptoms varied from 2.2 per cent reporting sleep disturbance on more than one night each week to 40 per cent reporting a wheezing episode at some time in their lives; 16 per cent reported a diagnosis of asthma. The overall prevalence of symptoms did not differ greatly from that reported in other similar studies. There was a decrease in the prevalence of asthma-related symptoms in areas close to motorways, which was statistically significant for two questions. This is unlikely to be due to the rural location of the motorways. This study suggests that the motorways in East Surrey, in their present configuration, are not responsible for an increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms associated with asthma.