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Influence of selenium on heat shock protein 70 expression in heat stressed turkey embryos (Meleagris gallopavo)

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Abstract

Heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) family of proteins, which functions as molecular chaperones, has been associated with tolerance to stressors in avian species. Selenium (Se) is an essential trace mineral incorporated into the seleno-enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx). GSHpx reduces oxidized glutathione (GSSG) to reduced glutathione (GSH) in the GSH/GSSG antioxidant system and protects cells from oxidative damage. This study was conducted to examine if the relationship between dietary supplementation of selenium to turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) hens and the embryonic expression of hsp70 and GSHpx activity in heat stressed embryos. Livers of embryos developing in eggs from turkey hens fed diets with or without supplemental Se were analyzed for hsp70 concentration and GSHpx activity before and after recovery from a heating episode. Before heat stress, hsp70 concentrations were equivalent in each treatment, but GSHpx activity was maximized in the SE treatment group. After recovery from the heating episode, hsp70 concentrations were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the non-Se-supplemented groups, but in the Se-supplemented groups the hsp70 concentrations were not different from pre-stress concentrations. In the pre-stress Se-supplemented group, liver GSHpx activity was significantly higher than GSHpx activity in the non-Se-supplemented embryo livers, and in the livers from embryos recovering from heat stress, GSHpx activity in the non-Se-supplemented group was lower than the pre-stress activity and significantly lower than the GSHpx activity in liver from Se-supplemented embryos recovering from heat distress. Se supplementation to the dams resulted in a significant increase in their embryos and that condition would facilitate a decreased incidence of oxidative damage to cells. A more reduced redox status in embryos from Se-supplemented dams decreased the need for cellular protection attributed to stress induced hsp70 and presumably allows heat distressed embryos to resume normal growth and development than embryos from dams with inadequate selenium nutrition.
The Church of
Jesus Christ
of Latter-day Saints
BISHOPRIC MESSAGE
In the books of the Old Testament the name Jehovah is only
mentioned four times. It is also mentioned several times as part of the
name of a place or altar. The name Jehovah first appears in the Old
Testament as part of the name of the place Abraham offered Isaac as a
sacrifice. The name of the place was Jehovah-Jireh meaning the Lord will
provide. Throughout the Book of Mormon and in Doctrine & Covenants
section 110 we learn that Jehovah is the pre-mortal Jesus Christ. Perhaps
this is why Abraham chose to name this place after the son of God who
would be offered as a sacrifice to the world.
Exodus 6:3 is where the name Jehovah itself is first mentioned.
The name is revealed to Moses as being the one who would cause Phar-
aoh to release Israel from bondage. The Joseph Smith translation of verse
3 reads as follows. And I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto
Jacob. I am the Lord God Almighty; the Lord JEHOVAH. And was not
my name known unto them?The answer to this question is obviously
yessince Abraham used the name to designate the place of his offering
of Isaac.
The name doesnt appear again until Psalms 83:18 proclaiming
Jehovah most high over all the earth.
Isaiah makes the last two mentions of the name Jehovah. The
first is in chapter 12, verse 2 where he appropriately says that
JEHOVAH...is become my salvation”. There is no doubt hes referring
to Jesus Christ - Savior to him and all mankind.
Isaiah mentions Jehovah once more is chapter 26, verse 4 where
he counsels us to trust in the LORD JEHOVAH. Compare this scripture
to the Apostle Pauls epistle to the Romans where he says in chapter 15,
verse 12, And again, Esaias saith, There shall be a root of Jesse, and he
that shall rise to reign over the Gentiles; in him shall the Gentiles trust.
There are four things to learn from this scripture. First, Esaias is
the Greek name for Isaiah. Second, Jesse is the father of David through
whose lineage Jesus of Nazareth would be born. Therefore, Jesus Christ
is the root of Jesse. Third, we are the Gentiles. Fourth, it is in Jesus Christ
whom we, the Gentiles, will trust. This is the same Jehovah referred to by
Isaiah in the Old Testament whom he tells us to trust.
Thanks be to the Old Testament prophets for their revelations
concerning our Savior Jesus Christ. Thanks be to Isaiah, the great seer,
for his proclamations concerning the great JEHOVAH who is our
salvation and in whom we trust. Keep these messages from these prophets
at the center of your thoughts concerning our Savior. Your testimony of
Him will grow stronger.
Bishop Jeff Lynn
If you need an appointment with Bishop Lynn please contact our
Ward Executive Secretary Jay Mecham at (801) 663-9969
Mona 3rd Ward
NEWSLETTER
2017
WARD TEMPLE
NIGHT
Thursday, August 24th
7:00 pm Endowment Session
MONA 3RD WARD
MISSIONARIES
Elder and Sister Coray
Ensign Ranch
3551 Hundley Road
Cle Elum, WA 98922
Sister Jerika Larson
North Dakota Bismarck Mission
3103 E. Calgary Ave Apt 113
Bismarck, ND 58503
PATHWAY PROGRAM
Looking for an affordable, convenient way to work toward a college
education? Consider Pathway. Pathway is a one-year program that helps
members of the Church start or return to college. Students earn 15 credits
toward a degree and afterward can continue working toward a skills-based
certificate, associate degree, or bachelor's degree online through BYU-
Idaho, at a greatly reduced cost ($69 per credit). You can learn more and
apply online at pathway.lds.org. The application deadline is on August
22nd. For more information, please contact Elder and Sister Josephsen,
Pathway missionaries, at 801 369-2787
ALSO: PATHWAY CONNECT FIRESIDE August 6t h at 7:30 at the
Payson West Stake Center located at 780 West 500 South in Payson.
This is for all new students and those looking for more information about
Pathway Connect. Come and find out the answers to your questions.
Young Womens
We are so excited to have Vashti Coray as our newest Beehive!
Aug. 1 Combined YW. Bring a treat and recipe to share
Aug. 6 Missionary Fireside, 7:00 at the Stake Center, Church Dress
Aug. 8 Class Night
Aug. 15 Summer Bash. 6:30-9:00, Nephi Park/Pool
Aug. 22 No YW—1st day of School
Aug. 29 Combined YW/YM
Stake YM/YW Summer Bash
Tuesday, August 15, 2017
6:30 p.m. - 9:00 p.m.
Nephi City Park
BBQ and games from 6:30 - 8:00
Swimming or games from 8:00 - 9:00
Newsletter Information is due the last Sunday of each month.
Septembers Newsletter information will be due Sunday, August 27th
Weekly Sunday Bulletin information is due by the Thursday Morning
before each Sunday.
Email: mona3rdnews@gmail.com
or call or text Tory Bowles (435) 623-5604
If you would like help with your Family
History Please call: Bruce Beckett
(435) 623-1070
(Ward Temple and Family
History Consultant)
RELIEF SOCIETY
Mona 3rd Ward
Back to School Night
Come and learn some
tips and tricks!
August 17, 2017
6:30 pm
In the Relief Society Room
We are having Ice Cream
Nephi North Stake
Recently Released
Missionary Fireside
Sunday, Aug 6th
7:00 pm
Nephi North Stake
Chapel
Best Dressed
1 Vashti Coray
1 Jeff Elbert
1 Reverl Jasper
2 Maelee Burraston
2 Kendyl Hogan
2 Nicole Matheson
2 Tonya Painter
4 Michael Peterson
5 Trenton Painter
5 Kayson Wilson
6 Carter Gledhill
6 Granger McDonald
6 Whitney West
7 Tyler Banks
7 Brooklyn Davis
7 Easton Warren
8 Don Evans
8 Aila Walden
10 Gail Brown
11 Ti Thomas
12 Bryce Johnstun
13 Jessica Clouse
13 Heather Jolley
13 Andrew Riding
15 Hazlie Ariza
15 Logan Herbert
15 Magenta McDonald
16 Halle Herbert
16 Mckaden McGee
16 Caitlin Probst
17 Taigh McDonald
18 Maggie Goodwin
18 Kylan Humphrey
18 Craig Ryan
19 Gloria Kay
20 Conley Corless
21 Damon Painter
22 Bryce Zeeman
23 Kaidance Park
26 Tyler Painter
26 Brodey Peterson
29 Valeen Geldmacher
29 Ethan Phillips
30 Paisley Humphrey
31 Ryder Stevenson
August Primary Assignments
8/06/17
Talk Testimonies
Scripture: Elena Gutierrez
Article of Faith: Carly Cunningham
Opening Prayer: Hannah Goodwin
8/13/17
Talk: Aspyn Lynn
Scripture: Caitlin Probst
Article of Faith: William Coray
Opening Prayer: Conn Gutierrez
8/20/17
Talk Stevie Payne
Scripture: Liam Bennett
Article of Faith: Adalyn Mattinson
Opening Prayer: Carter Loveless
8/27/17
Talk: Dantzel Coray
Scripture: Macrae Watkins
Article of Faith: Emerson Gutierrez
Opening Prayer: Heston Jarrett
8/06/17
Talk: Testimonies
Scripture: Brooklyn Davis
Article of Faith: Claire Bennett
Closing Prayer: Tyler Payne
8/13/17
Talk: Carter Gledhill
Scripture: Kinsley Hogan
Article of Faith: Reese Park
Closing Prayer: Hayden Park
8/20//17
Talk: Beau Halvorsen
Scripture: Kanyon Mattinson
Article of Faith: Cailyn Cunningham
Closing Prayer:: Makynlee Watkins
8/27/17
Talk: Sawyer Mitchell
Scripture: Austin Watkins
Article of Faith: Tate Halvorsen
Closing Prayer: Lynlee Keyte
PRIMARY
2017 Theme:
Choose the Right
August Theme:
I Choose to Fill My Life with Things that Invite the Spirit
August Scripture:
If there is any virtuous, lovely, or of good report or
praiseworthy,
We seek after these things(Articles of Faith 1:13)
We would like to thank the previous Primary Presidency for
all the hard work and endless hours of service that they have
provided over the past 3 years. The children in Primary have
felt the love of their Heavenly Father, had their testimonies
grow, and learned to love one another because of the
presidencies wonderful examples. The children are going to
deeply miss them.
We as a New Primary Presidency are excited to be able to
serve in the Primary. We are excited to continue to help build
the childrens testimonies and have our testimonies grow at the
same time by serving the children in Primary.
Mona 3rd Ward Cleaning Schedule
Cleaning will be at 9:00 a.m. on the following days. If your
family is not available on your assigned week please contact
someone from the list to trade. For questions or to make a
schedule change please contact Kyle Kay
623-2126 or (801) 372-3394
August 5
Jeff Elbert
Kevin Goodwin
Bryce Johnstun
Shawn Neumeyer
August 12
Bryan Matheson
Josh Park
Jake Hansen
Allen Pay
August 19
Chad Herbert
Cory Probst
Nefi Ariza
Shane Jacobson
August 26
Jimmy Coray
Mitch Flanders
Steve Ewing
Clayton Mattinson
September 2
Kyle Clouse
Cooper Coreless
Troy Painter
Jay Hathaway
September 9
Howard Newton
Nate Mitchell
Mike Wilson
Colby Stevenson
The Mona 3rd Ward
Calendar of Events is available at
LDS.org or on your LDS Tools App
RELIEF SOCIETY
The Lord knows you. He knows your heart and is pleased with your sacrifice. He smiles upon you each day. He will uphold you and prepare the way
for you. He will send His angels before you. You will feel their presence. And with the help of heaven, your talents will be multiplied.
I promise you that as you lift those around you, the Lord God, the Creator of the universe, will lift you up. If you will only believe and incline your
heart to our Beloved Father, He will place within you a peace that surpasses understanding. He will give you joy. May each of you always remember
this. Elder Uchtdorf
I loved this quote by Elder Uchtdorf! Sometimes we don't understand the trials we have been given, but I know that as we turn towards Heavenly
Father he will help us through anything. I hope each of you always know how special you are! Thank you for all you guys do!
Love,
JoQell Taylor
... Vitamin and minerals play important roles during heat stress. Supplementation of dietary vitamins and minerals has positive effects in combating heat stress in poultry [1,35,36]. They mitigate the harmful effects of heat stress in various ways, such as modifying antioxidant enzyme levels and heat shock proteins. ...
... Heat is the foremost inducer of HSP-related genes (Fig. 3). Thus, expression of HSP70 and HSP90 has been studied extensively and used as a marker for heat stress in chickens [35,39]. The HSP70 gene is known to play a role in protecting the body from the deleterious effects of oxidative stress [44], whereas HSP90 interacts with client proteins during the later stages of folding and modifies their configuration [45]. ...
... The consequences of heat stress were minimized by supplementing selenium in turkey embryos. Selenium supplementation helped in sustaining the hepatic HSP70 expression which was otherwise enhanced when birds were kept at 40°C for 2 h [35]. Organic selenium (selenium yeast) fed broilers challenged with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli also resulted in lower hepatic HSP70 under heat stress at 40°C for 1 h, demonstrating the capability of selenium to condense heat stress responses even under challenging conditions [36]. ...
Article
Full-text available
High ambient temperatures are a critical challenge in the poultry industry which is a key producer of the animal-based food. To evaluate heat stress levels, various parameters have been used, including growth rates, blood metabolites, and hormones. The most recent advances have explored expression profiling of genes that may play vital roles under stress. A high ambient temperature adversely affects nutrient uptake and is known to modulate the expression of genes encoding for sodium-dependent glucose transporters, glucose transporters, excitatory amino acid transporters, and fatty acid-binding proteins which are responsible for the absorption of macronutrients in the intestine. Various defensive activities are stimulated to protect the cell of different tissues from the heat-generated stress, including expression of early stress response genes coding for heat shock protein (HSP), c-FOS like protein, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS); antioxidant enzyme genes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX4); and immune-related genes such as cytokines and toll-like receptors (TLRs). The potential role of HSPs in protecting the cell from stress and their presence in several tissues make them suitable markers to be evaluated under heat stress. BDNF and c-FOS genes expressed in the hypothalamus help cells to adapt to an adverse environment. Heat causes damage to the cell by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). The NOX4 gene is the inducer of ROS under heat stress, which is in turns controlled by antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and CAT. TLRs are responsible for protecting against pathogenic attacks arising from enhanced membrane permeability, and cytokines help in controlling the pathogen and maintaining homeostasis. Thus, the evaluation of nutrient transporters and defense mechanisms using the latest molecular biology tools has made it possible to shed light on the complex cellular mechanism of heat-stressed chickens. As the impacts of heat stress on the above-mentioned aspects are beyond the extent to which the reduced growth performance could be explained, heat stress has more specific effects on the regulation of these genes than previously thought. Graphical abstract Effect of heat exposure on the nutrient transporters, antioxidants, and immune inflammation in chickens. Most of the nutrient transporters were suppressed under heat stress. Increase in the production of reactive oxygen species resulted in enhanced production of antioxidant enzymes. Expression of various proinflammatory cytokines and toll-like receptors were enhanced due to heat stress in chicken.
... In addition to determined substances of SP with antioxidant activity, it was propounded that phospholipids, amines, vitamin C, and phenolic compounds of algae can regenerate vitamin E (Le 1990). Also, SP microalgae has been considered as one the organic sources of selenium, and consistent to our result, researchers have found that adding organic selenium such as selenium yeast to birds̓ diets decreased HSP70 expression (Mahmoud and Edens 2005;Rivera et al. 2005). In the present study, in ovo injection of 1.5, 2.5, or 3.5 mg SP/egg increased hepatic IFN-c gene expression in newly hatched quails. ...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of in ovo injection of Arthrospira (Spirulina) Platensis on hatchability, antioxidant and immunity-related genes expression, and hatchling performance of broilers and Japanese quails was assessed in 2 separate experiments. In experiment 1, a total of 240 fertilised quail eggs were divided into six groups: control (without injection), sham control (0.02 CC distilled water/egg), 0.75 mg Spirulina Platensis (SP)/egg, 1.5 mg SP/egg, 2.5 mg SP/egg, 3.5 mg SP/egg. In experiment 2, a total of 192 fertilised broiler breeder were divided into four groups: control, sham control (0.2 CC distilled water/egg), 25 mg SP/egg, 35 mg SP/egg. In experiment 1, in ovo injection of SP (1.5–3.5 mg/egg) increased hatchability of chicks (p < .01). In the groups received 2.5 and 3.5 mg SP/egg the expression of HSP70 and GPx genes was lower and higher than control groups, respectively (p < .001). The expression of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in the chicks consumed 1.5–3.5 mg SP/egg was higher than control groups (p < .001). The groups received 1.5–3.5 mg SP had lower feed conversion ratio (FCR, p < .05). Catalase activity in hatchlings consumed 2.5 or 3.5 mg SP was the highest (p < .05). In experiment 2, in ovo injection of 25 or 35 mg SP caused the lowest HSP70 in chicks (p < .0001). During the whole period of rearing, feed intake (FI) and FCR of the broilers in ovo fed with 35 mg SP was higher than control groups (p < .01). SP can be considered as an organic supplement in hatcheries for improving hatchability and anti-oxidant status of quail and broiler hatchlings. • Highlights • Spirulina platensis have the potential to be considered as a functional organic supplement in commercial hatcheries. • In ovo injection of Spirulina platensis can improve hatchability, antioxidant, and immunity-related gene expression in quail chicks. • In ovo injection of Spirulina platensis has positive effect on heat tolerance of broiler embryo during last days of incubation.
... Moreover, another study investigated the effect of selenium (Se) on GSHpx, which is involved in Hsp70 and oxidative stress in turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). As a result of the research, Hsp70 and GSHpx concentrations were suppressed in turkeys fed with Se fortified feed (Rivera et al. 2005). It was thought that adding Zinc to the rations of parent stocks could reduce the mortality related to heat stress during the embryonic period of chicks (Zhu et al., 2017a). ...
... During restraint stress, there is excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which coincide with a decrease in antioxidant concentration in experimental animals [9]. and thioredoxin [12]. However, selenium can be enriched with yeast, which induces fast restoration of antioxidants systems after oxidative stress [13]. ...
... Reduction in HSP70 and SOD expression was surprising as HSP70 may also regulate against nutrient depletion. In some cases though, researchers have observed no change to HSP70 after heat shock in the presence of Se. 39 In that study, Rivera et al found that the turkey embryos compensated for the heat shock by increased GPx activity. GPx utilizes GSH as a substrate for converting H 2 O 2 to water. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: In recent years, selenium nanostructures have been researched due to their antibacterial properties, low toxicity to mammalian cells, and high biological efficacy. However, the clinical implementation of the use of selenium has received mixed results, and there is much work needed to improve the understanding of the biological mechanisms involved in the observed cellular responses. Materials and methods: In this work, an investigation into the mechanistic pathways of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) in biological systems was conducted by studying the changes in gene expression of ATF4, Bcl-xL, BAD2, HSP70, and SOD2 in non-cancerous human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) under oxidative stress, nutrient deprivation stress, and no treatment (control) conditions. Results: This study revealed that SeNP incubation led to reduced internal reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation for all conditions tested, thus, providing a protective environment for HDF. At the stress conditions, the expression of ATF4 and Bcl-xL increased for cells treated with SeNP incubation, leading to attenuation of the cells under stress. These results also hint at reductive stress causing a detrimental impact to cell proliferation under routine cell passaging conditions. Conclusion: In summary, this study highlights some possible mechanistic pathways implicated in the action of SeNPs that warrant further investigation (specifically, reducing stress conditions for HDF) and continues to support the promise of SeNPs in a wide range of medical applications.
... Selenium plays an important role in cellular antioxidant defenses because it is a structural component of selenoproteins, many of which have antioxidant activity, such as the glutathione peroxidase family (GPx) and thioredoxin reductases (TrxRs) [18]. The GPx oxidizes the glutathione reduced form (GSH) to oxidized glutathione (GSSG) in the GSH/GSSG antioxidant system, regulating hydrogen peroxide and other hydroperoxides [19]. Selenium also plays a key role in cell cycle and apoptosis, inhibiting genetic damage [20]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element with important functions in animals and whose deficiency is associated with reproductive failures. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Se concentrations during in vitro maturation (IVM) of Bos taurus oocyte within the reference ranges for Se status in cattle. For this purpose, Aberdeen Angus cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured in IVM medium supplemented with 0, 10, 50, and 100 ng/mL Se (control, deficient, marginal, and adequate, respectively). The results demonstrated that marginal and adequate Se concentrations added during IVM increased viability and non-apoptotic cumulus cells (CC). Moreover, the addition of Se to culture media decreased malondialdehyde level in COC with all studied concentrations and increased total glutathione content in CC and oocytes with 10 ng/mL Se. On the other hand, total antioxidant capacity of COC, nuclear maturation, and the developmental capacity of oocytes were not modified by Se supplementation. However, 10 ng/mL Se increased hatching rate. In conclusion, supplementation with 10 ng/mL Se during in vitro maturation of Bos primigenius taurus oocytes should be considered to improve embryo quality.
... Temperature is regarded as one of the most important environmental factors affecting the rate of poultry production, and elevated temperatures in recent years have led to an increase in research directed at introducing genes responsible for heat tolerance, such as the naked neck gene, into flocks to improve adaptability, production, and immunity in the tropics and hot climate (Melesse, 2011;Melesse et al., 2012;Radwan et al., 2015). When birds are subjected to heat stress, a rapid response occurs that involves the formation of heat shock proteins (HSP) that protect organs and cells from the negative effects of elevated temperatures (Rivera et al., 2005). Liu et al. (2014) used different techniques to improve heat tolerance and found that birds that better tolerated heat stress produced greater quantities of HSP70. ...
Article
The naked neck gene was introduced by crossbreeding into Egyptian breeds to improve body weight. Expression levels of HSP70 and CPT-1 were used to assess the heat tolerance of three Egyptian local breeds (Fayoumi, Dandarawi and Sinai) with and without the naked neck gene and under normal and heat stress conditions. There were two genotypes from each breed that had the same genetic origin (the naked neck and normal plumage genotypes). For each genotype, chicks were divided into two groups, a control group and a treated group. Chicks in the treated group were subjected to heat stress (40 °C) for four hours when they were between 3 and 5 days old. This treatment was associated with a highly significant increase in HSP70 and CPT-1 gene expression for the Dandarawi breed compared to the levels in the Fayoumi and Sinai breeds. Moreover, the introduction of the naked neck gene into these local breeds caused marked increases in CPT-1 gene expression, but these increases did not significantly differ among different naked neck genotypes. Therefore, it could be concluded that the Dandarawi breed exhibited the best heat tolerance, followed by the Sinai breed, whereas the Fayoumi breed was inferior in this respect. Furthermore, the naked neck gene improved heat tolerance by increasing HSP70 gene expression rather than only by reducing feather cover. The results obtained recommended using the Sinia naked neck chicken as a male line in commercial parent stock to produce broiler chicks adapted to the hot and warm climates.
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Nutrition has long been recognised to cause metabolic changes in muscles, such as tissue remodelling, increased protein turnover, and muscular atrophy. From a production standpoint, these modifications have an impact on production efficiency and meat quality. As a result, they are extremely valuable economically. Nutritional constraints related to specific dietary components and management measures can be difficult to determine quickly. Nutritional genomics describes the nutrient–gene interactions, as it includes two areas, nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics. The term ‘nutrigenomics’ refers to the study of the effects of nutrients/bioactive foods on an individual’s gene expression. In the other hand, nutrigenetics describes that the genetic profile has an impact on the response of body to bioactive food components by influencing their absorption, metabolism, and site of action. The inclusion of nutrients and nutraceuticals in poultry production can enhance gene expression of different genes related to health, metabolism, growth, immunity, and antioxidants. This review aims to shed the light on the definition of nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics in poultry nutrition.
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Heat shock proteins of 70 kDa (HSP70) are a natural protector of the cell during heat stress through maintaining cell homeostasis and preventing proteins from denaturation, especially in stressed conditions. In addition, HSP70 widely influence growth and reproduction traits. The present study objected to identify polymorphisms in regions of promoter and part of exon 1 of HSP70 gene and their association with reproductive traits in indigenous turkeys of northwestern Iran. The blood samples of 193 turkeys recorded for reproduction traits, were taken and after DNA extraction, promoter and exon 1 regions were amplified. Various haplotypes were identified by SSCP method and their association with the traits in the turkeys analyzed. The results of this study identified 3 different pattern in the investigated regions of the HSP70 gene. Sequencing the different haplotype pattern revealed a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in 211bp. The Statistical analysis of the effect of the genotypes of HSP70 on the reproduction traits showed that the GG genotype of this gene had a significant association with higher egg number and total egg mass of turkeys. Regarding the effect of the HSP70 gene as an effective gene on the reproductive traits of the indigenous turkeys, it can be used in breeding programs to improve reproductive traits and egg production in the indigenous turkey population.
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This study was carried out with the objective of evaluating the effect of heat (38.8°C) or cold (35.8°C) stress on chicken embryo development and tissues Hsp70 levels, after the 13th day of incubation. Embryo weight (percent egg weight), organ weight (percent embryo weight) and Hsp70 levels (ng Hsp70 μg-1 total protein) in different tissues (liver, breast muscle, heart, lungs, brain and kidney) were studied at the end of incubation. Cold stress induced a lower embryo weight and lower kidney and lungs weights, whereas heart and liver were lighter in heat-stressed embryos. An interaction between temperature and age was obtained only for Hsp70 levels in kidney and heart. Cold-stressed embryos showed higher Hsp70 levels in the brain, lungs and liver; a decrease in brain and breast muscle Hsp70 levels was seen from the 19th to 20th days in control embryos. Hsp70 levels increased with age in kidneys of control embryos and in heart of heat-and cold-stressed embryos. In conclusion, this study showed that chicken embryo organ weights are affected by incubation temperature, and that Hsp70 expression is tissue dependent (higher levels being seen in the brain) being cold-stress more effective in increasing Hsp70 levels in most studied tissues.
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In the broiler industry it is recognized that chick viability is related to breeder flock age. Young flocks produced eggs with a lower hatchability and chick survival than flocks beyond peak production. Field observations indicate that problems occur when chicks originating from younger flocks are mixed with chicks from older flocks and reared together, perhaps because of a difference in thermoregulation. In this experiment, heat production, rectal temperature after heat or cold stress, T3 of chicks originating from two different aged parent stocks were determined. Chickens originating from older breeder flocks showed a remarkably better body weight and better thermoregulation after cold treatment than chickens originating from young breeder flocks. In contrast, chicks from young breeder flocks seem to be more resistant to heat at an older age. This implies that age of breeder flock alone can cause a significant difference in the thermoregulatory ability of broiler chickens. Thus breeder flock age should be considered as an additional factor in the thermoregulatory experiments. It also may have practical husbandry implications.
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A protein determination method which involves the binding of Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 to protein is described. The binding of the dye to protein causes a shift in the absorption maximum of the dye from 465 to 595 nm, and it is the increase in absorption at 595 nm which is monitored. This assay is very reproducible and rapid with the dye binding process virtually complete in approximately 2 min with good color stability for 1 hr. There is little or no interference from cations such as sodium or potassium nor from carbohydrates such as sucrose. A small amount of color is developed in the presence of strongly alkaline buffering agents, but the assay may be run accurately by the use of proper buffer controls. The only components found to give excessive interfering color in the assay are relatively large amounts of detergents such as sodium dodecyl sulfate, Triton X-100, and commercial glassware detergents. Interference by small amounts of detergent may be eliminated by the use of proper controls.
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Laying hens have physiological responses that affect their productive performance when given different ambient temperatures. The objectives of this study were, first, to quantitatively describe the relationship between different constant environmental temperatures and egg production characteristics of laying hens by a statistical analysis and assessment of the published literature. Second, to compare the effect of different cycling environmental temperatures on the egg production characteristics of laying hens. Twenty-nine experiments were selected that had compared different constant temperatures and that included 21°C within their range. Differences in egg production were expressed as a proportion of the treatment group given 21°C within that experiment. An exponential curve with the addition of a linear trend gave the best (P<0.001) description of egg numbers, weight and mass, feed intakes and egg composition variables. There was a linear decrease (P<0.001) in measures of shell strength with increasing temperature. A second statistical analysis compared eight published experiments that had described the egg laying responses of laying hens kept in daily fluctuating temperatures and had been compared to a treatment group kept at 21°C within the same experiment. The results indicated that the egg laying responses of the hens were best predicted by computing the mean of the predicted responses to each of the temperatures that occurred during the day. However, information on the low temperature, the proportion of the day at the low temperature and the amplitude of the temperature cycle were required to give a precise prediction of the egg laying responses.
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Temperature as one of the most important single physical factors determining or influencing embryo development and hatchability is reviewed and possible temperature manipulations are discussed as a management tool.Pre-incubation egg holding temperature is reviewed as a factor acting on variability in developmental stage at oviposition. A mathematical approach for determining the temperature threshold or physiological zero for embryonic development is outlined. Temperature requirements during incubation are discussed, taking into account the ultimate aims and objectives of the incubation process, i.e. hatchability and chick quality for survival, growth and reproduction, challenging at the same time the idea that the best hatchability is synonymous with the highest chick quality.Factors affecting limits of variation in incubation temperature, with particular reference to strain or line differences, are discussed.
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Glucose-regulated and heat shock proteins are two subsets of eukaryotic stress proteins that can be induced differentially, simultaneously, and reciprocally. Two new inducers, low extracellular pH and 2-mercaptoethanol, that stimulate chicken embryo cells to synthesize glucose-regulated proteins rapidly were found. Two classes of cellular targets for mercaptoethanol were defined operationally, one dependent on and the other independent of protein synthesis. A new inducer of heat shock proteins, high extracellular pH, was found as well. Inductions by low and high extracellular pH were inhibited by actinomycin D but were insensitive to cycloheximide. Inductions of glucose-regulated and heat shock proteins are discussed in terms of changes in intracellular pH and sulfhydryl oxidation states.
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The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of thermal conditioning, (through exposure to heat stress), during pre-hatch development on some physiological responses of post-hatch broilers to a post-natal heat stress challenge. Exposure to heat stress at this stage, we hope, may possibly induce epigenetic heat adaptation. Incubating eggs were exposed to temperature of 39.0°C for from Day 13 to 17 of incubation. At 33, 35, 37, 39, 41 and of age, the broilers hatched from these eggs were housed individually in open-circuit respiration cells. The climatic chambers were set to 22°C and increased to 30°C for . O2 consumption and CO2 production of each chicken was monitored continuously in order to calculate the heat production. Blood samples were obtained before and during the heat stress. Thermal conditioning during incubation did not affect the plasma T4, corticosterone, glucose, uric acid and CK concentrations. Temperature challenge, decreased plasma T3 of broilers of both groups but the decrease was greater in pre-conditioned broilers compared with controls. A similar trend was observed for triglycerides. These changes did not affect total heat production. Since decreased T3 and triglyceride levels are part of the mechanisms for thermoregulation, these suggest that thermal conditioning during incubation can improve the broiler chicken capability for thermotolerance at later post-hatch age.