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How Does Deep Breathing Affect Office Blood Pressure and Pulse Rate?

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  • kanagawa association of medical and dental practitioners

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Little is known about the relation between deep breathing (DB) and blood pressure (BP). We studied the relationship between DB and BP in a large Japanese population. The subjects were recruited from randomly selected clinics and hospitals that were members of a medical association, and divided into two groups. In one group, BP was measured before and after taking 6 DB over a period of 30 s, and in the other group BP was measured before and after a 30-s rest in a sitting position without DB. Before these measurements, all patients rested 10 min or more in the waiting room and another 2 min or more in the doctor's office. Analyses were performed on data collected from 21,563 subjects. In both groups, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and pulse rate (PR) were significantly reduced after DB or a 30-s rest compared with the baseline measurements (p < 0.001). SBP reductions were greater in the DB group than in the 30-s rest group (normotensives: -6.4 +/- 8.3 vs. -3.0 +/- 7.4 mmHg, p < 0.001; untreated hypertensives: -9.6 +/- 10.2 vs. -5.9 +/- 9.1 mmHg, p < 0.001; treated hypertensives: -8.3 +/- 9.6 vs. -4.4 +/- 8.3 mmHg, p < 0.001). Greater BP reductions were found in patients with a higher baseline BP in both the DB and 30-s rest groups. In conclusion, the present study showed a baseline BP-dependent BP reduction by DB, suggesting that BP measurement should be done without DB in the office because DB lowers BP.
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499
Hypertens Res
Vol.28 (2005) No.6
p.499-504
Original Article
How Does Deep Breathing Affect Office
Blood Pressure and Pulse Rate?
Hisao MORI, Hareaki YAMAMOTO, Masaomi KUWASHIMA, Saburo SAITO,
Hiroshi UKAI, Kouichi HIRAO, Mikio YAMAUCHI*, and Satoshi UMEMURA**
Little is known about the relation between deep breathing (DB) and blood pressure (BP). We studied the rela-
tionship between DB and BP in a large Japanese population. The subjects were recruited from randomly
selected clinics and hospitals that were members of a medical association, and divided into two groups. In
one group, BP was measured before and after taking 6 DB over a period of 30 s, and in the other group BP
was measured before and after a 30-s rest in a sitting position without DB. Before these measurements, all
patients rested 10 min or more in the waiting room and another 2 min or more in the doctor’s office. Anal-
yses were performed on data collected from 21,563 subjects. In both groups, systolic blood pressure (SBP),
diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and pulse rate (PR) were significantly reduced after DB or a 30-s rest com-
pared with the baseline measurements (p
<
0.001). SBP reductions were greater in the DB group than in the
30-s rest group (normotensives:
-
6.4±8.3 vs.
-
3.0±7.4 mmHg, p
<
0.001; untreated hypertensives:
-
9.6±10.2
vs.
-
5.9±9.1 mmHg, p
<
0.001; treated hypertensives:
-
8.3±9.6 vs.
-
4.4±8.3 mmHg, p
<
0.001). Greater BP
reductions were found in patients with a higher baseline BP in both the DB and 30-s rest groups. In con-
clusion, the present study showed a baseline BP-dependent BP reduction by DB, suggesting that BP mea-
surement should be done without DB in the office because DB lowers BP. (Hypertens Res 2005; 28: 499–504)
Key Words: office blood pressure, deep breathing, 30-s rest
Introduction
Deep breathing (DB) is believed to lower blood pressure
(BP), but no large population study has been conducted to
clarify the relationship between DB and office BP and pulse
rate (PR). Although the sixth report of the Joint National
Committee (JNC 6) (1) recommended that as a BP measure-
ment method, “two or more readings separated by 2 minutes
should be averaged,” and the seventh report of the Joint
National Committee (JNC 7) (2) recommendation was that at
least two measurements should be made and the average
recorded, there have been few reports of BP differences
between the first and second readings, which are generally
separated by a few min of rest in a sitting position in the
office. The aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of
DB and a 30-s rest in a sitting position on the office BP and
PR in both hypertensive and normotensive patients.
Methods
Collection of Data
We asked 19,055 clinics or hospitals in Japan that were mem-
bers of Japanese Medical and Dental Practitioners for the
Improvement of Medical Care (JMDPIMC) to participate in
the study. The clinics and hospitals were randomly selected
from locations throughout Japan to minimize the regional dif-
ferences in prevalence, treatment and control of hypertension
between rural and urban area (3) and comprised about 30% of
From Japanese Medical and Dental Practitioners for the Improvement of Medical Care, Tokyo, Japan; *Health Education Center Science Clinic, Yoko-
hama, Japan; and **Second Department of Internal Medicine, Yokohama City University, Yokohama, Japan.
Address for Reprints: Satoshi Umemura, M.D., Second Department of Internal Medicine, Yokohama City University, 39 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku,
Yokohama 2360004, Japan. E-mail: umemuras@med.yokohama-cu.ac.jp
Received December 8, 2004; Accepted in revised form April 12, 2005.
500
Hypertens Res Vol. 28, No. 6 (2005)
all the members of JMDPIMC. The study period was from
Jan 10 to Jan 31, 2002. The enrolled patients were divided
into two groups (Fig. 1). One group was instructed to take 6
DB at about 80% maximum capacity over a period of 30 s
(Deep Breathing Group: DBG) and the other was instructed to
sit quietly for 30 s without DB (Control Group: CG). Each
doctor was asked to enroll at least 5 normotensives, at least 5
untreated hypertensives and at least 10 treated hypertensive
patients in the DBG, and at least one of each of these types of
subjects in the CG.
Informed consent was obtained from all enrolled patients.
Before BP measurement, patients rested in the waiting room
for at least 10 min and in the office for 2 min. In the DBG, BP
and PR were measured before and after the taking of 6 DB in
30 s. In the CG, BP and PR were measured before and after
the 30-s rest in a seated position.
Hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure
(SBP) of 140 mmHg or more and/or a diastolic blood pressure
(DBP) of 90 mmHg or more. Patients who had fever, diar-
rhea, atrial fibrillation, frequent arrhythmias, liver cirrhosis,
glaucoma or chronic renal failure, and those who took minor
or major tranquilizers were excluded from the study.
Fig. 1. Study profile.
Table 1. Baseline Data of Deep Breathing Group and Control Group
DBG CG
p value
between
DBG and CG
Male ratio test 1
Normotensives 31.30%
*
NS
33.70%
*
NS
NS
Untreated hypertensives 42.60% * 43.60% * NS
Treated hypertensives 40.60% 40.50% NS
Age (years) test 2
Normotensives 57.3±16.5
*
*
56.8±17.0
*
*
NS
Untreated hypertensives 63.7±12.3 * 63.5±12.6 * NS
Treated hypertensives 67.5±10.7 67.5±10.9 NS
SBP test 2
Normotensives 124.0±15.8 (n
=
4,347) 122.5±15.1 (n
=
1,095)
<
0.01
Untreated hypertensives 158.0±16.9 (n
=
3,064) 156.0±15.9 (n
=
587)
<
0.01
Treated hypertensives 148.7±17.7 (n
=
11,203) 145.5±16.4 (n
=
1,220)
<
0.001
DBP test 2
Normotensives 73.5±10.3 (n
=
4,374) 72.6±10.3 (n
=
1,095)
<
0.05
Untreated hypertensives 89.3±12.3 (n
=
3,064) 88.4±12.1 (n
=
587) NS
Treated hypertensives 82.6±11.5 (n
=
11,203) 81.3±11.6 (n
=
1,220)
<
0.001
PR test 2
Normotensives 72.5±10.6 (n
=
4,342) 71.8±9.8 (n
=
1,092)
<
0.05
Untreated hypertensives 74.4±11.1 (n
=
3,060) 74.3±11.3 (n
=
585) NS
Treated hypertensives 73.5±11.2 (n
=
11,131) 73.0±11.3 (n
=
1,209) NS
DBG, deep breathing group; CG, control group; SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; PR, pulse rate; test 1,
χ
2
test; test 2, unpaired t-test; NS, not significant. *p
<
0.001 by one-way analysis of variance and a post-hoc multiple comparison test.
Mori et al: Deep Breathing and Blood Pressure
501
Table 2. Baseline Measurements of SBP, DBP and PR and Measurements after DB or a 30-s Rest
DB group Control group
Before DB After DB np value
First
measurements
Second
measurements
after 30-s
rest
np value
NOR
SBP 124.0±15.8 117.6±14.7 4,373
<
0.001 122.4±15.0 119.4±15.0 1,091
<
0.001
DBP 73.5±10.3 71.2±10.1 4,373
<
0.001 72.6±10.3 71.6±10.0 1,091
<
0.001
PR 72.5±10.6 71.8±10.4 4,334
<
0.001 71.8±9.8 71.0±9.6 1,087
<
0.001
UNT
SBP 158.0±16.9 148.4±16.7 3,060
<
0.001 156.0±15.9 150.1±16.0 586
<
0.001
DBP 89.3±12.3 86.3±12.0 3,060
<
0.001 88.4±12.1 86.4±12.2 586
<
0.001
PR 74.4±11.1 73.2±10.7 3,048
<
0.001 74.3±11.3 73.3±10.9 584
<
0.001
TRE
SBP 148.6±17.7 140.3±16.9 11,200
<
0.001 145.5±16.4 141.1±16.1 1,217
<
0.001
DBP 82.6±11.5 79.8±11.3 11,200
<
0.001 81.2±11.6 79.7±11.6 1,217
<
0.001
PR 73.5±11.2 72.1±10.9 11,111
<
0.001 73.0±11.3 71.9±10.7 1,204
<
0.001
SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; PR, pulse rate; DB, deep breathing; NOR, normotensive patients; UNT,
untreated hypertensives; TRE, treated hypertensives. Paired t-test.
Table 3. Changes in SBP, DBP and PR after DB and after a 30-s Rest
DB group Control group
p value
Change of
measurements
n
Change of
measurements
n
NOR
SBP
-
6.4±8.3 4,373
-
3.0±7.4 1,091
<
0.001
DBP
-
2.3±5.9 4,373
-
1.1±6.0 1,091
<
0.001
PR
-
0.8±5.6 4,334
-
0.8±4.7 1,087 NS
UNT
SBP
-
9.6±10.2 3,060
-
5.9±9.1 586
<
0.001
DBP
-
3.0±6.7 3,060
-
2.0±6.0 586
<
0.001
PR
-
1.2±5.7 3,048
-
1.0±5.0 584 NS
TRE
SBP
-
8.3±9.6 11,200
-
4.4±8.3 1,217
<
0.001
DBP
-
2.8±6.1 11,200
-
1.6±5.7 1,217
<
0.001
PR
-
1.4±5.6 11,111
-
1.1±4.8 1,204
<
0.05
SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; PR, pulse rate; NOR, normotensive patients; UNT, untreated hypertensives;
TRE, treated hypertensives; DB, deep breathing; NS, not significant. Unpaired t-test.
Table 4. Changes of Measurements after DB
SBP reduction
after DB
DBP reduction
after DB
PR reduction
after DB
Untreated hypertensives
-
9.6±10.2
*
*
-
3.0±6.7
NS
*
-
1.2±5.7
NS
*
Treated hypertensives
-
8.3±9.6
*
-
2.8±6.1
*
-
1.4±5.6
**
Normotensives
-
6.4±8.3
-
2.3±5.9
-
0.8±5.6
*p
<
0.001, **p
<
0.01 by one-way analysis of variance and a post-hoc multiple comparison test. SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, dias-
tolic blood pressure; PR, pulse rate; DB, deep breathing.
502
Hypertens Res Vol. 28, No. 6 (2005)
Statistical Analysis
Statistical analyses were carried out with Student’s t-test,
χ
2
test, or one-way analysis of variance and post-hoc multiple
comparison test using SPSS Version 10 software. Values of
p
<
0.05 were considered to indicate statistical significance.
All values were expressed as the mean±SD.
Results
Characteristics of Study Populations
The enrolled cases comprised 25,022 patients from 1,186
clinics and hospitals throughout Japan, and in 21,563 of these
cases, all the data necessary for analysis were available. The
DBG consisted of 4,377 normotensives, 3,066 untreated
hypertensives and 11,217 treated hypertensives. The CG con-
sisted of 1,096 normotensives, 587 untreated hypertensives
and 1,220 treated hypertensives (Fig. 1).
There were no significant differences in the sex ratio or age
of normotensives, untreated hypertensives, or treated hyper-
tensives between the DBG and CG groups. The percentage of
men was significantly lower in the normotensives than in the
hypertensives in both the DBG and CG. The mean age was
significantly different among the normotensives and hyper-
tensives in both the DBG and CG (Table 1).
Blood Pressure and Pulse Rate
Baseline SBP and DBP were significantly different among
the three groups in both the DBG and CG. PR in normoten-
sives was significantly different between the DBG and CG
(Table 1).
SBP, DBP and PR were significantly reduced after DB in
the normotensive, untreated hypertensive and treated hyper-
tensive patients (p
<
0.001). Moreover, in the CG, the second
measurements of SBP, DBP and PR were significant lower
than the first measurements (Table 2, p
<
0.001). Both DB and
a 30-s rest reduced BP and PR, and the reductions were
greater in the DBG than in the 30-s-rest group. A significantly
greater reduction in PR was found only in treated hyperten-
sive patients (Table 3). The reductions in BP and PR by DB
were greater in hypertensives than in normotensives (Table
4).
The decreases in SBP, DBP and PR following DB were sig-
nificantly correlated with the baseline SBP (r
=
-
0.349,
p
<
0.001, n
=
18,633), DBP (r
=
-
0.300, p
<
0.001, n
=
18,633), and PR (r
=
-
0.05, p
<
0.001, n
=
18,518), respec-
tively. In the treated patients of both groups, similar correla-
tions were found for SBP (r
=
-
0.351, p
<
0.001, n
=
11,200),
DBP (r
=
-
0.300, p
<
0.001, n
=
11,200), and PR (r
=
-
0.312,
p
<
0.001, n
=
11,111).
The higher the baseline SBP, the greater the reduction in
SBP after DB, although patients whose baseline SBP was less
than 100 mmHg showed an increase in SBP after DB (Fig. 2).
Fig. 2. Baseline SBP and change of SBP after deep breathing.
Mori et al: Deep Breathing and Blood Pressure
503
Discussion
In the present study, we found that DB decreased BP and PR,
and these decreases correlated with the baseline BP and PR,
respectively. Furthermore, we found that a 30-s rest in a sit-
ting position also decreased BP and PR, but to a lesser degree
than DB.
It is not clear why the DBG showed a higher baseline BP
than the CG. One possibility is that the instructions on how to
perform DB made the patients nervous and increased their
baseline BP. Even after adjusting for this difference in base-
line BP between the DBG and CG, the reduction in BP was
still greater in the former group.
DB is often used to examine the autonomic nervous system.
In such studies, the DB method used entails breathing deeply
five (4) or six times (510) in 1 min. In the present study, we
instructed the patients to take 6 DB at about 80% maximum
capacity over a period of 30 s. This protocol was used
because, in our pilot study, when patients were asked to 6 DB
over a period of 1 min, they sometimes held their breath,
resulting in increased BP and PR (Tables 5, 6).
The autonomic nervous system, through stimulation of the
arterial baroreceptor, pulmonary stretch receptors, and low-
pressure baroreceptors, may play important roles in the
changes of BP and PR associated with DB, although the
actual mechanisms are unknown.
Bernardi et al. reported that baroreflex activity could be
enhanced by slow breathing not only in healthy people but
also in patients with congestive heart failure, and they noted
that BP decreased with slower or deeper breathing due to the
relative increase of vagal activity, decreased sympathetic
activity and reduced afterload (11). Rajeev et al. pointed out
that the increments of SBP, DBP and PR in response to stress
were greater in hypertensives than in normal controls, and
that sympathetic nervous system activity was increased in
patients with essential hypertension (8). Yoshihara et al.
reported that there was no significant reduction of DBP in
sustained hypertensive patients after DB, but that patients
with white coat hypertension showed a significant reduction
of DBP after DB. They also showed that office SBP fell sig-
nificantly after DB in both sustained and white coat hyperten-
sives, and that there was no significant difference in the
degree of reduction between the two groups; these findings
suggested that measurements taken after DB are useful for
identifying white coat hypertensive patients in the office (4).
In the present study, because we did not measure home BP,
we were unable to confirm the efficacy of measurement after
DB for identifying white coat hypertension at the office. Our
study revealed a significant reduction in SBP, DBP and PR in
normotensives, untreated hypertensives and treated hyperten-
sives after DB, and also in the CG. We found a baseline-BP-
dependent BP decrease by DB. Though the actual reason for
the relationship between BP and DB is unknown, a similar
result (12) has been reported in a study using a device-guided
breathing exercise, which suggests the involvement of
increased sympathetic activity (13, 14), decreased baroreflex
function (1517), and reduced arterial wall compliance (18).
In conclusion, the present study showed a baseline BP-
dependent BP reduction by DB, suggesting that office BP
measurement should be done without DB because DB lowers
BP.
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Table 5. Changes of Measurements before and after Deep Breathing in Pilot Study
Normotensives Untreated hypertensives Treated hypertensives
(n
=
118) (n
=
81) (n
=
217)
BDB ADB p value BDB ADB p value BDB ADB p value
SBP 117.6±15.2 111.1±13.2
<
0.001 151.1±20.1 142.9±20.6
<
0.001 145.3±17.3 136.5±16.6
<
0.001
DBP 70.5±10.1 68.3±10.4
<
0.001 87.5±14.6 84.8±11.2
<
0.05 81.0±11.4 77.6±10.6
<
0.01
PR 69.9±9.8 69.5±10.0 NS 74.9±10.4 71.7±10.0
<
0.001 73.0±11.9 71.6±10.9
<
0.02
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pulse rate.
Table 6. Percentage of Measurements Increment before and after Deep Breathing in Pilot Study
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DBP 8/118 (6.8%) 13/81 (16.0%) 45/217 (20.7%)
PR 38/118 (32.2%) 13/81 (16.0%) 63/217 (29.0%)
SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; PR, pulse rate.
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Hypertens Res Vol. 28, No. 6 (2005)
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... Active forms of distraction actively involve the child resulting in more efficacy compared to passive distraction [9]. Relaxation BE is an active distraction which induces vagus nerve stimulation followed by cortisol reduction and antidepressant neurotransmitters secretion such as serotonin, and also BE distracts the child's attention from the painful provocations; these mechanisms alleviate the patient's anxiety and pain perception [10,11]. e use of a bubble blower for BE turns this technique to a play therapy. ...
... A potential disadvantage of WBFPS is the interfering impact of emotions such as tears or smile represented by the faces which may result in higher scores [29]. erefore, pulse rate, blood pressure, and FLACC scale were administered for objective pain and anxiety assessment [11]. ...
... A recent study suggested a significant reduction in office pulse rate and blood pressure after deep breathing exercise. Large inspirations result in lung expansion and activation of pulmonary stretch receptors, stimulation of vagal activity and baroreceptor reflex, and suppressed sympathetic activity, and as a result arterial dilation and reduction of blood pressure and pulse rate occur [11]. ...
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Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of breathing exercise using bubble blower on anxiety and pain during inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) in children aged 7 to 10 years. Materials and methods: In this randomized crossover clinical trial, thirty-five children with moderate to severe anxiety requiring bilateral pulp therapy of mandibular primary molars were enrolled. Based on random lists, 18 children received the BE + IANB and 17 children received a routine IANB at the first session. This trend became reverse at the second visit for each child. Anxiety was measured using Facial Image Scale (FIS), blood pressure, and pulse rate. Face Leg Activity Cry Consolability (FLACC) scale and Wong-Baker Facial Pain Scale (WBFPS) were used for pain measurement. The Paired Samples Test, Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test, and Interclass Correlation Coefficient were used for data analysis. Results: The means of FLACC, WBFPS, FIS, blood pressure, and pulse rate were higher at the control visit. However, these differences were statistically significant only for FLACC scale and WBFPS (P value <0.05). In subgroup analysis, only girls and children without any previous dental treatment showed significant differences in FLACC scale and WBFPS between the control and bubble blower side (P value <0.05). Conclusion: Breathing exercise using a bubble blower may be an efficient distraction and relaxation method to decrease pain of 7- to 10-year-old children with moderate to severe anxiety during inferior alveolar nerve block. However, anxiety levels were lower when applying BE, and the differences were not statistically significant.
... It has been widely accepted that respiration is one of the key factors affecting physiological changes in BP [Meles, et al., 2004;Grossman, et al., 2001;Elliot, et al., 2004;Mori, et al., 2005;Parati and Carretta, 2007;Zheng, et al., 2011;Mason, et al., 2013;Ravi, Narasimhaswamy and Anad, 2015;Drodz, et al., 2016]. The effect of deep breathing on manual auscultatory BPs has been quantified, with decreased manual auscultatory systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP) observed [Rosenthal, et al., 2001;Meles, et al., 2004;Smith, et al., 2005;Pickering, et al., 2005;Zheng, et al., 2011].Automated BP decreases with deep breathing have also been reported with the measurements taken from different automatic BP devices [Grossman, et al., 2001;Elliot, et al., 2004;Zheng, et al., 2011;Ravi, Narasimhaswamy and Anad, 2015].However, This study aimed to provide quantitative clinical data on the magnitude of deep breathing on MAP measurements with emphasis on the comparison of its simultaneous effect on manual auscultatory and automatic oscillometric techniques. ...
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This study provides quantitative clinical data on effect of deep breathing on Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) measurement, with emphasis on comparison of its effect on simultaneous manual auscultatory and automatic oscillometric measurements. Thirty-nine healthy subjects were studied. Manual Systolic Pressure (SBP) and Diastolic Blood Pressures (DBP) were measured from each subject under both resting and deep breathing conditions. The Manual Mean Arterial Pressure (MMAP) was computed from the empirical equation [DBP+1/3(SBP-DBP)]. Simultaneously, during the manual Blood Pressure (BP)measurement, the oscillometric cuff pressure was digitally recorded. Automated Mean Arterial Pressure (AMAP)was determined from the oscillometric cuff pressures corresponding to100%, peak of the envelope wave form fitted to the sequence of oscillometric pulse amplitudes. Finally, the effect of deep breathing on MMAP and AMAP were analysed and compared. Experimental results showed that deep breathing significantly (all p<0.001) reduced MMAP by 3.7mmHg when compared with the resting condition. Correspondingly, AMAP was significantly reduced by 3.4mmHg with deep breathing (all p<0.001). In addition, it is observed that 67% of subjects showed MAP reductions with deep breathing in both manual auscultatory and automatic oscillometric techniques. In summary, both MMAP and AMAP were significantly decreased with deep breathing. Over half of the normal healthy subjects achieved significant MAP reductions with deep breathing in both manual and automatic techniques.
... Slow deep breathing, as used in meditation, yoga, and some other relaxation techniques, has long been reputed to have a favorable effect on blood pressure. A 1-minute episode of deep breaths (6 in 30 seconds) can reduce systolic blood pressure by 3.4 to 3.9 mmHg [15]. A 2019 meta-analysis furthermore suggests a reduction of systolic blood pressure of 3.73 -8.03 mmHg and a reduction in diastolic blood pressure of 1.66 -4.28 mmHg for daily interventions of 10 -15 minutes [3]. ...
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... Deep breathing was shown to be able to lower blood pressure by increasing the baroreceptor reflex sensitivity to vagal stimulation [27,28]. Studies had shown that deep breathing over 30 to 60 s was useful in detection of the white-coat effect by measuring the difference in systolic blood pressure (SBP) after performing the deep-breathing test (DBT) [29][30][31][32]. ...
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We have evaluated the diagnostic value of deep breathing test (DBT) in detecting the patients with white coat hypertension on the outpatient basis. Thirty patients with untreated mild to moderate hypertension underwent 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Those who had a mean 24-hour blood pressure less than 135/80 mmHg were categorized as having white coat hypertension and the remainder were categorized as sustained hypertension. These two groups were compared with regard to the differences of office blood pressures before and after DBT (i.e., deep breathing 5 times for a minute in sitting position). Although the office systolic pressure significantly fell after DBT in both groups (p < 0.001 vs p < 0.05), there was no significant difference (p = 0.27) between the two groups. On the other hand, the office diastolic blood pressure significantly fell in the white coat hypertensives in contrast with no meaningful fall of it in the sustained hypertensives (p < 0.01 vs p = 0.66). At the cutoff level of -3%, -5% and -10% of the differences in office diastolic blood pressure before and after DBT, the sensitivity for the presence of white coat hypertension were 64.7%, 58.8% and 29.4%, respectively, and the specificity were 61.5%, 84.6% and 100%, respectively. These findings demonstrate that the deep breathing test is useful for identifying white coat hypertension in the outpatient clinic.