Effect of Oxidized and Reduced Forms of Escherichia coli DsbC on Protein Refolding
Division of Molecular Science, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501, Japan.Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering (Impact Factor: 1.88). 02/2002; 94(2):130-4. DOI: 10.1016/S1389-1723(02)80132-3
DsbC, which catalyzes disulfide isomerization, was overproduced in the periplasm of Escherichia coli and purified from the periplasmic fraction by osmotic shock and anion-exchange chromatography. The active site of the purified DsbC was found to be an oxidized form (ox-DsbC) which could be converted to the reduced form (red-DsbC) by the addition of dithiothreitol. The effect of ox- and red-DsbC on the refolding of chemically denatured and reduced proteins with different numbers of disulfide bonds and free cysteine-thiol groups was investigated. Ox-DsbC facilitated the refolding of proteins with multiple disulfide bonds in both oxidative and reductive environments, while red-DsbC facilitated refolding only in the former. On the other hand, only red-DsbC facilitated the refolding of proteins with multiple free cysteine-thiol groups but either form of DsbC did not facilitate the refolding of proteins with only one cysteine-thiol group. It is therefore important to choose the form which suits the properties of the protein. Holo-chaperonin from Thermus thermophilus and DsbC demonstrated a synergistic effect on protein refolding.
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ABSTRACT: The oxidative folding pathway(s) of single-domain proteins can be characterized by the existence, stability, and structural nature of the intermediates that populate the regeneration pathway. Structured intermediates can be disulfide-secure in that they are able to protect their existing (native) disulfide bonds from SH/SS reshuffling and reduction reactions, and thereby form the native protein directly, i.e., by oxidation of their exposed (or locally exposable) thiols. Alternatively, they can be disulfide-insecure, usually requiring global unfolding to expose their free thiols. However, such an unfolding event also exposes the existing native disulfide bonds. Thus, the subsequent oxidation reaction to form the native protein in a disulfide-insecure intermediate competes with the intramolecular attack by the thiols of the macromolecule on its own native disulfide bonds, resulting in a large population of intermediates that are reshuffled instead of being oxidized. Under stabilizing conditions, disulfide-insecure species become long-lived kinetically trapped intermediates that slowly and only indirectly convert to the native protein through reshuffling reactions. In this study, trans-[Pt(en)(2)Cl(2)](2+), a strong oxidizing agent which has not traditionally been used in oxidative folding, was applied to shift the competition between reshuffling and oxidation reactions in des [58-110] and des [26-84], two long-lived disulfide-insecure intermediates of RNase A, and oxidize them directly under stable conditions to form the native protein. Such a successful direct conversion of kinetically trapped intermediates to the native molecule by trans-[Pt(en)(2)Cl(2)](2+) may be helpful in facilitating the oxidative folding processes of multi-disulfide-containing proteins in general.
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ABSTRACT: Due to its small size and intense luminescent signal, Gaussia princeps luciferase (GLuc) is attractive as a potential imaging agent in both cell culture and small animal research models. However, recombinant GLuc production using in vivo techniques has only produced small quantities of active luciferase, likely due to five disulfide bonds being required for full activity. Cell-free biology provides the freedom to control both the catalyst and chemical compositions in biological reactions, and we capitalized on this to produce large amounts of highly active GLuc in cell-free reactions. Active yields were improved by mutating the cell extract source strain to reduce proteolysis, adjusting reaction conditions to enhance oxidative protein folding, further activating energy metabolism, and encouraging post-translational activation. This cell-free protein synthesis procedure produced 412mug/mL of purified GLuc, relative to 5mug/mL isolated for intracellular Escherichia coli expression. The cell-free product had a specific activity of 4.2x10(24)photons/s/mol, the highest reported activity for any characterized luciferase.
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ABSTRACT: Background Production of correctly disulfide bonded proteins to high yields remains a challenge. Recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli is the popular choice, especially within the research community. While there is an ever growing demand for new expression strains, few strains are dedicated to post-translational modifications, such as disulfide bond formation. Thus, new protein expression strains must be engineered and the parameters involved in producing disulfide bonded proteins must be understood. Results We have engineered a new E. coli protein expression strain named SHuffle, dedicated to producing correctly disulfide bonded active proteins to high yields within its cytoplasm. This strain is based on the trxB gor suppressor strain SMG96 where its cytoplasmic reductive pathways have been diminished, allowing for the formation of disulfide bonds in the cytoplasm. We have further engineered a major improvement by integrating into its chromosome a signal sequenceless disulfide bond isomerase, DsbC. We probed the redox state of DsbC in the oxidizing cytoplasm and evaluated its role in assisting the formation of correctly folded multi-disulfide bonded proteins. We optimized protein expression conditions, varying temperature, induction conditions, strain background and the co-expression of various helper proteins. We found that temperature has the biggest impact on improving yields and that the E. coli B strain background of this strain was superior to the K12 version. We also discovered that auto-expression of substrate target proteins using this strain resulted in higher yields of active pure protein. Finally, we found that co-expression of mutant thioredoxins and PDI homologs improved yields of various substrate proteins. Conclusions This work is the first extensive characterization of the trxB gor suppressor strain. The results presented should help researchers design the appropriate protein expression conditions using SHuffle strains.
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