Comparative pharmacognostic studies of three Phyllanthus species
Pharmacognosy and Ethnopharmacology Division, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow 226001, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology
(Impact Factor: 3).
03/2006; 104(1-2):79-86. DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2005.08.048
Different species of Phyllanthus are considered to be very effective hepatoprotective agents in the Indian indigenous systems of medicine and are considered bitter, astringent, stomachic, diuretic, febrifuge, deobstruant and antiseptic. Still ayurvedic practitioners prescribed fresh juice of 'Bhuiamlki' for jaundice. Various species of Phyllanthus are being sold in India under the trade name 'Bhuiamlki'. During market surveillance of herbal drug, it was observed that almost all the commercial samples, either comprise of Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn. or Phyllanthus maderaspatensis Linn. or mixture of Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus fraternus Webster. and Phyllanthus maderaspatensis. Therefore, in this context the detailed pharmacognostical evaluation of all the three species has been carried out with the aim to establish the identification markers of this important hepatoprotective agent (effective in hepatitis B too). The study conclude that all the three species can be differentiated on the basis of macro and microscopic characters, physico-chemical values, HPTLC fingerprint profile, and detection of phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin as marker components. Besides, an interesting conclusion can also be drawn that phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin said to protect hepatocytes against carbon tetrachloride and galactosamine induced toxicity, may not be exclusively responsible for hepatoprotective activity as these are present only in Phyllanthus amarus while Phyllanthus fraternus and Phyllanthus maderaspatensis also possess significant hepatoprotective activity.
Available from: Julian Martinez
- "The genus Phyllanthus has long history in the traditional medicine of tropical and sub-tropical countries     . Several pharmacological activities are assigned to the extracts and the compounds isolated from Phyllanthus species  , such as: antidiabetic , antioxidant [2,8–10], antiviral  , antiinflammatory [13,14], anti-allodynic , anticancer and hepatoprotective . Phyllanthus amarus Schum. "
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ABSTRACT: Extracts rich in lignans were obtained from Phyllanthus amarus by Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE). The influences of temperature and solvent type on the extraction yield and chemical composition of the extracts were evaluated. Temperature was evaluated from 35 °C to 80 °C and the used solvents were: water, ethanol and a mixture of ethanol + water (50% v/v). All extractions were performed at the pressure of 10 MPa. A low pressure extraction method (LPE) using the Ultra-Turrax disperser and the same solvents, at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, was performed to compare the results with those of PLE. The extracts were analyzed by Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS) and seven lignans were identified: 5-demethoxy-niranthin, phyllanthin, filtetralin, 5-demethoxy-nirtetralin, nirtetralin, hipophyllanthin and niranthin. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to quantify the most bioactive lignans, phyllanthin and niranthin, in the extracts. In the PLE method, the effect of temperature was negligible in the studied range for the recovery of these lignans. The binary mixture ethanol + water (50% v/v) was the best solvent for the recovery of high amounts of both lignans, independently of the extraction method. However, PLE with 100% ethanol provided the most concentrated extracts in both lignans. PLE achieved higher global extraction yield than in LPE, but lower lignan recoveries. The contents of the major lignans extracted by each method varied significantly, suggesting that phyllanthin and niranthin are located in different parts of the plant tissue. The selection of the best method to extract lignans form P. amarus depends on the operation costs.
Available from: Ahmed Mediani
- "In addition, corilagen, gallic acid, caffeolquinic acid, geraniin, and rutin have been identified in this plant (Khatoon et al., 2006; Kumar et al., 2015). This plant is a rich source of many bioactive compounds that have attracted much attention from researchers to study its health benefits and to cure or prevent certain chronic diseases. "
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ABSTRACT: Several studies have suggested that plants are potential sources of bioactive compounds. Phyllanthus is a plant genus that has been used in traditional medicine due to its phytomedicinal metabolites content. The variation between two Phyllanthus species (P. niruri and P. urinaria) was studied using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) combined with multivariate data analysis (MVDA). The total phenolic content (TPC), DPPH radical scavenging activity and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the Phyllanthus species were also evaluated and correlated with their phytochemical constituents at different growth stages (8, 10 and 12 weeks) using partial least square regression (PLS). Principal component analysis (PCA) and PLS indicated separation between the two species based on the identified metabolites and the screened bioactivities. A comparison of the two species indicated that P. urinaria was separated from P. niruri due to its larger quantity of fatty and amino acids, choline, phyllanthin and sucrose. However, P. niruri contained higher quantities of hypophyllanthin and phenolic compounds. The loading column plot, which was used to compare the P. niruri at different growth stages, indicated that the eight-week-old plant contained a higher amount of fatty acids, amino acids (leucine and alanine), phyllanthin and choline. The dominant substances in the P. niruri at 10 weeks of growth by PC1 were identified as hypophyllanthin, malic acid, sucrose, and identified phenolics. The 12 week sample was differentiated by its higher sugars contents as well as malic acid and leucine. The harvested samples of both Phyllanthus species at ten weeks of age exhibited significant bioactivities with the highest content and number of metabolites.
Available from: Juan Pedro Martín
- "The lignans phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, niranthin, nirtetralin, virgatusin, and heliobupthalmin lactone are common to P. amarus, P. maderaspatensis, P. urinaria, and P. virgatus . However, according to Khatoon et al. , phyllanthin is absent in P. maderaspatensis. Also, Sharma et al.  have reported the absence of phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin from P. maderaspatensis and P. urinaria. "
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ABSTRACT: The genus Phyllanthus consists of more than 1000 species, of which many are used as traditional medicines. The plant extracts have been used since ancient times, for treating hypertension, diabetes, hepatic, urinary, and sexual disorders, and other common ailments. Modern day scientific investigations have now confirmed pharmacognostic properties of Phyllanthus herbs. The phytochemicals attributing these medicinal properties have been identified in many of the Phyllanthus herbs. The morphologically similar herbs of Phyllanthus grow together and admixture of species during collection for manufacture of herbal medicines is quite common. Hence, along with pharmacognostic and phytochemical studies, appropriate protocols for correct identification of species are also important. As the use of these herbs as green medicines is becoming more popular, it is imperative to assess its genetic diversity and phylogenetic relatedness for future conservation strategies. This review is an attempt to present an overview of the existing studies on pharmacognostics, phytochemistry, species identification, and genetic diversity of Phyllanthus herbs and consequently (i) highlight areas where further research is needed and (ii) draw attention towards extending similar studies in underutilized but potentially important herbs such as P. maderaspatensis, P. kozhikodianus, P. rheedii, P. scabrifolius, and P. rotundifolius.
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