Rovio, S. et al. Leisure time physical activity at midlife and the risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Lancet Neurol. 4, 705-711

Aging Research Center, Division of Geriatric Epidemiology, Neurotec, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
The Lancet Neurology (Impact Factor: 21.9). 12/2005; 4(11):705-11. DOI: 10.1016/S1474-4422(05)70198-8
Source: PubMed


Physical activity may help maintain cognitive function and decrease dementia risk, but epidemiological findings remain controversial. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between leisure-time physical activity at midlife and the subsequent development of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD).
Participants were randomly selected from the survivors of a population-based cohort previously surveyed in 1972, 1977, 1982, or 1987. 1449 persons (72.5%) age 65-79 years participated in the re-examination in 1998 (mean follow-up, 21 years). 117 persons had dementia and 76 had AD. Multiple logistic regression methods were used to analyse the association between leisure-time physical activity and dementia or AD.
Leisure-time physical activity at midlife at least twice a week was associated with a reduced risk of dementia and AD (odds ratio [OR] 0.48 [95% CI 0.25-0.91] and 0.38 [0.17-0.85], respectively), even after adjustments for age, sex, education, follow-up time, locomotor disorders, APOE genotype, vascular disorders, smoking, and alcohol drinking. The associations were more pronounced among the APOE epsilon4 carriers.
Leisure-time physical activity at midlife is associated with a decreased risk of dementia and AD later in life. Regular physical activity may reduce the risk or delay the onset of dementia and AD, especially among genetically susceptible individuals.

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    • "However, such declines depend on various factors, such as genetics and lifestyle[1]. In particular, physical activity and training not only improve physical and motor but also cognitive functions234567891011and reduce risk for cognitive decline and dementia in later life[8,1213141516171819. Generally, executive functions that control lower-level functions appear to benefit most from physical activity as documented in several review articles[2,20,21]. "
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    ABSTRACT: This condensed review gives an overview about two methodological approaches to study the impact of physical activity on cognition in elderly, namely cross-sectional studies and randomized controlled intervention studies with pre- and post-measures. Moreover, this review includes studies investigating different types of physical activity and their relation to cognitive functions in older age. Behavioral data are considered but the main focus lies on neuroscientific methods like event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2016 · European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
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    • "Since a high value of BMI, waist circumference, pulse, and blood pressure is an indication of poor physical activity, these z-scores were reversed by multiplying by − 1 giving a high composite score associated with being more physically active. Due to previous studies showing significant benefits of long-term regular physical exercise on brain health in aging (Fratiglioni et al., 2004; Rovio et al., 2005; Ruscheweyh et al., 2011), it is possible that accumulated physical activity over a longer time period may have stronger effects on brain integrity beyond that of current physical activity level. Therefore, we also calculated accumulated physical activity based on the same variables as the current physical activity score but here the scores from T3 (except grip strength), T4 and T5 were added in order to reflect a cumulative physical activity score over a time period of 10 years. "
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    ABSTRACT: One step towards healthy brain aging may be to entertain a physically active lifestyle. Studies investigating physical activity effects on brain integrity have, however, mainly been based on single brain markers and few used a multimodal imaging approach. In the present study we used cohort data from the Betula study to examine the relationships between scores reflecting current and accumulated physical activity and brain health. More specifically we first examined if physical activity scores modulated negative effects of age on seven resting state networks previously identified by Salami, Pudas and Nyberg (2014). The results revealed that one of the most age-sensitive RSN was positively altered by physical activity, namely the posterior default-mode network involving the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Second, within this physical activity-sensitive RSN, we further analyzed the association between physical activity and gray matter (GM) volumes, white matter integrity, and cerebral perfusion using linear regression models. Regions within the identified DMN displayed larger GM volumes and stronger perfusion in relation to both current and 10years accumulated scores of physical activity. No associations of physical activity and white-matter integrity were observed. Collectively our findings demonstrate strengthened PCC-cortical connectivity within the DMN, larger PCC-GM volume, and higher PCC-perfusion as a function of physical activity. In turn, these findings may provide insights into the mechanisms of how long-term regular exercise can contribute to healthy brain aging.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · NeuroImage
    • "Non-pharmacological interventions , such as physical activity interventions (Deslandes et al., 2009;Hooghiemstra et al., 2012;Kirk-Sanchez and McGough, 2014;Sofi et al., 2011), are therefore appealing alternatives or addons . Epidemiological studies have shown that increased lifetime engagement in physical activities reduces the risk of dementiaonset in cognitively normal elderly persons (Abbott et al., 2004;Buchman et al., 2012;Chang et al., 2010;Hamer and Chida, 2009;Larson et al., 2006;Laurin et al., 2001;Podewils et al., 2005;Rovio et al., 2005;Scarmeas et al., 2009;Taaffe et al., 2008;Yaffe et al., 2001). Experimental animal studies have identified several molecular mechanisms such as enhancement of neurotrophin levels (Adlard et al., 2005;Berchtold et al., 2005Berchtold et al., , 2002Gómez-Pinilla et al., 2007;Macias et al., 2007;Radak et al., 2010;Swain et al., 2003;Vaynman et al., 2003), neurogenesis (Kronenberg et al., 2006;Sahay et al., 2011;Van Praag et al., 2005, 2000, 1999) and vascularization (Black et al., 1990;Ding et al., 2004;Isaacs et al., 1992;Kleim et al., 2002;Swain et al., 2003) that may explain this beneficial effect. "
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    ABSTRACT: Non-pharmacological therapies, such as physical activity interventions, are an appealing alternative or add-on to current pharmacological treatment of cognitive symptoms in patients with dementia. In this meta-analysis, we investigated the effect of physical activity interventions on cognitive function in dementia patients, by synthesizing data from 802 patients included in 18 randomized control trials that applied a physical activity intervention with cognitive function as an outcome measure. Post-intervention standardized mean difference (SMD) scores were computed for each study, and combined into pooled effect sizes using random effects meta-analysis. The primary analysis yielded a positive overall effect of physical activity interventions on cognitive function (SMD[95% confidence interval] = 0.42[0.23;0.62], p < .01). Secondary analyses revealed that physical activity interventions were equally beneficial in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD, SMD = 0.38[0.09;0.66], p < .01) and in patients with AD or a non-AD dementia diagnosis (SMD = 0.47[0.14;0.80], p < .01). Combined (i.e. aerobic and non-aerobic) exercise interventions (SMD = 0.59[0.32;0.86], p < .01) and aerobic-only exercise interventions (SMD = 0.41[0.05;0.76], p < .05) had a positive effect on cognition, while this association was absent for non-aerobic exercise interventions (SMD = -0.10[-0.38;0.19], p = .51). Finally, we found that interventions offered at both high frequency (SMD = 0.33[0.03;0.63], p < .05) and at low frequency (SMD = 0.64[0.39;0.89], p < .01) had a positive effect on cognitive function. This meta-analysis suggests that physical activity interventions positively influence cognitive function in patients with dementia. This beneficial effect was independent of the clinical diagnosis and the frequency of the intervention, and was driven by interventions that included aerobic exercise.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Ageing research reviews
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