ArticlePDF AvailableLiterature Review

Nutrition and Health of Dogs and Cats: Evolution of Petfood

Authors:

Abstract

Maintaining the health of dogs and cats by feeding wholesome nutritional diets is becoming an important component of responsible pet ownership. Pet owners now seek a long and healthy life for their pet and look to nutrition, as well as to veterinary medicine, to provide such support. Quality of life, measured in terms of reduced incidence of diseases and the ability to maintain an active life, would appear to be able to be enhanced by appropriate nutrition and nutraceutical supplementation. As a consequence numerous improvements in companion animal nutrition have resulted in development of a wide array of foods that provide complete and balanced nutrition. As a result emphasis also has to be placed on product safety and quality parameters, in connection with traceability. The origin of products, including product characteristics and properties, processing conditions and further handling throughout the period chain, is becoming ever increasingly an issue for collective chain management.
Nutrition and health of dogs and cats: evolution of petfood
Valentino Bontempo
Department of Veterinary Sciences and Technologies for Food Safety, University of Milan, Italy.
* Correspondence: Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Veterinarie per la Sicurezza Alimentare,
Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 10, 20133, Milano, Italy
E-mail:valentino.bontempo@unimi.it
Keywords: Cat, Dog, Health, Nutraceutical, Petfood, Quality.
ABSTRACT
Maintaining the health of dogs and cats by feeding wholesome nutritional diets is becoming an
important component of responsible pet ownership. Pet owners now seek a long and healthy life for
their pet and look to nutrition, as well as to veterinary medicine, to provide such support. Quality of
life, measured in terms of reduced incidence of diseases and the ability to maintain an active life,
would appear to be able to be enhanced by appropriate nutrition and nutraceutical supplementation.
As a consequence numerous improvements in companion animal nutrition have resulted in
development of a wide array of foods that provide complete and balanced nutrition. As a result
emphasis also has to be placed on product safety and quality parameters, in connection with
traceability. The origin of products, including product characteristics and properties, processing
conditions and further handling throughout the period chain, is becoming ever increasingly an issue
for collective chain management.
Abbreviations: ALT, Alanine Aminotransferase; ALP, Alkaline Phosphatase; FOS, Fructo-
Oligosaccharides; PUFA, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.
INTRODUCTION
The primary role of diet is to provide enough nutrients to meet metabolic requirements, while
giving the consumer a feeling of well-being. Recent knowledge, however, supports the hypothesis
that, beyond meeting nutritional needs, diet may modulate various functions in the body and may
play detrimental or beneficial roles in some diseases. Concepts in nutrition are expanding to include
an emphasis on the use of foods to promote a state of well-being and better health and to help to
reduce the risk of diseases.
Pets have not been out left of these considerations: because of a continuing emphasis on health and
proper nutrition, it is not surprising that maintaining the health of companion animals and seeking
optimal nutritional products for dogs and cats is seen by pet owners as an important component of
responsible pet ownership. Dogs and cats are living longer and are better fed than ever before (Reid
and Peterson, 2000). Indeed, nowadays, pet are kept very much as part of the family and thus it is
the responsibility of the owners to ensure their pets’ longevity and quality of life to the best of their
abilities.
In their role as qualified animal health professionals, veterinarians, especially those in small animal
practice, are being asked to discuss these issues with their clients. Thus, it is important to obtain a
better understanding of the relationship between nutrition and health, the role of various nutrients in
the prevention of diseases, and the efficacy of nutraceuticals, dietary supplements, and functional
food ingredients (Bauer, 2001).
Foods claimed to improve health must also be guaranteed for quality and safety. No single aspect
of a petfood is sufficient upon which to judge quality. Further, many qualities of a product are
difficult to assess by examination of the label or contents. However, some indications of suitability
can be determined and used to compare the relative quality of products.
Recent outbreaks of animal diseases have created a heightened awareness of food-related safety and
traceability issues. The petfood industry is not immune to these concerns and should be able to
communicate that their products have the same quality standards as human food products.
NUTRITIONAL ADEQUACY
Pets, like humans, have a finite maximum life span, although there is some indication of a life
extension or expectancy effect when calorie restriction is practiced throughout life (Kealy et al.,
2002). Extensive calorie restriction is difficult to implement in practice and it is perhaps more
important to examine other aspects of a pet’s life. Quality of life, measured in terms of reduced
incidence of disease and the ability to maintain an active life, would appear to be able to be
increased by appropriate nutrition and nutraceutical supplementation.
As the health of dogs and cats depends on the adequacy of their food, it is important to review the
nutritional basis on which commercially prepared foods are formulated. Some progress into nutrient
requirements have been made in recent years, so that a large number of the commercially prepared
petfoods support excellent growth, reproduction and maintenance in healthy companion animals.
However, more precise information is still required about nearly every essential nutrient for
companion animals, bioavailability of nutrients, and the interactions between nutrients. Indeed,
delineation of the nutrient requirements of dogs and cats is a fertile area of research, although the
slow progress that has been made is probably due to the fact that this research is expensive to
conduct and very little funding is available.
Many of the standards of nutritional support for pets now regarded as essential were once
considered unnecessary or excessive. The new recommendations for supplemental or optimal
nutrition that are becoming the norm are in the same category. For example, increased levels of
primary antioxidants such as vitamins E, C, and β-carotene, taurine, creatine and the natural
antioxidant plant components (bioflavonoids), as well as certain fiber sources, omega-3 fatty acids,
mineral chelates, glucosamine, and chondroitin, are now considered normal in petfood recipe
design.
It is also well known that nutrition plays a role in the development of certain diseases in companion
animals, but the present database on this topic is still less than complete (Morris and Rogers, 1994).
A number of areas of nutrition impinge directly on the longevity and health of pets, such as the
optimal level of phosphorus and protein for normal dogs and cats to prevent renal diseases, the
optimal growth rate for giant and large breed dogs that will lead to normal skeletal developments,
the relationship between energy intake in the growth phase and predisposition to obesity; the
optimal levels of nutrients with antioxidant properties in food (Hand et al., 2000).
Finally, many nutrients have been implicated in either enhancement or suppression of the immune
system. Early studies on the interaction of nutrition and immunity focused on the effects of protein-
energy deprivation. Neither of these are typically lacking in the diets fed to companion animals
today. However other nutrients may be provided at sub-optimal levels due to inaccurate estimation
or imprecise knowledge of the maintenance requirement for that nutrient, poor bioavailability of the
nutrient to the animal, inadequate supplementation levels or, perhaps, a uniquely high nutrient
requirement for a particular lifestage or activity level (Grieshop, 2002).
NUTRACEUTICALS AND FUNCTIONAL FOODS
The development of nutraceutical and functional foods provide an opportunity to contribute
improve the quality of food. Much of the interest in functional food stems from evidence that
manipulation of health status by medication is no longer accepted as the only means of treatment.
Notwithstanding the regulatory status of these substances, scientific studies to support safety and
utility for these supplements are still lacking. To complicate matters further, most published studies
are in man or animals other than pet species. Therefore, use of these supplements in companion
animals should be further investigated to ascertain product quality, efficacy, tolerance, and safety
(Bauer, 2001).
Antioxidants. Nutrition plays a part in increased longevity partly by protecting the body from free
radical damage mediated either by antioxidants found naturally in foods or supplemented to foods.
A number of studies on the effects of antioxidants in dogs and cats have consisted of administration
of “cocktails” of various antioxidants. Various combinations fed to dogs and cats have been
reported to improve serum vitamin status, suppress lipid peroxidation, and “normalize” the adverse
effects of exercise on the immune system (Chew et al., 2000). However, because the observed
effects could not be attributed to the level of any single antioxidant, few useful inferences as to the
utility of any particular substance can be derived from this work.
Of the individual antioxidants, vitamin E has been studied the most. The NRC (1985) suggested that
22 mg/kg of diet would be adequate. However, in diets high in PUFA, even as much as 100 mg/kg
of vitamin E may be in sufficient, and a vitamin E to PUFA ratio of 0.6:1 should be considered as
the minimum. A recent examination of vitamin inclusion in petfood showed a wide variation in the
use of vitamin E, ranging from 14 to 400 mg/kg of diet (adjusted to 400 kcal/100 g). Jewell et al.
(2000) indicated that the inclusion of over 500 mg/kg is beneficial to antioxidant capacity.
Gut health. It is generally understood that there is a strong link between the gastrointestinal tract
and the overall health of the animal. Prebiotics and probiotics have been shown to have some
benefits on the gut, and have been proposed as adding value to petfood preparations, while others,
such as glutamine, and nucleotides have not been extensively studied for dogs and cats as for other
species.
A number of studies on dogs and cats has shown beneficial effects from the administration of
prebiotics, such as FOS and inulin. The main effects reported include modification of the large
intestinal microflora to encourage the growth of beneficial bacteria to the exclusion of potential
pathogens,
The most adverse effect of over consumption of prebiotics is gastrointestinal intolerances. While
high intake of fiber can adversely affect nutrient availability, it appears to be less so for prebiotic as
compared to traditional dietary fiber sources (Diez et al., 1998).
The available data are less supportive of the utility of probiotics. The reported benefits of feeding
these organisms include decreased occurrence and duration of diarrhoea, immunostimulation,
pathogen resistance and maintenance of mucosal integrity. How probiotics are able to exert so many
positive effects is still not fully understood and may be a combination of many factors where most
widely accepted mode of action is that of competitive exclusion.
While the benefits of probiotics are generally accepted, there are still many questions concerning
their mechanisms. This has always been a difficult topic of research because of the huge of
variability of the different trials, not only concerning the subject animals and their environment, but
also involving different preparations of the probiotics themselves. Commercial preparations of
probiotics have often been criticized for not containing enough viable organisms required to pass
the digestive processes. Weese (2002) analysed 8 veterinary and 5 human commercial probiotic
preparations and reported that only two commercial probiotic labels accurately described the types
and concentrations of organisms claimed to be in the product.
Nutraceutical use in restricted calorie diets. Suitable diets for weight loss should be low in fat, rich
in dietary fiber with selective carbohydrate sources to subdue insulin response. It is now proposed
that, in addition to this calorie restriction, there are supplemental nutrients will help in the control of
glycemia and influence fat metabolism and consequently the fat mass/lean ratio. Such components
include conjugated linoleic acid, biotin, and carnitine.
Plant extracts. There are many natural supplements, including herbal extracts such as Ginger,
Echinacea, Garlic, Ginseng, Aloe, St. John’s wort, which have been postulated to produce
beneficial health effects and can be used for a variety of symptoms, although scientific evidence for
their efficacy and safety is still insufficient. Due to the presence of various biologically active
molecules, these herbs provide distinctive antioxidant and immunostimulant properties. Silybum
marianum extracts have been shown to be protective antioxidant agents of hepatocytes and to
support hepatocellular repair and regeneration. Bontempo et al. (2003) observed a decrease in ALT
(324 IU/L to 180 IU/L) and ALP (352 IU/L to 191 IU/L) serum concentration in a 30 day study on
dogs supplemented with silymarin, exhibiting its use as a support to traditional liver disease
therapy.
However, while several of these natural supplements have been used with positive results,
necessary precautions should be taken. Although serious adverse reactions are rare, when used
outside the parameters of common sense and moderation, any plant can be toxic.
NUTRITIONAL QUALITY
The primary objective of a quality assurance program is to source and purchase ingredients of
consistent nutritional quality and quantity while conforming to specific standards. Significant
variation in the nutritional quality of ingredients directly affects the nutritional value of the finished
product. Moreover, processing of foods can influence the availability of nutrients, either positively
or negatively. The effect of different processing methods on the bioavailability of ingredients and
the bioavailability and effectiveness of physiologically active components in various functional
foods remains to be determined.
Fats play an important role in the nutritional quality of petfoods (Mussa e Minieri, 1997). As soon
as foods are manufactured, they begin to undergo a variety of chemical and physical changes.
Oxidation of lipids is one common and frequently undesirable chemical change that can impact on
flavour, aroma and nutritional quality. It is necessary to predict and understand lipid oxidation to
minimize objectionable flavours and aromas arising from rancidity, although selection of an
optimum test is difficult due to the complexity of the chemical processes involved.
PETFOOD SAFETY
Commercially prepared petfoods may contain a wide range of ingredients from many sources
(Zaghini et al., 1993). These include meat, poultry, cereal, vegetable, and fish products and by-
products, as well as added nutrients. Considering the myriad of constituents in petfoods, the
possibility exists that they may be contaminated by agricultural and industrial pollutants from the
culture and production of their plant and animal constituents, as well during final processing of the
finished petfood product.
Safety of petfood and the many ingredients that make up the food will no doubt occupy ever-
increasing attention on the part of manufacturers, regulators and pet owners. It will be necessary to
develop system that enable food pathogens and adulterants in specific ingredients to be traced. This
will need to be coupled with development of rapid detection methods to quantity undesirable
components of ingredients.
CONCLUSIONS
The petfood industry is dynamically changing with growing consumer demand for more quality
products. The pet population is also increasingly being fed prepared petfood, demonstrating that the
industry will need to rise to meet this demand.
With the growing demand for variety and convenience, there will be an ever greater need for
research and innovation within pet nutrition. Major advances in the field of companion animal
nutrition have been made over the years. However, much remains to be accomplished if we are to
move beyond the point of using empirical information to formulate the many types of diets
currently fed to cats and dogs. Also, as nutrition is an integrative science, more accurate information
is needed in the nutritional area to effectively capitalize on the possible interactions between
nutrition and other disciplines such as physiology, immunology, pathology, toxicology and
genomics in order to provide accurate advice to pet owners, petfood manufacturers and pet care
professionals so that they might work towards enhancing the nutritional status, health and well-
being of the companion animal population.
REFERENCES
Bauer, J.E. 2001. Evaluation of nutraceuticals, dietary supplements, and functional food ingredients
for companion animals. Journal American Veterinary Medical Association, 218, 1755-1760.
Bontempo, V., Bellucci, D., Tonini, B., Cevolani, D. 2003. Integrazione della dieta con estratto di
silimarina (Silybum marianum) nel cane. Obiettivi e Documenti Veterinari, 24, 31-37.
Chew, B.P., Park, J.S., Kim, H.W., Wong, T.S., Cerveny, C., Park, H.J., Baskin, C.R., Hinchcliff,
K.W., Swenson, R.A.,Reinhart, G.A., Burr, J.A., Hayek, M.G. 2000. Effects of heavy
exercise and the role of dietary antioxidants on immune response in the Alaskan sled dog.
In: Reinhart G.A., Carey, D.P. (Eds.) Recent Advances in Canine and Feline Nutrition, Vol
III (Wilmington, Ohio, USA), pp. 531-539.
Diez, M., Hornick, J.L:, Baldwin, P., Van Eenaeme, C., Istasse, L. 1998. The influence of sugar
beet pulp, guar gum and inulin on nutrient digestibility, water consumption and plasma
metabolites in healthy beagle dogs. Research Veterinary Sciences 64, 91-96.
Grieshop C.M. 2002. The interaction of nutrition and the immune system: the role of fatty acids,
antioxidants and carbohydrates. Nutritional biotechnology in the feed and food industries.
Proceedings from the Alltech 18
th
Annual Symposium, (Nottingham University Press,
Nottingham, UK) pp. 481-487.
Jewell, D.E., Toll, P.W., Wedekind, K.J., Zicker, S.C. 2000. Effect of increasing dietary
antioxidants on concentrations of vitamin E and total alkenals in serum of dogs and cats.
Veterinary Therapeutics 1, 264-272.
Hand, M.S., Thacther, C.D., Remillard, R.L., Roudebush, P. 2000. Small Animal Clinical Nutrition,
4
th
edn (Mark Morris Institute, Topeka, USA).
Kealy, R.D., Lawler, D.F., Ballam, J.M. 2002. Effects of diet restriction on life span and age-related
changes in dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 220, 1315-1320.
Morris, J.G., Rogers, Q.R. 1994. Assessment of the nutritional adequacy of pet foods trough the life
cycle. Journal of Nutrition, 124, 2520S-2534S.
Mussa, P.P., Meineri, G. 1997. Acidi grassi polinsaturi. Obiettivi e Documenti Veterinari, 18, 13-
19.
NRC (National Research Council). 1985. The Nutrient Requirements of Dog (National Academy
Press, Washington, USA).
Reid S.W.G., Peterson M.M. 2000. The Veterinary Record, 630-631.
Weese, J.S. 2002. Microbiologic evaluation of commercial probiotic. Journal American Veterinary
Medical Association, 220, 794-797.
Zaghini, G., Marchetti, S., Gramenzi, A. 1993. Indagine sulle caratteristiche nutrizionali di alimenti
utilizzati in dietetica felina. Atti 10° Congresso Nazionale ASPA, pp. 147-151.
... Além de necessidades alimentares específicas. Muito é investido no setor pet, inclusive em sofisticação de rações, no entanto, segundo Bontempo (2005), mesmo com o desenvolvimento industrial na produção de dietas para felinos, ainda não possuímos muitas informações sobre todos os ingredientes empregados nas rações, assim como a biodisponibilidade desses nutrientes (Steiff & Bauer, 2001). ...
... Cada vez mais a indústria pet investe em sofisticação e expansão de dietas comerciais prontas para o consumo de cães e gatos, no entanto, as informações cientificas relacionadas a nutrição e biodisponibilidade dos nutrientes empregados de pequenos animais ainda é insuficiente (Plantinga et al., 2011), fazendo, na maior parte das vezes, com que as fórmulas desses alimentos sejam baseadas nos nutrientes brutos, sem ao menos possuírem tabelas de composição nas rações de cães e gatos com estimativa de nutrientes digestíveis (Bontempo, 2005). ...
Article
O excesso de carboidratos consumido em dietas industriais por felinos domésticos pode causar diversas patologias e malefícios para o bem-estar animal. O gato é classificado como carnívoro estrito e por isso possui singularidade em sua alimentação. Mesmo com o crescente investimento das empresas fabricantes de rações, não existem informações científicas significantes acerca da nutrição e biodisponibilidade de nutrientes para felinos. Muitas marcas de rações utilizam mais da metade de carboidratos na matéria bruta de suas rações, entretanto, os gatos não possuem necessidade nutricional dos mesmos, afetando sua digestibilidade e formando fatores anti-nutricionais. Desse modo, pode-se afirmar que a nutrição dos felinos precisa ser mais amplamente debatida cientificamente e é necessário que as peculiaridades alimentares de proteínas, lipídeos, vitaminas, além do maior conhecimento do seu comportamento herdado de felinos silvestres desses animais sejam respeitadas para a maior promoção de saúde e qualidade de vida.
... On Flores Island, Indonesia-as in most rabies endemic countries-dogs are predominantly kept as owned FRDD [24]. The owners typically feed their dogs with leftovers, such as rice, for their daily food, which generally is of low protein value and not adequate for canine nutrition [25]. As a consequence, most of the dogs have a poor body condition score (BCS). ...
... Parasitic infection and malnutrition is common in FRDD in Flores Island, as it is in other rabies endemic areas in developing countries, where dog owners may neither routinely apply anti-parasite treatments nor feed the dogs with adequate food [40]. Our study found that 93% of dog owners stated to daily feed their dogs with leftovers, such as rice, which generally is of low protein value compared to adequate nutrition for canines [25]. This finding suggests that the maintenance of adequate level of binding antibodies following rabies vaccination depends on the nutritional and health status of FRDD, even for vaccination with high quality vaccines (such as Rabisin). ...
Article
Full-text available
Effective parenteral vaccines are available to control rabies in dogs. While such vaccines are successfully used worldwide, the period between vaccine boosters required to guarantee protection of the population against rabies varies between vaccines and populations. In Flores Island, Indonesia, internationally and locally produced rabies vaccines are used during annual vaccination campaigns of predominantly free-roaming owned domestic dogs. The study objective was to identify the duration of the presence and factors associated with the loss of adequate level of binding antibodies (≥0.5 EU/ml) following rabies vaccination in a domestic dog population on Flores Island. A total of 171 dogs that developed an antibody titre higher or equal to 0.5 EU/ml 30 days after vaccination (D30), were repeatedly sampled at day 90, 180, 270, and 360 after vaccination. On the day of vaccination (D0), an interview was performed with dog owners to collect information on dog characteristics (age, sex, body condition score (BCS)), history of rabies vaccination, kind of daily food, frequency of feeding, and origin of the dog. Serum samples were collected and the level of antibodies was quantitatively assessed using ELISA tests. Dogs were categorized as having an adequate level of binding antibodies (≥0.5 EU/ml) or inadequate level of binding antibodies (
... Segundo o levantamento do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística de 2016, os 52 milhões de cães e os 22 milhões de gatos já ultrapassaram o número de crianças brasileiras menores de 12 anos, compondo as famílias multiespécies (Bontempo, 2005). De domesticações muito distintas, as espécies Canis lupus familiaris e Felis catus apresentam relações extra específicas com o Homo sapiens, datando de, respectivamente, dez mil e seis mil anos atrás. ...
Article
O presente trabalho objetiva contribuir para a questão da responsabilidade legal e ética quanto à alimentação adequada para animais de companhia, por meio da análise das obras dos filósofos Singer, Francione e Gilligan. Realizou-se uma revisão de literatura a partir das principais obras filosóficas de autores que discutem a ética e os direitos dos animais, além de artigos científicos atuais e pertinentes ao tema. Verificou-se que, apesar das críticas filosóficas, cães e gatos ainda possuem o status de “coisa” sob a visão jurídica brasileira, ao invés de serem considerados sujeitos de direitos. Dentre os diversos atos abusivos contra os animais, inclui-se a negligência acerca do fornecimento de uma nutrição adequada. Conclui-se que os filósofos estudados propõem novos paradigmas para a relação cada vez mais hantropomorfizada entre tutores e seus animais de companhia. E, isso, certamente, reflete em importantes mudanças nos hábitos alimentares dos pets.
... Yağda çözünen vitaminler ise dokularda depolanır ve aşırı tüketimleri genellikle toksikasyon ile sonuçlanır. (Bontempo, 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Pet hayvanı hekimliğinde potansiyel olarak toksik olan ve kullanımı günden güne artan çok sayıda tezgah üstü (Over the counter / OTC) ilaç bulunmaktadır. OTC grubu ilaçların çoğu, piyasada yaygın olarak bulunan, ucuz ve hekim kontrolü olmadan reçetesiz satın alınabilinen ilaçlardır. Bu ilaçlar, veteriner hekimlikte hekim kontrolü dışında hasta sahibi tarafından satın alındığında kafa karışıklığına veya telaffuz hatalarına bağlı olarak yapılan terapötik yanlışlıkların yanı sıra beşeri hekimlikte suistimal veya intihar amaçlı da kullanılabilmektedir. Çocuklarda ve ev hayvanlarında OTC ilaç zehirlenmeleri, kazara yutma veya bakıcının gözetimi dışında ilaca maruz kalma sonucu gelişmektedir. Günümüzde hem veteriner hekimliğinde hem de beşeri hekimlikte OTC grubu ilaçların kasıtlı yanlış kullanımı halen önemini korumaktadır. Bu sebeple ev hayvanlarının, özellikle kedi ve köpeklerin, ölümle sonuçlanabilen OTC grubu ilaç intoksikasyonlarına maruz kalmasının önüne geçmek ve tekrar oluşumunu önlemek için gerekli önlemler alınmalı; bakıcılar, yetiştiriciler ve hayvan sahipleri bu konuda bilgilendirilmelidir. Bu derlemede yaygın kullanılan ve kolay erişilebilen aspirin, ibuprofen, asetaminofen gibi non steroid antienflamatuvarlar, H2 reseptör antagonistleri, proton pompa inhibitörleri gibi gastrik protektanlar, ipekak şurubu gibi emetikler, difenhidramin, loratidin gibi antihistaminikler ve dekonjestanlar, göz damlaları, vitaminler, laksatifler, anti diyaretikler ile anti tüssifler gibi OTC grubu ilaçların toksisiteleri, yanlış kullanımı sonucu ortaya çıkan klinik sonuçları ve bu ilaçlarla intoksikasyona sebep olabilen çevresel risk faktörleri ile birlikte bu ilaçlara maruz kalma durumunda uygulanabilecek tedavi seçenekleri incelenmiştir.
... La utilización de alimentos comerciales secos procesados se ha posicionado como el alimento ideal para ambos animales (Laamme et al., 2008;Zicker, 2008;Di Cerbo et al., 2017), debido a que tienen varios benecios hacia su salud, por ejemplo, prometen incluir en sus ingredientes frutas y verduras, granos integrales para una buena digestión y consistencia de la excreción fecal, suplementos, vitaminas y minerales, así como la saciedad del animal (Bontempo, 2005;Buchanan et al., 2011;Di Cerbo et al., 2014;Borneo y Leon, 2012;Buff et al., 2014;Carter et al., 2014;Baser y Yalcin, 2017;Alvarenga y Aldrich, 2018;Laamme et al., 2014;Viana et al., 2020). Además se ha demostrado que el olor, color, forma y consistencia del alimento, es clave para que sea seleccionado por el propietario y el mismo animal (Delime et al., 2020). ...
... La utilización de alimentos comerciales secos procesados se ha posicionado como el alimento ideal para ambos animales (Laamme et al., 2008;Zicker, 2008;Di Cerbo et al., 2017), debido a que tienen varios benecios hacia su salud, por ejemplo, prometen incluir en sus ingredientes frutas y verduras, granos integrales para una buena digestión y consistencia de la excreción fecal, suplementos, vitaminas y minerales, así como la saciedad del animal (Bontempo, 2005;Buchanan et al., 2011;Di Cerbo et al., 2014;Borneo y Leon, 2012;Buff et al., 2014;Carter et al., 2014;Baser y Yalcin, 2017;Alvarenga y Aldrich, 2018;Laamme et al., 2014;Viana et al., 2020). Además se ha demostrado que el olor, color, forma y consistencia del alimento, es clave para que sea seleccionado por el propietario y el mismo animal (Delime et al., 2020). ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
El Instituto de Biodiversidad y Áreas Naturales Protegidas del Estado de Quintana Roo, tiene como objeto conducir la política estatal en materia de áreas naturales protegidas, bienestar animal y biodiversidad, con la finalidad de salvaguardar y fomentar el uso sustentable de los recursos naturales, fortaleciendo el sistema de áreas naturales protegidas y procurando el bienestar animal y la biodiversidad que existe en el Estado. En este sentido brinda seguimiento al Consejo Consultivo Ciudadano para la Atención y Bienestar de los Animales en el Estado de Quintana Roo, el cual es un órgano de coordinación institucional y de participación y colaboración ciudadana, cuya finalidad principal es establecer acciones programáticas y fijar líneas de políticas zoológicas, ambientales y de sanidad, a efecto de garantizar el trato digno y respetuoso a los animales del Estado.
... 3 4 These products are designed to be easy and convenient, and it has been suggested that the longevity of companion animals could be attributable, in part, to the development of nutritional targets and provision of complete and balanced commercial products. 5 Regulatory guidelines and recommendations are published in North America by the American Association of Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) and in Europe by the European Pet Food Industry Federation (FEDIAF), based primarily upon pet nutrition research data collated by the National Research Council. These guidelines were introduced around 50 years ago and empirical estimates of many nutrient requirements are lacking in the literature. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Pet owners have many feeding options, some may be considered unconventional by veterinary practitioners. Provision of appropriate nutrition is a basic requirement, with adverse health outcomes possible when a pet diet is inadequate. Objective To capture dog and cat feeding practices, with a special focus on countries with large English-speaking populations, and to compare with data published over the previous 10 years. Methods An electronic questionnaire was provided for dog and cat owners online. Responses were analysed using descriptive statistics, and comparisons made with data from nine peer-reviewed articles published over the previous 10 years. Results Responses from 3673 English-speaking dog and cat owners in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the UK and the USA were included. In previous publications, conventional (commercial, heat-processed) products were the predominant method of feeding. In recent publications, feeding unconventional (raw, homemade, vegetarian) diets appeared more prevalent. In the present study, most (79 per cent dogs, 90 per cent cats) pets were offered conventional food. However a few (13 per cent dogs, 32 per cent cats) pets were fed conventional foods exclusively. Many pets were offered homemade (64 per cent dogs, 46 per cent cats) and/or raw (66 per cent dogs, 53 per cent cats) foods. Different feeding practices were associated with geographical location. Conclusion As an increased risk of nutrient insufficiency and associated conditions have been attributed to unconventional feeding practices, veterinarians must be aware of pet feeding trends and educate clients about the nutritional needs of companion animals.
Article
Full-text available
Dogs develop complex multifactorial diseases analogous to humans, including inflammatory diseases, metabolic diseases, and cancer. Therefore, they represent relevant large animal models with the translational potential to human medicine. Organoids are 3-dimensional (3D), self-assembled structures derived from stem cells that mimic the microanatomy and physiology of their organ of origin. These translational in vitro models can be used for drug permeability and discovery applications, toxicology assessment, and to provide a mechanistic understanding of the pathophysiology of multifactorial chronic diseases. Furthermore, canine organoids can enhance the lives of companion dogs, providing input in various areas of veterinary research and facilitating personalized treatment applications in veterinary medicine. A small group of donors can create a biobank of organoid samples, reducing the need for continuous tissue harvesting, as organoid cell lines can be sub-cultured indefinitely. Herein, three protocols that focus on the culture of intestinal and hepatic canine organoids derived from adult stem cells are presented. The Canine Organoid Isolation Protocol outlines methods to process tissue and embedding of the cell isolate in a supportive matrix (solubilized extracellular membrane matrix). The Canine Organoid Maintenance Protocol describes organoid growth and maintenance, including cleaning and passaging along with appropriate timing for expansion. The Organoid Harvesting and Biobanking Protocol describes ways to extract, freeze, and preserve organoids for further analysis.
Article
The aim of this study was to determine if meal temperature of cat wet food impacted the feeding preference of aging (>7 years of age) domestic short-haired cats. We examined a chunks in gravy product served at three nominal temperatures of 6 ⁰C, 21 ⁰C, and 37 ⁰C using a two-bowl difference test. Gravy viscosity was measured using a Brookfield DV1 viscometer and the percentage of volatile compounds released at each product temperature was also analysed using headspace solid-phase micro-extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The aging cats significantly preferred the warmer products in all pairwise comparisons, 6 ⁰C < 21 ⁰C < 37 ⁰C, with the product at 37 ⁰C being the most preferred. The gravy viscosity was almost identical at each temperature, however, significant changes were observed in 11 out of the 15 volatile compound chemical classes measured at the different product temperatures. Hence, warming may increase the attractiveness by changing and/ or enhancing the flavour profile for aging cats. Understanding the feeding behaviours and preferences of aging cats is an important area of research. Warmed wet food can help to promote food consumption in aging cats, especially those that have lost interest in eating or do not consume enough product to maintain a healthy body weight.
Article
Full-text available
Despite the lack of precise information on the requirements for many of the nutrients essential for cats and dogs and the paucity of information on the availability of nutrients in foods, many commercial diets support excellent growth, reproduction, and maintenance. However, these diets use empirical information that cannot be readily applied to the formulation of new diets. Progress in companion animal nutrition requires more precise information on requirements for various life stages (especially reproduction and maintenance), along with values for the bioavailability of nutrients in dietary ingredients. There is virtually no information on the bioavailability of nutrients for companion animals in many of the common dietary ingredients used in pet foods. These ingredients are generally byproducts of the meat, poultry and fishing industries, with the potential for wide variation in nutrient composition. Claims of nutritional adequacy of pet foods based on the current Association of American Feed Control Official (AAFCO) nutrient allowances ("profiles") do not give assurances of nutritional adequacy and will not until ingredients are analyzed and bioavailability values are incorporated. The AAFCO feeding test provides a superior method for assessing nutritional adequacy to the profile, although the current protocol has procedural and interpretative limitations.
Article
Full-text available
To evaluate the effects of 25% diet restriction on life span of dogs and on markers of aging. Paired feeding study. 48 Labrador Retrievers. Dogs were paired, and 1 dog in each pair was fed 25% less food than its pair-mate from 8 weeks of age until death. Serum biochemical analyses were performed, body condition was scored, and body composition was measured annually until 12 years of age. Age at onset of chronic disease and median (age when 50% of the dogs were deceased) and maximum (age when 90% of the dogs were deceased) life spans were evaluated. Compared with control dogs, food-restricted dogs weighed less and had lower body fat content and lower serum triglycerides, triiodothyronine, insulin, and glucose concentrations. Median life span was significantly longer for dogs in which food was restricted. The onset of clinical signs of chronic disease generally was delayed for food-restricted dogs. Results suggest that 25% restriction in food intake increased median life span and delayed the onset of signs of chronic disease in these dogs.
Article
Oxidative damage to DNA, proteins, and lipids has been implicated as a contributor to aging and various chronic diseases. The presence of total alkenals (malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals) in blood or tissues is an indicator of lipid peroxidation, which may be a result of in vivo oxidative reactions. Vitamin E functions as a chain-breaking antioxidant that prevents propagation of free radical damage in biologic membranes. This 6-week dose-titration study was conducted to assess the effect of selected dietary vitamin E levels on byproducts of in vivo oxidative reactions in dogs and cats. Forty healthy adult dogs and 40 healthy adult cats were assigned to four equal groups per species in a complete random block design. A control group for both dogs and cats was fed dry food containing 153 and 98 IU vitamin E/kg of food (as fed), respectively. Canine and feline treatment groups were fed the same basal dry food with vitamin E added at three different concentrations. The total analyzed dietary vitamin E levels for the canine treatment groups were 293, 445, and 598 IU vitamin E/kg of food, as fed. The total analyzed dietary vitamin E levels for the feline treatment groups were 248, 384, and 540 IU vitamin E/kg of food, as fed. Increasing levels of dietary vitamin E in dog and cat foods caused significant increases in serum vitamin E levels compared with baseline values. Although all treatments increased concentrations of vitamin E in serum, all were not effective at decreasing serum alkenal levels. The thresholds for significant reduction of serum alkenal concentrations in dogs and cats were 445 and 540 IU vitamin E/kg of food, respectively, on an as-fed basis. The results of this study show that normal dogs and cats experience oxidative damage and that increased dietary levels of antioxidants may decrease in vivo measures of oxidative damage.
Article
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of three fibres (sugar-beet fibre, guar gum and inulin) incorporated in the basal diet of healthy dogs at 7 per cent of dry matter (DM). Parameters examined included stool output, water consumption, nutrient digestibility and fasting and postprandial plasma metabolites. All fibres increased wet faecal output; an increase in faecal DM output being observed with sugar-beet fibre only. Sugar-beet fibre and inulin increased daily water consumption. Sugar-beet fibre and guar gum decreased DM digestibility. The three fibres diminished organic matter and crude protein digestibility while ether extract digestibility was decreased by guar gum and inulin. Guar gum induced lower postprandial insulin, alpha-amino-nitrogen and urea plasma concentrations. Guar gum also lowered fasting cholesterolaemia. Sugar-beet fibre and inulin showed no metabolic effects. These physiological properties suggest that guar gum would be a suitable ingredient for dietary therapy of chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus or hyperlipidaemia in the dog.
Article
The JAVMA welcomes contributions to this feature. Articles submitted for publication will be fully reviewed with the American College of Veterinary Nutrition (ACVN) acting in an advisory capacity to the editors. Inquiries should be sent to Dr. John E. Bauer, Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4474.
Article
To evaluate contents of commercial probiotic products marketed for veterinary or human administration. Microbiologic culture assay. 8 veterinary probiotics and 5 human probiotics. Quantitative bacteriologic culture was performed on all products, and isolates were identified via biochemical characteristics. Comparison of actual contents versus label claims was performed. Label descriptions of organisms and concentrations accurately described the actual contents of only 2 of 13 products. Five veterinary products did not specifically list their contents. Most products contained low concentrations of viable organisms. Five products did not contain 1 or more of the stated organisms, and 3 products contained additional species. Some products contained organisms with no reported probiotic effects; some of these organisms could be pathogens. Most commercial veterinary probiotic preparations are not accurately represented by label claims. Quality control appears to be poor for commercial veterinary probiotics.
Assessment of the nutritional adequacy of pet foods trough the life cycle Acidi grassi polinsaturi. Obiettivi e Documenti VeterinariNational Research Council), 1985. The Nutrient Requirements of Dog
  • J G And Rogers
  • Q R 2534s Mussa
  • P P Meineri
, J.G. and Rogers, Q.R., 1994. Assessment of the nutritional adequacy of pet foods trough the life cycle. Journal of Nutrition, 124, 2520S–2534S Mussa, P.P. and Meineri, G., 1997. Acidi grassi polinsaturi. Obiettivi e Documenti Veterinari, 18, 13–19 NRC (National Research Council), 1985. The Nutrient Requirements of Dog (National Academy Press, Washington, USA) Reid, S.W.G. and Peterson, M.M., 2000. The Veterinary Record, 630–631
Effects of heavy exercise and the role of dietary antioxidants on immune response in the Alaskan sled dog
  • B P Chew
  • J S Park
  • H W Kim
  • T S Wong
  • C Cerveny
  • H J Park
  • C R Baskin
  • K W Hinchcliff
  • R A Swenson
  • G A Reinhart
  • J A Burr
  • M G Hayek
Chew, B.P., Park, J.S., Kim, H.W., Wong, T.S., Cerveny, C., Park, H.J., Baskin, C.R., Hinchcliff, K.W., Swenson, R.A.,Reinhart, G.A., Burr, J.A. and Hayek, M.G., 2000. Effects of heavy exercise and the role of dietary antioxidants on immune response in the Alaskan sled dog. In: Reinhart G.A., Carey, D.P. (Eds.) Recent Advances in Canine and Feline Nutrition, Vol III (Wilmington, Ohio, USA), pp. 531-539
Integrazione della dieta con estratto di silimarina (Silybum marianum) nel cane
  • V. Bontempo
  • D. Bellucci
  • B. Tonini
  • D. Cevolani
Bontempo, V., Bellucci, D., Tonini, B. and Cevolani, D., 2003. Integrazione della dieta con estratto di silimarina (Silybum marianum) nel cane. Obiettivi e Documenti Veterinari, 24, 31-37
The interaction of nutrition and the immune system: the role of fatty acids, antioxidants and carbohydrates. Nutritional biotechnology in the feed and food industries
  • C M Grieshop
Grieshop, C.M., 2002. The interaction of nutrition and the immune system: the role of fatty acids, antioxidants and carbohydrates. Nutritional biotechnology in the feed and food industries. Proceedings from the Alltech 18th Annual Symposium (Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, UK) pp. 481-487