Fluoroquinolone-resistant Vibrio cholerae isolated during cholera outbreak in India
During the cholera epidemic of 2002 in and around Hubli, south India, Vibrio cholerae strains resistant to fluoroquinolones were isolated. Among the isolates of V. cholerae non-O1, non-O139 serogroups, 55.9% and 47.1% were resistant to norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin, respectively. However, only 12.5% of the O1 serogroup strains were resistant to both norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Though the O139 serogroup strains were susceptible to these antibiotics, they exhibited multidrug resistance. Emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant V. cholerae that also exhibited multidrug resistance is of great significance in the epidemiology and control of cholera.
Available from: Nisar Ahmad
- "In severe cases antimicrobial therapy is employed to reduce the volume and duration of diarrhea (Sjolund-Karlsson et al., 2011). Like other bacteria, Vibrio cholerae is also developing resistance to different classes of antibiotics (Sjolund-Karlsson et al., 2011; Shapiro et al., 2001; Krishna et al., 2006, Shinwari et al., 2013), which harbors the cholera therapy. Enterobacter aerogenes is the third main cause of respiratory tract nosocomial infections caused by gram-negative bacteria after Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. "
Available from: Ema Paulovicova
- "Non-O1 non-O139 serotypes of V. cholerae are increasingly being reported as the causal agents of severe gastrointestinal disorders (Chatterjee et al., 1998; Das & Gupta, 2005). And the isolation of multidrug-resistant clinical isolates has focused the need for a vaccine (Das & Gupta, 2005; Krishna et al., 2006). The choice of prospective vaccine targets is linked to immunodominant structures engaged in cholera pathogenesis (Kabir, 2005; Levine, 2010). "
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ABSTRACT: We studied T-cell immune responses to surface capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of Vibrio cholerae O135 and its protein conjugate. CPS and CPS-bovine serum albumin (BSA) activation and presentation are characterized with induced alterations in expression and upregulation of membrane antigens CD25, CD11b, CD16/32, MHCII and CD45 on blood- and spleen-derived T cells. Expression of the early activation marker CD25 revealed efficient CPS-BSA conjugate activation especially of CD4(+) CD3(+) and CD8(+) CD3(+) cells. Specific CPS-BSA-induced CD25(+) T-cell subsets in blood were observed after the first application, i.e. a 4.2-fold increase of CD4(+) CD25(+) and 7.6-fold increase of CD8(+) CD25(+) vs. preimmune levels was determined. The upregulation of surface antigens MHCII and CD45 involved in antigen presentation and cell activation of CD3(+) cells and their significant reciprocal correlation (R(2) = 0.92) observed only with CPS-BSA conjugate suggested efficient T-cell dependency and presentation. The pattern of accelerated T-cell activation and engagement of T cells as antigen-presenting cells throughout CPS-BSA immunization contrary to CPS alone was also confirmed in CD4(+) /CD8(+) /CD3(+) splenic cells. The results revealed different T-cell antigen presentation and activation following administration of CPS and CPS-BSA conjugates, as supported also by evaluation of CD45, MHCII and CD25 expression on CD19(+) B cells.
Available from: Daniela Ceccarelli
- "Most strains also showed resistance to streptomycin and nalidixic acid (Table 1). Such a complex resistance profile is quite common in Indian V. cholerae strains, known to be resistant to cotrimoxazole , beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycosides as previously described (Thungapathra et al., 2002; Krishna et al., 2006). "
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ABSTRACT: Integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) of the SXT/R391 family are self-transmissible mobile elements mainly involved in antibiotic resistance spread among γ-Proteobacteria, including Vibrio cholerae. We demonstrated that the recently described ICEVchInd5 is prevailing in V. cholerae O1 clinical strains isolated in Wardha province (Maharashtra, India) from 1994 to 2005. Genetic characterization by ribotyping and multiple-locus SSR analysis proved the same clonal origin for V. cholerae O1 isolates in Wardha province over an 11-year period and was used to assess the correlation between strain and ICE content among ours and different Indian reference strains. In silico analysis showed the existence of at least 3 sibling ICEs of ICEVchInd5 in V. cholerae O1 El Tor reference strains, isolated in the Indian subcontinent after 1992.
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