Acute Physical Stress Elevates Mouse Period1 mRNA Expression in Mouse Peripheral Tissues via a Glucocorticoid-responsive Element
In mammals, the circadian and stress systems (both centers of which are located in the hypothalamus) are involved in adaptation to predictable and unpredictable environmental stimuli, respectively. Although the interaction and relationship between these two systems are intriguing and have been studied in different ways since the "pre-clock gene" era, the molecular interaction between them remains largely unknown. Here, we show by systematic molecular biological analysis that acute physical stress elevated only Period1 (Per1) mRNA expression in mouse peripheral organs. Although behavioral rhythms in vivo and peripheral molecular clocks are rather stable against acute restraint stress, the results of a series of promoter analyses, including chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, indicate that a glucocorticoid-responsive element in the Per1 promoter is indispensable for induction of this mRNA both in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that Per1 can be a potential stress marker and that a third pathway of Per1 transcriptional control may exist in addition to the clock-regulated CLOCK-BMAL1/E-box and light-responsive cAMP-responsive element-binding protein/cAMP-responsive element pathways.