Validity of a 12-item version of the CES-D used in the National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth
Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Dalhousie University, 5790 University Avenue, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 1V7, Canada. Chronic diseases in Canada
(Impact Factor: 1.6).
This validation study assessed the degree of confidence that can be placed on inferences from depressive symptoms among adolescents, based on a 12-item version of the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D). This short version of the scale had been developed for application in the National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth and we refer to it as the CES-D-12-NLSCY. The major data source for the present validation study was a 2002/2003 survey of 12,990 students in junior and senior high school in the Atlantic provinces of Canada. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses for two different proxy gold standards yielded adequate areas under the curve (AUCs) of .84 and .80, allowing us to establish cut points for three categories of depressive symptoms in the general adolescent population: Minimal (CES-D-12-NLSCY total score 0 to 11), Somewhat Elevated (total score 12 to 20) and Very Elevated (total score 21 to 36). The CES-D-12-NLSCY was found to have acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach=s alpha .85). All but one of the 12 items of the CES-D-12-NLSCY were found to have acceptable discrimination ability. The prevalence of Minimal, Somewhat and Very Elevated depressive symptoms in the adolescent student population of the Atlantic provinces was estimated to be 72.3, 19.5 and 5.5 percent, respectively. A further 2.6 percent of students who responded to fewer than 11 items of the scale were classified as Indeterminate with regards to depressive symptom category. The major threat to the accuracy of the CES-D-12-NLSCY is its lack of inquiry about irritability, which is a key symptom of depression in youth.
Available from: Guy Bosmans
- "Using the cut-off scores provided by Poulin et al. (2005), 10% of the children had mild to severe depressive symptoms, which is in line with the prevalence of depression in middle childhood (Costello, Mustillo, Erkanli, Keeler, & Angold, 2003). Poulin et al. (2005) found a Cronbach alpha of .85 in a sample of 12990 youngsters. In the current sample, Cronbach " s alpha was .69. "
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ABSTRACT: The current study investigated whether biological sensitivity to emotional information moderates the link between attachment anxiety/avoidance and depressive symptoms. 60 children (9-12 years old) completed questionnaires on attachment and depressive symptoms. Skin conductance level was measured across three conditions: an emotionally neutral baseline condition, a negative mood-induction condition, and a positive mood-induction condition. Skin conductance level variability was calculated as the intra-individual variation across these conditions expressing the extent to which children are biologically sensitive to positive and negative emotional information. Results showed that skin conductance level variability moderated the association between depressive symptoms and attachment anxiety. Attachment anxiety was only linked with depressive symptoms when children showed more skin conductance level variability, suggesting that attachment anxiety is only a risk factor for children who are biologically sensitive to respond to emotional information. Skin conductance level variability did not moderate the association between depressive symptoms and attachment avoidance. Instead, a significant correlation was found between attachment avoidance and skin conductance level variability, which replicated previous research and might be caused by more avoidantly attached children‟s unsuccessful attempts to suppress emotional reactions.
Available from: Linda Liebenberg
- "The reliability coefficient for this study was 0.70. A 12-item version of the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, (CES-D-12-NLSCY; α=0.85; Poulin et al. 2005) was included to measure risk levels for depression. Items such as " I had crying spells " , " I had trouble keeping my mind on what I was doing " , and " I felt like I was too tired to do things " are rated on a 4-point 1 Prioritised ethnicity was used in the study "
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ABSTRACT: As the fields of resilience and positive psychology grow, there is
increased focus on understanding the resources that facilitate wellbeing and
positive development rather than factors preventing negative outcomes. As these
developments occur, there is an increasing need for measures validated on high
risk and marginalised populations of youth that assess the resources that potentiate
wellbeing. Using data from a cross-sectional study of 1,477 youth (12-to-17 years
old) in New Zealand, who were in either high risk or low risk environments, this
paper presents the validation of questions developed by Hektner (Journal of
Research in Rural Education, 11, 3–14, 1995) as a scale for use with youth,
assessing their feelings about their own futures. A bi-dimensional construct
composed of positive (three items) and negative (four items) emotions has been
identified and confirmed through the use of exploratory factor analysis and
confirmatory factor analysis that also tested factorial invariance across the two
groups. Inter-item correlations ranged from 0.357 to 0.517 (negative emotions)
and 0.295 to 0.455 (positive emotions). The two sub-scales show good internal
reliability. Convergent and divergent validity testing of the measure is assessed
using scales of risk (conduct problems and risk of depression), resilience, and
satisfaction with life. Patterns in the responses of youth across the two groups are
- "Externalising risk was also assessed using the Conduct Problems subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ,Goodman, 1997Goodman, , 2001), which includes shortness of temper and inclination for aggressive responses, lying, theft and bullying. Items are measured on a 3- point scale from 0 = not true to 2 = certainly true with some item being reverse scored.Internalising risk was measured using the 12-item version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D-12-NLSCY;Poulin et al., 2005). Participants rated each item on a 4-point scale from 0 = rarely or none of the time to 3 = all of the time with some items being reverse scored. "
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ABSTRACT: This article draws on the findings from a mixed-methods New Zealand study of the experience of service use of 605 vulnerable young people (aged 13–17 years). Drawing on the survey data, it focuses on the factors that assisted young people to stay on-track with their education. Key findings include: being able to stay at mainstream school was the strongest predictor of capacity to stay on-track. Additional educational services did not appear to contribute directly to positive educational outcomes. There was a direct relationship between involvement with mental health services and the capacity of these vulnerable youths to stay on-track. Better integration between educational, welfare, and justice providers may yield better educational outcomes for these youths. Relational resources from domains such as friendship, family and community activities enhance young people's capacities to stay engaged and achieving in education. However, not every positive relational resource produces a positive educational gain. For this reason, it is important that educational and other professionals carefully examine these domains (friends, family and community) to identify which of these has the potential to assist with educational engagement and then work to maximise the benefits for youths.
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