The Neuroscience of Addiction

ArticleinNature Neuroscience 8(11):1429-30 · December 2005with10 Reads
DOI: 10.1038/nn1105-1429 · Source: PubMed
    • "Emerging evidence has demonstrated that addictions (both chemical and behavioural) share similar courses, histories, and neurobiological correlates (Orford, 2001; Grant, Potenza, Weinstei & Gorelick, 2010; Volkow, 2005). This has encouraged researchers to study patterns of co-occurrence as this can lead to adopt a holistic approach to prevent and treat such problems effectively (Shaffer et al., 2004). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Workaholism refers to the uncontrollable need to work and comprises working compulsively (WC) and working excessively (WE). Compulsive Internet Use (CIU), involves a similar behavioural pattern although in specific relation to Internet use. Since many occupations rely upon use of the Internet, and the lines between home and the workplace have become increasingly blurred, a self-reinforcing pattern of workaholism and CIU could develop from those vulnerable to one or the other. The present study explored the relationship between these compulsive behaviours utilizing a two-wave longitudinal study over six months. A total of 244 participants who used the Internet as part of their occupational role and were in full-time employment completed the online survey at each wave. This survey contained previously validated measures of each variable. Data were analysed using cross-lagged analysis. Results indicated that Internet usage and CIU were reciprocally related, supporting the existence of tolerance in CIU. It was also found that CIU at Time 1 predicted WC at Time 2 and that WE was unrelated to CIU. It is concluded that a masking mechanism appears a sensible explanation for the findings. Although further studies are needed, these findings encourage a more holistic evaluation and treatment of compulsive behaviours.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2016
    • "Although the escalation of substance use behaviors during the adolescent years is normative, it is not benign. High rates of alcohol and drug use during adolescence overlap with a critical period for brain development, which may partially explain the increased vulnerability of young people to SUD [7][8][9]. Adolescents who initiate alcohol or drug use during adolescence are at increased risk of becoming dependent or having other adverse health consequences in later years [5,[10][11][12][13][14], and risk of developing an SUD is greatest within the first 5 to 10 years of use for alcohol and most illicit drugs [14][15][16] . Thus, the value of providing interventions for adolescent substance misuse and related disorders is particularly high, and developing or refining interventions for young people can have far-reaching benefits that extend into adulthood. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adolescence is a key period in the development of substance use and misuse. Substance use typically begins during adolescence, and prevalence rates for many substance use disorders peak before age 21 years. Yet, despite clinical demand, treatments for youth rely almost entirely on psychosocial interventions that yield only modest benefit. One potential way to improve treatment effects is to augment the best available psychosocial interventions with pharmacotherapy. Although pharmacotherapy research has advanced care for adults with substance use disorders, no medication is indicated for adolescents and controlled trials with teenagers are scant. Optimizing treatments for youth will require closing this important gap in medication development research. In this paper, we review the paucity of pharmacotherapy research for adolescent substance misuse, and we discuss how we can leverage human laboratory paradigms and technology to advance our understanding regarding if and how medications may improve treatment options for youths.
    Article · Apr 2016
    • "Basic science and clinical literature have both provided evidence showing that acute alcohol exposure and high levels of continued alcohol use may augment component features of psychopathy such as aggression, insensitivity to punishment, and risky decision making, particularly among adolescents (see Lejuez, Magidson, Mitchell, Sinha, Stevens, & De Wit, 2010). Further, during adolescence there is evidence that increases in and chronic use of alcohol may lead to deficits in neurobiological development; particularly because considerable neural maturation is ongoing during this time (Clark, Thatcher, & Tapert, 2008; Graham et al., 1998; Howard, 2006; Squeglia, Jacobus, & Tapert, 2009; Volkow & Li, 2005). These impairments are particularly salient in prefrontal, limbic, and striatal regions, which are often associated with processes such as decision-making, reward sensitivity, and self-regulation (Brown & Tapert, 2004; Chambers, Taylor, & Potenza, 2003; also see Chassin et al., 2010). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current study examined whether there is a bidirectional association between changes in alcohol use and psychopathic features during the transition into emerging adulthood. The nature of this association was investigated among a large sample of serious male adolescent offenders (N ϭ 1,170) across 7 annual assessments (ages ϳ17–23), with a focus on disaggregating between-and within-person change. Findings indicated that there was significant variability between participants in their rate of change of psycho-pathic features and alcohol use throughout this period of development. Both, between-and within-person increases in alcohol use tended to parallel increases in psychopathic features during the transition into emerging adulthood. In addition, evidence indicated that during years when adolescents consumed more alcohol than normal, they experienced higher than usual levels of self-reported psychopathic features at the subsequent assessment. The relevance of these findings for public policy and their potential to inform treatments and interventions are discussed. General Scientific Summary Findings from this study highlight important individual differences in the developmental course of psychopathic features and alcohol use from late adolescence into early adulthood. Increases in alcohol use tended to parallel increases in psychopathic features across this transitional period. Further, during years when adolescents consumed more alcohol than normal, they experienced higher than usual levels of self-reported psychopathic features in the following year.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015
Show more