The Neuroscience of Addiction

National Institute on Drug Abuse, USA.
Nature Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 16.1). 12/2005; 8(11):1429-30. DOI: 10.1038/nn1105-1429
Source: PubMed
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    • "Basic science and clinical literature have both provided evidence showing that acute alcohol exposure and high levels of continued alcohol use may augment component features of psychopathy such as aggression, insensitivity to punishment, and risky decision making, particularly among adolescents (see Lejuez, Magidson, Mitchell, Sinha, Stevens, & De Wit, 2010). Further, during adolescence there is evidence that increases in and chronic use of alcohol may lead to deficits in neurobiological development; particularly because considerable neural maturation is ongoing during this time (Clark, Thatcher, & Tapert, 2008; Graham et al., 1998; Howard, 2006; Squeglia, Jacobus, & Tapert, 2009; Volkow & Li, 2005). These impairments are particularly salient in prefrontal, limbic, and striatal regions, which are often associated with processes such as decision-making, reward sensitivity, and self-regulation (Brown & Tapert, 2004; Chambers, Taylor, & Potenza, 2003; also see Chassin et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: The current study examined whether there is a bidirectional association between changes in alcohol use and psychopathic features during the transition into emerging adulthood. The nature of this association was investigated among a large sample of serious male adolescent offenders (N ϭ 1,170) across 7 annual assessments (ages ϳ17–23), with a focus on disaggregating between-and within-person change. Findings indicated that there was significant variability between participants in their rate of change of psycho-pathic features and alcohol use throughout this period of development. Both, between-and within-person increases in alcohol use tended to parallel increases in psychopathic features during the transition into emerging adulthood. In addition, evidence indicated that during years when adolescents consumed more alcohol than normal, they experienced higher than usual levels of self-reported psychopathic features at the subsequent assessment. The relevance of these findings for public policy and their potential to inform treatments and interventions are discussed. General Scientific Summary Findings from this study highlight important individual differences in the developmental course of psychopathic features and alcohol use from late adolescence into early adulthood. Increases in alcohol use tended to parallel increases in psychopathic features across this transitional period. Further, during years when adolescents consumed more alcohol than normal, they experienced higher than usual levels of self-reported psychopathic features in the following year.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Abnormal Psychology
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    • "Given the claim that there is a strong causal genetic link associated with the development of addiction (Volkow & Li, 2005; Volkow et al., 2012), it is indeed likely that parents of children who show early dependence behaviors and poor emotional regulation also have some level of addiction such that the parents' poor emotional regulation would be associated with a more dysfunctional parenting style. The claim is that up to 50% of the risk factors linked to an individual developing an addiction are influenced by genetic factors, and this inherited risk impacts on neurological development of the individual and so makes that individual more vulnerable to addiction (Volkow & Li, 2005). The finding does, however, support the notion that adolescence is a period of emotional, cognitive, and social change and that for a small percentage of adolescents they are at risk of developing problematic behaviors (Chung, 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: a b s t r a c t As Internet usage has become more prevalent among youth, so too has problematic Internet use. Despite the critical role of emotion regulation in the development of adolescents' behaviors and the role of par-enting interactions on their children's behaviors, little research has examined these links with reference to problematic and addictive Internet use for adolescents. The main goal of this study was to examine these links, based on a sample of 525 high school students (368 males; M = 15.33 years, SD = 0.47) from a predominantly middle and lower-middle socioeconomic community in Seoul, Korea. Results from structural equation modeling revealed that students' difficulties in emotion regulation was a mediating variable between students' perceptions of their parents' parenting behaviors and the students' Internet use. The findings substantiate the importance of conceptualizing addiction from a social/cognitive theo-retical framework and the notion that adolescence is the onset period for many addictive behaviors and so more proactive attention needs to be given to reducing these early negative behaviors. Based on these results, interventions designed to enhance adolescents' emotion regulatory abilities have the likelihood to mitigate problematic and even addictive Internet use among youth.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Computers in Human Behavior
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    • "This result is reminiscent of the observation that cocaine abusers, studied shortly after an episode of cocaine binging, showed an increase in metabolic activity in OFC and ACC (also dorsal striatum) that was associated with the intensity of their craving (Volkow et al., 1991). Moreover, when the responses to iv MP were compared between cocaine addicted and non-addicted individuals, the former responded with heightened metabolic activity in ventral ACC and medial OFC (an effect associated with craving), while the latter showed the opposite response, namely decreased metabolism in these regions (Volkow et al., 2005). This suggests that the activation of these PFC regions with drug exposure may be specific to addiction and associated with the enhanced desire for the drug. "
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    ABSTRACT: Until very recently addiction-research was limited by existing tools and strategies that were inadequate for studying the inherent complexity at each of the different phenomenological levels. However, powerful new tools (e.g., optogenetics and designer drug receptors) and high throughput protocols are starting to give researchers the potential to systematically interrogate "all" genes, epigenetic marks, and neuronal circuits. These advances, combined with imaging technologies (both for preclinical and clinical studies) and a paradigm shift towards open access have spurred an unlimited growth of datasets transforming the way we investigate the neurobiology of substance use disorders (SUD) and the factors that modulate risk and resilience.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Neuropharmacology
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