Article

Trajectories of Growth Among Children Who Have Coronary Events as Adults

Developmental Origins of Health and Disease Division, University of Southampton, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, United Kingdom.
New England Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 55.87). 11/2005; 353(17):1802-9. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa044160
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Low birth weight is a risk factor for coronary heart disease. It is uncertain how postnatal growth affects disease risk.
We studied 8760 people born in Helsinki from 1934 through 1944. Childhood growth had been recorded. A total of 357 men and 87 women had been admitted to the hospital with coronary heart disease or had died from the disease. Coronary risk factors were measured in a subset of 2003 people.
The mean body size of children who had coronary events as adults was below average at birth. At two years of age the children were thin; subsequently, their body-mass index (BMI) increased relative to that of other children and had reached average values by 11 years of age. In simultaneous regressions, the hazard ratios associated with a 1 SD increase in BMI were 0.76 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.66 to 0.87; P<0.001) at 2 years and 1.14 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.00 to 1.31; P=0.05) at 11 years among the boys. The corresponding figures for the girls were 0.62 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.46 to 0.82; P=0.001) and 1.35 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.78; P=0.04). Low BMI at 2 years of age and increased BMI from 2 to 11 years of age were also associated with raised fasting insulin concentrations (P<0.001 for both).
On average, adults who had a coronary event had been small at birth and thin at two years of age and thereafter put on weight rapidly. This pattern of growth during childhood was associated with insulin resistance in later life. The risk of coronary events was more strongly related to the tempo of childhood gain in BMI than to the BMI attained at any particular age.

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    • "In the year 2000, a random sample of subjects from HBCS were invited to participate in a clinical examination (Barker et al. 2005). In order to achieve a sample size in excess of 2000 people for the clinical part of the study, we selected 2901 subjects for evaluation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Health in adulthood is in part a consequence of development and growth taking place during sensitive periods in early life. It has not been explored previously whether early growth is associated with physical performance in old age from a life course perspective taking into account health-related behavior, biological risk factors, and early life experiences. At a mean age of 71 years, physical performance was assessed using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT) in 1078 individuals belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. We used multiple linear regression analysis to assess the association between the SFT physical fitness scores and individual life course measurements. Several adult characteristics were associated with physical performance including socioeconomic status, lifestyle factors, and adult anthropometry. Higher birth weight and length were associated with better physical performance, even after adjusting for potential confounders (all p values <0.05). The strongest individual association between life course measurements and physical performance in old age was found for adult body fat percentage. However, prenatal growth was independently associated with physical performance seven decades later. These findings suggest that physical performance in old age is at least partly programmed in early life.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Age
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    • "Prenatal and postnatal development has been shown to be associated with risk of cardiometabolic disease in adulthood (Barker, 1995). Low birth weight, an indicator of attenuated intrauterine development , has been found to be related to an increased risk of T2D (Kaijser et al., 2009) and CVD (Barker et al., 2005). A recent systematic review (Paajanen et al., 2010) reported that shorter stature in adults is associated with increased risks of CVD morbidity and mortality compared with those with relatively greater stature. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the association between leg-length-to-height ratio (LLHR) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) among Chinese children. Methods 1236 children (619 obese and 617 nonobese children) aged 3–6 years participated in a cross-sectional survey in 2005 in Tianjin, China. Information on body adiposity, metabolic traits, and related covariates was obtained using a standardized protocol. LLHR was calculated as the ratio of leg length to stature. Results In the multivariable logistic regression analyses, compared with those in the lowest quartile, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of MetS among children in the second through the highest quartiles of LLHR Z-score were 0.89 (95% CI, 0.64–1.25), 0.45 (95% CI, 0.32–0.63), and 0.37 (95% CI, 0.26–0.53), respectively, (Pfor trend < 0.0001 across LLHR Z-score quartiles). Compared with children with both higher levels of LLHR and lower levels of adipose indices, the corresponding ORs of MetS for those with both lower levels of LLHR and higher levels of anthropometric indices were 4.51 (95% CI, 3.08–6.62) for BMI Z-score, 3.86 (95% CI, 2.60–5.73) for waist circumference, and 2.75 (95% CI, 1.85–4.10) for waist-to-hip ratio, respectively. Conclusions Greater LLHR is inversely associated with MetS in Chinese children.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014
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    • "Prenatal and postnatal development has been shown to be associated with risk of cardiometabolic disease in adulthood (Barker, 1995). Low birth weight, an indicator of attenuated intrauterine development , has been found to be related to an increased risk of T2D (Kaijser et al., 2009) and CVD (Barker et al., 2005). A recent systematic review (Paajanen et al., 2010) reported that shorter stature in adults is associated with increased risks of CVD morbidity and mortality compared with those with relatively greater stature. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the association between leg-length-to-height ratio (LLHR) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) among Chinese children. Methods: 1236 children (619 obese and 617 nonobese children) aged 3–6 years participated in a cross-sectional survey in 2005 in Tianjin, China. Information on body adiposity, metabolic traits, and related covariates was obtained using a standardized protocol. LLHR was calculated as the ratio of leg length to stature. Results: In the multivariable logistic regression analyses, compared with those in the lowest quartile, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of MetS among children in the second through the highest quartiles of LLHR Z-score were 0.89 (95% CI, 0.64–1.25), 0.45 (95% CI, 0.32–0.63), and 0.37 (95% CI, 0.26–0.53), respectively, (Pfor trend < 0.0001 across LLHR Z-score quartiles). Compared with children with both higher levels of LLHR and lower levels of adipose indices, the corresponding ORs of MetS for those with both lower levels of LLHR and higher levels of anthropometric indices were 4.51 (95% CI, 3.08–6.62) for BMI Z-score, 3.86 (95% CI, 2.60–5.73) for waist circumference, and 2.75 (95% CI, 1.85–4.10) for waist-to-hip ratio, respectively. Conclusions: Greater LLHR is inversely associated with MetS in Chinese children.
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