Isolation of Bacteriophages from Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and the Characterization of Pap31 Gene Sequences from Bacterial and Phage DNA

Vector-Borne Diseases Diagnostic Laboratory, Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606, USA.
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology (Impact Factor: 2.1). 02/2005; 9(1):44-51. DOI: 10.1159/000088145
Source: PubMed


Bacteriophages enhance bacterial survival, facilitate bacterial adaptation to new environmental conditions, assist in the adaptation to a new host species, and enhance bacterial evasion or inactivation of host defense mechanisms. We describe the detection and purification of a novel tailed bacteriophage from Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, which was previously described as a bacteriophage-negative species. We also compare B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffi Pap31 bacteriophage gene sequences to B. henselae (Houston I), and B. quintana (Fuller) bacteriophage Pap31 sequences. Negative staining electron microscopy of log phase culturesof B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii identified bacteriophages, possessing a 50-nm icosahedric head diameter and a 60- to 80-nm contractile tail. Sequence analysis of the bacteriophage Pap31 gene from B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii showed three consensus sequences and a 12-bp insertion when compared with Pap31 gene sequences from B. henselae (Houston I) and B. quintana (Fuller) bacteriophages. Isolation of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii bacteriophages containing a Pap31 gene suggests that this heme-binding protein gene might play an important role in bacterial virulence through the genetic exchange of DNA within this subspecies. Defining phage-associated genes may also contribute to the enhanced understanding of the evolutionary relationships among members of the genus Bartonella.

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    • "The same reagent concentrations described above were also used for hemoplasma PCR assays. For further molecular characterization and species differentiation, samples that were positive in ITS amplification were tested for other genes: riboflavin synthase gene (ribC) (JOHNSON et al., 2003); citrate synthase gene (gltA) (NORMAN et al., 1995, WINOTO et al., 2005); bacteriophage-associated heme-binding protein gene (pap31) (MAGGI; BREITSCHWERDT, 2005b); and RNA polymerase beta subunit gene (rpoB) (DINIZ et al., 2007 "
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    ABSTRACT: Hemotrophic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas), Bartonella sp., Hepatozoon sp. and Cytauxzoon felis are prominent pathogens that circulate between cats and invertebrate hosts. The present study aimed to detect the presence of DNA from hemoplasmas, Bartonella sp., Hepatozoon sp. and Cytauxzoon felis, and then confirm it by means of sequencing, in blood samples from cats in Cuiabá, MT, Brazil. From February 2009 to February 2011, blood samples with added EDTA were collected from 163 cats that were being housed in four different animal shelters in the city of Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil and from 15 cats that were admitted to the veterinary hospital of the Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT). Out of the 178 cats sampled, 15 (8.4%) were positive for hemoplasmas: four (2.2%) for Mycoplasma haemofelis, 12 (6.7%) for 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' and one (0.5%) for 'Candidatus M. turicensis'. One cat (0.5%), a patient that was attended at the veterinary hospital, was coinfected with M. haemofelis, 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' and 'Candidatus M. turicensis', based on sequencing confirmation. Four cats were positive for Bartonella spp.: three (1.7%) for B. henselae and one (0.5%) for B. clarridgeiae. None of the animals showed Cytauxzoon sp. or Hepatozoon sp. DNA in their blood samples. This study showed that cats housed in animal shelters in the city of Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, are exposed to hemoplasmas and Bartonella species.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Revista brasileira de parasitologia veterinaria = Brazilian journal of veterinary parasitology: Orgao Oficial do Colegio Brasileiro de Parasitologia Veterinaria
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    • "ITS region PCR positive dogs were subsequently tested for the pap31 bacteriophage associated gene [33] "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the serological and molecular prevalence of Bartonella spp. infection in a sick dog population from Brazil. At the São Paulo State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital in Botucatu, 198 consecutive dogs with clinicopathological abnormalities consistent with tick-borne infections were sampled. Antibodies to Bartonella henselae and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii were detected in 2.0% (4/197) and 1.5% (3/197) of the dogs, respectively. Using 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) primers, Bartonella DNA was amplified from only 1/198 blood samples. Bartonella seroreactive and/or PCR positive blood samples (n=8) were inoculated into a liquid pre-enrichment growth medium (BAPGM) and subsequently sub-inoculated onto BAPGM/blood-agar plates. PCR targeting the ITS region, pap31 and rpoB genes amplified B. henselae from the blood and/or isolates of the PCR positive dog (ITS: DQ346666; pap31 gene: DQ351240; rpoB: EF196806). B. henselae and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (pap31: DQ906160; rpoB: EF196805) co-infection was found in one of the B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii seroreactive dogs. We conclude that dogs in this study population were infrequently exposed to or infected with a Bartonella species. The B. henselae and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii strains identified in this study are genetically similar to strains isolated from septicemic cats, dogs, coyotes and human beings from other parts of the world. To our knowledge, these isolates provide the first Brazilian DNA sequences from these Bartonella species and the first evidence of Bartonella co-infection in dogs.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2007 · Veterinary Research
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    Full-text · Article · Jan 2006 · Emerging infectious diseases
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