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How Impulsivity is Related to Intelligence and Academic Achievement

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Abstract

This study investigated the relationships between impulsivity, intelligence, and academic failure in a sample of 241 secondary school students who completed Thurstone's (1938) Primary Mental Abilities (PMA) test and Dickman's (1990) and Barratt's (1985) impulsivity questionnaires (DII and BIS-10, respectively). Results show an inverse relationship between impulsivity and intelligence, specific to the scales with higher loadings on crystallized intelligence, and a positive relationship between impulsivity and academic failure. These results indicate that impulsivity is not directly related to intelligence and may act as a moderator variable between individuals' resources and their achievements.

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... The perspective that EC plays an important role in children's academic achievement has received considerable theoretical and empirical support (e.g., Deater-Deckard, Mullineaux, Petrill, & Thompson, 2009;Sánchez-Pérez, Fuentes, Pina, López-López, & Gonzalez-Salinas, 2015). Similarly, many studies have shown that some of the components (e.g., impulsivity) within the broader SE dimension are correlated with academic achievement (Merrell & Tymms, 2001;Rudasill, Gallagher, & White, 2010;Vigil-Coleṭ & Morales-Vives, 2005). The NA aspect of temperament has received less attention in research on academic achievement. ...
... Our finding that NA did not directly predict academic achievement in reading and math but indirectly predicted both through a mediator might be partly due to the inclusion of covariates SE and EC, where SE made direct negative contributions to both math and reading achievement, consistent with past research (Merrell & Tymms, 2001;Rudasill et al., 2010;Vigil-Coleṭ & Morales-Vives, 2005). Of interest, EC was not related to math or reading achievement in our study. ...
... Por ejemplo, Cosi, Vigil-Colet, Canals y Lorenzo-Seva (2008) encontraron una estructura factorial diferente en la "Escala de impulsividad de Barratt" (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, BIS; Patton, Stanford y Barratt, 1995) aplicado a niños versus adolescentes; asimismo, Leshem y Glickson (2007) obtuvieron una estructura bifactorial para los adolescentes (impulsividad general e impulsividad cognitiva), mientras que en los adultos hallaron tres factores (un factor de impulsividad general y dos factores de impulsividad cognitiva). Antes, Fossati, Barratt, Acquarini y Di Ceglie (2002) ya habían propuesto que los componentes de la impulsividad se van diferenciando con la edad, lo cual no resulta extraño si consideramos su relación con ciertas funciones ejecutivas y con la inteligencia (Vigil-Colet y Morales-Vives, 2005). Comúnmente se han descrito tres componentes distintos de la impulsividad: a) motor, relacionado con la conducta emitida sin previa reflexión; b) cognitivo, asociado con la rapidez en la toma de decisiones cognitivas y c) de no planificación, ligado a la incapacidad para planificar o resolver problemas futuros (Barrat, 1985;Cosi et al., 2008;Patton et al., 1995). ...
... La relativa inmadurez de los sistemas de control cortical durante esta etapa del desarrollo, sumada a la recíproca madurez de los sistemas responsables del procesamiento de los refuerzos y recompensas, hacen de este período evolutivo una etapa vulnerable o de riesgo, dado que el sistema de refuerzo prevalece sobre el de autocontrol. Así, varios estudios han relacionado la impulsividad, como falta de inhibición conductual, con factores de riesgo, como el consumo de sustancias, el fracaso académico o la agresividad (Andreu, Peña y Larroy, 2010;Claes et al., 2006;Chambers, Taylor y Potenza, 2003;Groman, James y Jentsch, 2009;Verdejo-García, Lawrence, Clark, 2008;Vigil-Colet y Morales-Vives, 2005). Teniendo en cuenta que es la autorregulación emocional la que permite al individuo inhibir su comportamiento para optar por refuerzos futuros más convenientes que los inmediatos y que, por tanto, se relaciona tanto con el control voluntario como con la inhibición conductual (Rueda, Posner y Rothbart, 2005), es interesante evaluar si en la adolescencia el componente motor de la impulsividad es modulado por el procesamiento emocional de los estímulos. ...
Article
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In this study we explored the relationship between subjective and objective measures of motor impulsivity in Spanish adolescents (N= 78). We used an emotional Go/No-Go task to investigate the potential modulation of behavioral inhibition by the affective valence of the stimuli, and whether such modulation was influenced by the adolescent's level of impulsivity. Variables related to level of impulsivity, such as self-control and sincerity were also assessed. Our results reveal a significant relationship between subjective and behavioral measures of impulsivity, and suggest adolescents were capable of evaluating themselves on this variable. Additionally, we obtained a positive correlation between impulsivity and sincerity, as well as an inverse relationship between impulsivity and self-control. We also observed a significant emotional modulation in terms of both accuracy (rates of hits and false alarms) and speed of processing (reaction times) of the affective images. Emotional modulation, however, was not altered by the adolescents' level of impulsivity, possibly due to the developmental stage of the sample and the relationship between impulsivity and executive function at that stage.
... We argue that impulsivity and intelligence are unrelated constructs and therefore the observed lack of relationship is essential for the discriminant validity of the ImGo instrument. Even though some studies suggest that impulsivity is related to both general and verbal intelligence, (e.g., Buchmann et al., 2011;Koolhof et al., 2008;Lozano et al., 2014;Lynam et al., 1993;Russo et al., 2008;Schweizer, 2002), other research has not discovered any direct relationship between these constructs or even labelled these associations as spurious (e.g., Lozano, 2015;Vigil-Coleṭ & Morales-Vives, 2005). Our research therefore supports the results of the second group of studies. ...
Thesis
This doctoral thesis consists of four research articles dealing with how cultural influences shape cognitive processes. The first article describes cross-cultural differences in analytic-holistic cognitive style, individualism/collectivism and map reading. The next two articles describe the psychometric properties of the methods measuring behavioral impulsivity and individualism/collectivism. The fourth article demonstrates the risk of ignoring measurement invariance on a cross-cultural comparison of individualism/collectivism. In the closing, I discuss the implications for cross-cultural research and its measurement
... It has been thoroughly documented that students failing to regulate behaviors and emotions and/or showing antisocial behaviors are more likely to demonstrate poor academic performance (Duckworth et al., 2019;Finn & Rock, 1997;Gumora & Arsenio, 2002;Roeser, Eccles, & Sameroff, 2000;Wentzel, 1993), while other research found that both an over and under inhibition of strong emotions may be harmful to academic outcomes (Robbins, Allen, Casillas, Peterson, & Le, 2006). Also, students who regulate their impulsive behaviors tend to achieve academic success in school (Casillas et al., 2012;Duckworth & Seligman, 2005;Vigil-Colet & Morales-Vives, 2005). ...
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The moderating effects of motivation, social control, and self-regulation in predicting academic achievement were examined in Grades 11–12 for 3,281 seventh through nine graders. Standardized assessments of college readiness and student self-reported measures of psychosocial factors were used in the study. The results showed that females in Grades 7–9 scored higher than males for motivation and self-regulation. In predicting later achievement in Grades 11–12, motivation and social control moderated prior achievement, whereas self-regulation moderated both sex and prior achievement. Particularly among female students, effects of self-regulation were positive for high-achieving females (percentile rank >= 95) and negative for low-achieving females (percentile rank <= 5) in predicting achievement in Grades 11–12. The phenomenon known as the “Matthew Effect” and implications for classroom teachers and educational policymakers are discussed.
... Age was scored continuously and calculated from date of birth. Cognitive ability is a known correlate of antisocial behavior (Hirschi and Hindelang, 1977;Vigil-Colet and Morales-Vives, 2005) and so we included GPA (grade point average), scored numerically from 0 to 4 (one respondent who indicated their GPA was over 4 was coded as missing). Social class has been found to be associated with antisocial behavior in past research (Braithwaite, 1981). ...
Article
Traditionally, criminological research on impulsivity and crime assumes impulsivity is a uniform construct that is positively related to deviant behavior. However, psychological research on impulsivity indicates that the construct may have multiple forms, which vary in their relationship to antisocial behavior. One possibility that few studies have examined is whether some forms of impulsivity are unrelated, or negatively related, to antisocial behavior. This study uses Dickman’s (1990) functional and dysfunctional impulsivity scales and finds that dysfunctional impulsivity is a better predictor of crime than functional impulsivity, but does not differ for substance use or school deviance. These results highlight ways that impulsivity measures can be refined in the future.
... In line with this, the level of verbal function at baseline and the levels of verbal function and ADHD symptoms at three-year follow-up were related to passing school grades at three-year follow-up. One study has previously shown that verbal function is positively associated with scholastic achievement, and negatively related to hyperactivity and impulsivity (Vigil-Colet & Morales-Vives, 2005). Furthermore, low intelligence is a well-known risk factor for impairment in education and working life (Cheung et al., 2015;Ramos-Olazagasti et al., 2018;Roy, Hechtman, et al., 2017). ...
... Most impulsivity research investigating academic performance focused on the contexts of ADHD [19,20], risky behaviors [21,22], and early childhood self-control/regulation [23,24] leaving the role of impulsivity as an underlying behavioral trait that may shape students' academic performance largely unexplored [8,25], particularly in the context of STEM learning. Impulsive students can have trouble staying on task and may be expected to find learning more challenging, as academic effort in many fields, including STEM, involves practice and repetition of tasks as well as concerted attention to task performance. ...
Article
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Impulsivity has been linked to academic performance in the context of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, though its influence on a wider spectrum of students remains largely unexplored, particularly in the context of STEM learning (i.e. science, technology, engineering, and math). STEM learning was hypothesized to be more challenging for impulsive students, since it requires the practice and repetition of tasks as well as concerted attention to task performance. Impulsivity was assessed in a cross-sectional sample of 2,476 students in grades 6-12. Results show impulsivity affects a larger population of students, not limited to students with learning disabilities. Impulsivity was associated with lower sources of self-efficacy for science (SSSE), interest in most STEM domains (particularly math), and self-reported STEM skills. The large negative effect size observed for impulsivity was opposed by higher mindset, which describes a student's belief in the importance of effort when learning is difficult. Mindset had a large positive effect size associated with greater SSSE, STEM interest, and STEM skills. When modeled together, results offer that mindset interventions may benefit impulsive students who struggle with STEM. Together, these data suggest important interconnected roles for impulsivity and mindset that can influence secondary students' STEM trajectories.
... Low fluid intelligence has been associated with tendencies to commit physical violence, to be a victim of physical violence, to drug consumption, to worst perception of mental health and to lower self-esteem [84]. In contrast, crystallized intelligence, or vocabulary tests used to measure crystallized intelligence, have been shown to be negatively related with behavioral impulsiveness in adolescents and academic failure [85]. Besides, crystallized intelligence seems to be necessary for concrete figurative reasoning [86], which could impact context interpretations. ...
Article
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People living in vulnerable environments face a harder set of challenges adapting to their context. Nevertheless, an important number of them adapt successfully. However, which cognitive and socio-affective variables are specifically related to these variations in social adaptation in vulnerable contexts has not been fully understood nor directly addressed. Here we evaluated socio-affective variables (anxious attachment style, internal locus of control, self-esteem and stress) and cognitive variables (fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence, working memory, numeracy, probabilistic reasoning and logical reasoning) to explain variations in social adaptation in a sample of 232 adults living in vulnerable contexts (M = 42.3, SD = 14.9, equal amount of men and women). Our results show that an important amount of variance in social adaptation can be explained by socio-affective variables, principally by self-esteem, while cognitive variables also contributed significantly. As far as we know, this is one of the first steps towards understanding the role of cognitive and socio-affective features on social adaptation. In the long run, this area of research could play an important role on the assignation of resources to ease people’s integration into society. Our data and R analysis scripts can be found at: https://osf.io/egxy5/.
... However, impulsivity has been also linked to some positive outcomes such as fast information processing, spontaneity, and being venturesome (e.g. Miller, Joseph, & Tudway, 2004;Vigil-Colet & Morales-Vives, 2005). Nevertheless, the inability to delay gratification is a critical feature of impulsivity (Malesza & Ostaszewski, 2016;Morgan, Gray, & Snowden, 2011), and intolerance to delaying action is a central feature of long-vs. ...
Article
The traits of the Dark Triad of personality have different relationships with impulsivity. Although psychopathy is consistently associated with poor impulse control, the relationship between other Dark Triad traits and impulsivity is inconsistent. For example, Machiavellianism is a construct defined by caution and strategic thinking. Thus, positive correlations particularly with non-planning is antithetical to the construct. However, previous research has revealed gender-related differences among the Dark Triad, which may partially account for mixed findings. Using a student sample (n = 898), we examined separate relationships between impulsivity and the Dark Triad based on gender. We found that Machiavellianism in men is positively correlated with planning, whereas Machiavellianism in women is negatively correlated with planning. Thus, it appears that Machiavellianism may have different behavioral patterns depending on gender. These findings have implications for how Machiavellianism is expressed between men and women, and may guide future predictions for Machiavellianism based on gender.
... Higher levels of impulse control have been associated with positive scholastic outcomes in childhood and adolescence, including school achievement (Tangney, Baumeister, & Boone, 2004). In line with such evidence, high levels of impulsivity have been linked with lower levels of academic achievement and abilities in both clinical (Merrell, Sayal, Tymms, & Kasim, 2017), and nonclinical (Lozano, Gordillo, & Perez, 2014;Vigil-Colet & Morales-Vives, 2005) samples. Additionally, several investigations have linked higher levels of self-control to higher grades in highschool and university samples (Muenks, Wigfield, Yang, & O'Neal, 2017;Tangney et al., 2004). ...
Article
Self-regulation describes the ability to control both behaviors and internal states against a backdrop of conflicting or distracting situations, drives, or impulses. In the cognitive psychology tradition, individual differences in self-regulation are commonly measured with performance-based tests of executive functioning, whereas in the personality psychology tradition, individual differences in self-regulation are typically assessed with report-based measures of impulse control, sustained motivation, and perseverance. The goal of this project was (a) to comprehensively examine the structure of associations between multiple self-regulatory constructs stemming from the cognitive and personality psychology traditions; (b) to estimate how these constructs, individually and collectively, related to mathematics and reading ability beyond psychometric measures of processing speed and fluid intelligence; and (c) to estimate the extent to which genetic and environmental factors mediated the observed associations. Data were available for 1,019 child participants from the Texas Twin Project ( M age = 10.79, range = 7.8–15.5). Results highlighted the differentiation among cognitive and personality aspects of self-regulation, both at observed and genetic levels. After accounting for processing speed and fluid intelligence, EF remained a significant predictor of reading and mathematics ability. Educationally relevant measures of personality—particularly an openness factor representing curiosity and intellectual self-concept—incrementally contributed to individual differences in reading ability. Collectively, measures of cognition, self-regulation, and other educationally relevant aspects of personality accounted for the entirety of genetic variance in mathematics and reading ability. The current findings point to the important independent role that each construct plays in academic settings.
... Our finding that NA did not directly predict academic achievement in reading and math but indirectly predicted both through a mediator might be partly due to the inclusion of covariates SE and EC, where SE made direct negative contributions to both math and reading achievement, consistent with past research (Merrell & Tymms, 2001;Rudasill et al., 2010;Vigil-Coleṭ, & Morales-Vives, 2005). Interestingly, EC was not related to math and reading achievement in our study. ...
Article
Research findings: We examined the nature of association between toddler negative affectivity (NA) and later academic achievement by testing early childhood executive function (EF) as a mediator that links children's temperament and their performance on standardized math and reading assessments. One hundred eighty-four children (93 boys, 91 girls) participated in our longitudinal study. Children's NA was measured at age 2 and EF at age 4. At age 6, academic achievement in reading and mathematics were assessed using the Woodcock Johnson III Tests of Achievement (Woodcock, McGrew, & Mather, 2001). Results indicated that NA at age 2 negatively predicted EF at age 4, which positively predicted mathematics achievement and reading achievement at age 6. Age 4 EF mediated the relation between age 2 NA and age 6 academic achievement on both reading and math. These findings highlight the significance of considering both NA and EF in conversations about children's academic achievement. Practice or policy: For children with temperamentally high NA, focusing on efforts to enhance emotion regulation and EF during the preschool years may benefit their later mathematics and reading achievement.
... Second, the observed associations between cognitive abilities and the change in the frequency of misconduct over time could result from unobserved factors. For instance, within-cluster variation on the frequency of misconduct over time could be associated with factors highly correlated with cognitive abilities such as, criminal sentiments (Soyer et al., 2017), unit-level cognitive abilities (Diamond et al., 2012), or impulsivity (Vigil-Colet andMorales-Vives, 2005). Finally, given the strong evidence indicating that cognitive abilities had a moderate effect on the frequency of misconduct at MFAB 1 for the baseline and the three misconduct clusters, it can be speculated that cognitive abilities only impacts inter-individual (or intra-cluster variation) on the initial frequency of misconduct (i.e., misconduct at MFAB 1) rather than change in antisocial behavior over time. ...
Article
Cognitive abilities have been shown to have both direct and indirect effects on antisocial behavior in a wide variety of contexts, including inmate misconduct. Nevertheless, although the findings have been robust, no assessments have offered an examination of the association between cognitive abilities and longitudinal variation in the frequency of inmate misconduct during imprisonment. In an effort to address this gap within the literature, the current study directly examines the longitudinal association between cognitive abilities and the frequency of inmate misconduct during imprisonment. Analyses were conducted using data collected during the state-wide Evaluation of Ohio's Prison Programs. The analytical sample of N = 88,145 and the 5 ½ year period represent one of the largest and longest assessments of the frequency of inmate misconduct clusters within prison and the first to examine the influence of cognitive abilities on such clustering. The results of growth curve analyses (GCA) indicated that higher cognitive abilities were associated with a lower intercept and a more gradual decline in the frequency of misconduct over time when compared to individuals with lower cognitive abilities. This pattern was also partially supported by the misconduct clusters estimated during latent class growth analysis (LCGA). Overall, the findings indicate that cognitive abilities affect both the clustering and the frequency of prison misconduct.
... No obstante estudios anteriores no encontraron que existieran diferencias en CI entre sujetos reflexivos o impulsivos (Lajoie & Shore, 1987). O bien no indicaron que la impulsividad pudiera tener una relación negativa con la inteligencia normal (Vigil-Colet & Morales-Vives, 2005). Lo que se deduce de nuestro análisis es que el estilo reflexivo en más probable en las personas con CI superior a 130, de hecho explica el 72.2 % de los casos que pertenecían a este nivel de inteligencia. ...
Article
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Cognitive styles are a stable attitudes, preferences, or habitual strategies that determine individuals' modes of perceiving, remembering, thinking, and problem solving. The impulsivity-reflectivity cognitive style refers preference for making responses quickly versus pausing to decrease the number of errors in problem-solving situations. Relationships between impulsivity-reflectivity and intelligence are still not clear. The aim of this project was to know what impulsivity-reflectivity dimension can be considered more common in gifted children assessed by a standard IQ test. 50 primary and secondary school children were assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-r), the Renzulli Scale for Rating Behavioural Characteristics of Talented and Gifted Students, and the Matching Familiar Figures Test. Results suggest high IQ students (over 130 in WISC-r) were more likely to show a reflectivity cognitive style.
... Impulsivity is a core symptom of numerous psychiatric disorders, such as ADHD (Kuntsi et al. 2006), personality disorders (Swann et al. 2011) and disorders related to substance use and addiction (Sher et al. 2000;Ersche et al. 2010;Shenassa et al. 2012). It is also a personality trait that exists along a continuum in the general population (Tellegen 1982;Eysenck & Eysenck 1985;Costa & McCrae 1992) where it can be adaptive (Gerbing et al. 1987;Dickman & Meyer 1988;Miller et al. 2004;Vigil-Colet & Morales-Vives 2005) or maladaptive (Mitchell 1999;Slutske et al. 2005;Paaver et al. 2006;Bornovalova et al. 2008;Nilsson et al. 2010). ...
Article
Objectives: Previous studies have postulated that noradrenergic and/or dopaminergic gene variations are likely to underlie individual differences in impulsiveness, however, few have shown this. The current study examined the relationship between catecholamine gene variants and self-reported impulsivity, as measured by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (Version 11; BIS-11) Methods: Six hundred and seventy seven (N = 677) non-clinical adults completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). DNA was analysed for a set of 142 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across 20 autosomal catecholamine genes. Association was tested using an additive regression model with permutation testing used to control for the influence of multiple comparison. Results: Analysis revealed an influence of rs4245146 of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene on the BIS-11 attention first-order factor, such that self-reported attentional impulsiveness increased in an additive fashion with each copy of the T allele. Conclusions: These findings provide preliminary evidence that allelic variation in DRD2 may influence impulsiveness by increasing the propensity for attentional lapses.
... Neuropsychological evidence suggests that intelligence and executive function depend upon shared, though not identical, neural substrates [24]. Intelligence has also been shown to be negatively associated with trait impulsivity [25,26]. ...
Article
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Objective Executive function, impulsivity, and intelligence are correlated markers of cognitive resource that predict health-related behaviours. It is unknown whether executive function and impulsivity are unique predictors of these behaviours after accounting for intelligence. Methods Data from 6069 participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were analysed to investigate whether components of executive function (selective attention, attentional control, working memory, and response inhibition) and impulsivity (parent-rated) measured between ages 8 and 10, predicted having ever drunk alcohol, having ever smoked, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and overweight at age 13, after accounting for intelligence at age 8 and childhood socioeconomic characteristics. Results Higher intelligence predicted having drunk alcohol, not smoking, greater fruit and vegetable consumption, and not being overweight. After accounting for intelligence, impulsivity predicted alcohol use (odds ratio = 1.10; 99% confidence interval = 1.02, 1.19) and smoking (1.22; 1.11, 1.34). Working memory predicted not being overweight (0.90; 0.81, 0.99). Conclusions After accounting for intelligence, executive function predicts overweight status but not health-related behaviours in early adolescence, whilst impulsivity predicts the onset of alcohol and cigarette use, all with small effects. This suggests overlap between executive function and intelligence as predictors of health behaviour in this cohort, with trait impulsivity accounting for additional variance.
... Also, certain personality traits as Agreeableness and Conscientiousness can have an indirect negative relationship with the intelligence. In this sense, Aggression and Impulsivity (the negative pole of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness) obtained a negative correlation with intelligence (Ackerman & Heggestad, 1997;Lozano, Gordillo & Perez, 2014;Vigil-Colet & Morales-Vives, 2005). Other studies suggest that the highest relationship observed between personality and cognitive ability is reported for the Openness trait; however, those correlations are usually lower than 0.4 (Costa & McCrae, 1992), and they seem to be higher with crystallised than with fluid intelligence (Ashton, Lee, Vernon & Jang, 2000;Goff & Ackerman, 1992). ...
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between Emotional Intelligence (EI) measured by the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue) and personality measured by the Zuckerman-Kuhlman-Aluja Personality Questionnaire (ZKA-PQ) with the purpose of analyzing similarities and differences of both psychological constructs. Additionally, we studied the relationship among EI, personality, General Intelligence (GI) and a social position index (SPI). Results showed that the ZKA-PQ predicts the 66% (facets) and the 64% (factors) of the TEIQue. High scores in EI correlated negatively with Neuroticism (r: -0.66) and Aggressiveness (r: -0.27); and positively with Extraversion (r: 0.62). Oblique factorial analyses demonstrated that TEIQue scales were located basically in the Neuroticism and Extraversion factors. The SPI and GI no loaded in any factor. These findings showed that EI is a not a distinct construct of personality and it cannot be isolated in the ZKA-PQ personality space. GI is related with the SPI (r: 0.26), and EI correlated with GI (r: 0.18) and SPI (r: 0.16). Nevertheless, we found differences between GI high groups and the TEIQue and ZKA-PQ factors when controlling age and sex. These findings are discussed in the individual differences context.
... Additionally, there may be a relationship with iQ, particularly verbal intelligence, which is negatively correlated with impulsiveness (lynam, moffitt, and stouthamer-loeber, 1993;Vigil-Colet and morales-Vives, 2005). in a longitudinal study of young men, Welte and Wieczorek (1999) found that both drinking and iQ predicted violence, with a combination of heavy drinking and low verbal iQ being the strongest predictor of all. ...
Article
Introduction Early Childhood Externalising Disorders Late Childhood and Early Adolescence Late Adolescence and Early Adulthood Clinical Implications Concluding Comments References
... When comparing the aspects of Conscientiousness, externalizing problems are more strongly associated with Industriousness than with Orderliness (DeYoung et al., 2016). Impulsivity is a core feature of externalizing problems related to Conscientiousness, and it too has been found to correlate negatively with intelligence (Kuntsi et al., 2004;Lynam et al., 1993;Vigil-Colet & Morales-Vives, 2005). (Note that some forms of impulsivity are more strongly associated with Neuroticism or Extraversion than with Conscientiousness, and different forms of impulsivity may be differentially associated with intelligence; DeYoung & Rueter, 2016;Whiteside & Lynam, 2001). ...
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... 반면 신중성이 결여된 사람들은 충동성이 높고 사회 적 적응에 실패하는 경향이 높다 (Cooper et al., 2003). 충동 적 인지양식이 다양한 부적응 문제와 관련되는 것과는 달 리 의사결정 시 심사숙고하고 신중함을 보이는 개인은 더 적응적인 것으로 확인되고 있다 (Dawe et al., 2004;Vigil-Colet et al., 2005) (Kashdan et al., 2006). ...
... Narcissists perform well in idea generation (Brunas-Wagstaff et al., 1996;Jones and Paulhus, 2011) and creating and seizing opportunities (Bass, 1990;Campbell et al., 2011). They process information quickly, spontaneously and entrepreneurially (e.g., Dickman and Meyer, 1988;Gerbing et al., 1987;Miller et al., 2004;Vigil-Colet and Morales-Vives, 2005), and make quick decisions (e.g., Dickman, 1990). Accordingly, they show archetypical proactive characteristics, which should favour EO in a firm and relate positively to performance. ...
Article
Numerous studies show that high levels of Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO) in firms positively influence firm performance. Yet, high levels of Dark Triad (DT) traits-narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy-of managers might work detrimental to EO. Our study empirically tests if top managers who score high on Dark Triad traits have a negative influence on firm performance, reducing the merits of EO. Results of a survey study on 191 firms show that all three dimensions of the DT, narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy, suppress the positive effects that EO has on firm performance. Accordingly, selfish behaviour, emotional coldness, propensity for duplicity, and top managers' quest for self-promotion, status, and dominance lead to behaviour that reduces the positive influences around innovativeness, proactiveness, and risk-taking of EO.
... Others have posited their impulsivity as 'field-dependent' (Keogin & McG Donion, 1972). Impulsivity has been linked to intelligence as moderator variable to academic failure by an inverse relationship (Vigil-Colet & Morales-Vives, 2005). ...
Article
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Background: It has often asked whether impulsivity is a stable response style of students with specific learning disabilities. There is no straightforward emphatic answer to this question. The available literature on the theme is fraught with issues related to the definition of the terms impulsivity as well as learning disabilities. Method: Notwithstanding all this, this study uses a cross-sectional one-shot exploratory survey design to profile the nature, degree and extent in the presence and patterns of impulsivity by adopting a self-cum-significant other report technique for 134 respondents identified as having academic delays and specific learning disabilities to answer a simple abridged and adapted version of 25-item Barratt Impulsiveness Scale along a four-point Likert scale. Results: The overall impulsivity score is more than the assumed and expected mean values for children on the scale. Further, domain analysis on 1st and 2nd order factors on the scale show significantly different trends for major domains of attention, motor, and non-planning (p: <0.001) with no such differences for sub-domains of non-planning in self-control and cognitive complexity (p: >0.05). There appears to be no influence of the studied demographic variables like age, gender, school curriculum, and grades in the impulsivity scores of these children. Item analysis shows that these students are affected by 'extraneous thoughts,' 'get easily bored when solving thought problems,' 'do not like to think about complex problems,' and, so on. The implications of the study for developing impulsivity reduction strategies and its limitations are presented.
... Lesétudes de Cloninger, Svrakic, et Przybeck (2006) Chez l'étudiant l'impulsivité est souvent corréléeà l'échec scolaire, car lesétudiants avec des scoresélevés sur uneéchelle d'impulsivité auraient tendanceà se distraire facilement considérant que le but dans leursétudes n'est pasà leurs portées (Leppink, Lust, & Grant, 2016 ;Vigil-Cole & Morales-Vives, 2005). La pratique clinique a aussi montré que l'impulsivitéétait un facteur de risque associéà la dépression sévère dans la mesure, où elle facilite le passageà l'acte, notamment suicidaire (Corruble, 2009). ...
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Lors du passage en études supérieures, les étudiants semblent vivre une expérience commune. Cependant, certains présentent des fragilités et sont plus vulnérables et susceptibles de développer des troubles dépressifs. Ceux-ci peuvent notamment pousser l'étudiant à arrêter ses études. Par conséquent, tenir compte de la santé mentale des étudiants et mieux les accompagner leurs permettraient d'éviter une rupture dans le parcours universitaire.La réussite aux examens universitaires, l'ampleur du travail personnel, l'incertitude d'une insertion professionnelle réussie, l'éloignement du cercle familial, la solitude ou encore les contextes sociaux, actifs et universitaires, sont autant de facteurs pouvant fragiliser l'étudiant.L'objectif de ce travail est d'identifier de tels indicateurs psychologiques et contextuels en vue de caractériser les facteurs associés à la dépression, à la fois inter et intra individuelle.Pour ce faire, les travaux de cette thèse ont été menés sur deux bases de données : la cohorte étudiante "i-Share" et les données d'une étude de mesures répétées en vie quotidienne.Une première étude a permis de faire l'état des lieux des troubles de santé mentale diagnostiqués chez les étudiants.Dans la deuxième étude, nous avons identifié des facteurs de vulnérabilité à la dépression en fonction de différents territoires français (Île-de-France, La Réunion, Bordeaux et les autres régions de France). Enfin, dans une troisième étude, nous avons développé une méthode mathématique et numérique afin d’analyser les variations émotionnelles et cognitives en vie quotidienne en tenant compte du facteur temps.Les résultats de la première étude ont montré que près de 3% des étudiants ont déclaré avoir reçu un diagnostic de dépression.La deuxième étude montre qu’en réalité 30% des étudiants présentent une symptomatologie dépressive et que les facteurs psychologiques et contextuels associés varient selon les territoires de France.Les résultats de la troisième étude ont mis en exergue de nouveaux indicateurs de variabilité intra-individuelle en lien avec avec la symptomatologie dépressive en vie quotidienne. Ensuite, nous avons caractérisé des profils présentant des variations du sentiment dépressif différents.Ces résultats sont discutés et nous proposons des axes de prévention à adapter contextuellement à la réalité territoriale et à la spécificité des profils étudiants, et ce afin de progresser en matière de politique de santé publique et universitaire.
... 14 But in contradictorily in another study by Collet and Vives, who found that there is an inverse correlation between impulsivity and intelligence and also found positive correlation between impulsivity and academic failure. 15 Wolfe and Higgins (2008) reported largest correlation between selfcontrol and drinking peers. Self-control has a significant negative link with drinking alcohol. ...
Article
BACKGROUND Students from various medical and paramedical disciplines require above average intelligence to understand all the medical subjects and concepts as it deals with human body and human life. Students of nursing discipline have huge responsibility of learning cognitive, affective domain and psychomotor skills simultaneously. It is also observed that impulse control (patience) is absolute virtue of health professional courses including nursing profession. Impulsivity always causes undesirable consequences. Nursing professional students are expected to possess good impulse control. We wanted to assess the level of intelligence, level of impulse control and relationship between intelligence and impulse control among new entrants studying nursing profession. METHODS In this descriptive study, a sample size of 100, 50 males and 50 females, first year students of B.Sc. nursing discipline were selected purposively from Nagpur and Wardha districts of Maharashtra, India. All the participants completed scales pertaining to impulse control and intelligence using impulse control scale developed by Shrivastava and Naydoo and Culture fair intelligence test by Cattle. RESULTS It shows that nursing boys significantly had more scores for intelligence (x̄ = 88.66) and for impulse control (x̄ = 206.62) than nursing girls (x̄ = 88.10), (x̄ = 196.80) respectively. There exists a statistically non-significant positive relationship between intelligence and impulse control for overall population (r = 0.153, P < 0.05). The findings suggest that higher the intelligence, greater is the impulse control among new entrants of nursing discipline. CONCLUSIONS Male students show more intelligence and had more impulse control as compared to nursing girls and also show greater magnitude of positive correlation as compared to their female counterparts. KEY WORDS Intelligence, Impulse Control, Relationship
... Auf eine ähnliche Beziehung zwischen Prüfungsleistung und Impulsivität deuten dabei auch andere empirische Befunde hin (z. B. Lozano et al., 2014;Spinella & Miley, 2003;Vigil-Colet & Morales-Vives, 2005). ...
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The annual issue of 'die hochschullehre' 2021 contains all publications of this year. Downloadable versions of single papers can also be found on the homepage https://www.wbv.de/die-hochschullehre/beitraege/special/jahrgang/2021.html#cc14230
... A study in Indonesia found that adolescents' tendency to think impulsively also increased aggressive behavior (Rahmawati & Asyanti, 2017). Besides behavioral issues, impulsivity is also related to lower academic achievement (Lozano et al., 2014;Merrell & Tymms, 2001;Spinella & Miley, 2003;Vigil-Coleṭ & Morales-Vives, 2005). Valiente et al. (2013) suggest that impulsivity affects academic achievement negatively because it disturbs students' habits related to staying organized, concentrating on studying for a period of time, and their relationships with the people around them. ...
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During adolescence, impulsivity usually escalates, increasing the risk of addiction and affecting academic achievement negatively. Mindfulness has been found to be one of the ways to regulate impulsivity, and emotion regulation can mediate the relationship between mindfulness and impulsivity. This research therefore aims to establish whether emotion regulation mediates the relationship between mindfulness and impulsivity amongst high school students. Quantitative research employing Hayes’ PROCESS mediation analysis was conducted. The participants, 390 Indonesian high school students aged 15-18, were collected using online questionnaires measuring mindfulness, impulsivity, and emotion dysregulation. The results show that emotion regulation partially mediated the relationship between mindfulness and impulsivity (ab = -.11, BootSE = 0.02, BootCI 95% [-0.16, -0.07]). Mindfulness increased emotion regulation skills, which in turn reduced impulsivity in high school students. The implications of the study are important in helping adolescents manage impulsiveness during the period of vulnerability to risk-taking. The use of mindfulness in schools could help manage the emotional and behavioral problems of high school adolescents.
... Notwithstanding, both impulsivity and anxiety personality traits may manifest due cognitive ability deficits (e.g., attentional control) that may, in turn, affect RC competence. Individuals with impulsive tendencies may rapidly process information and quickly respond with little forethought, sometimes hindering academic performance (Vigil-Colet and Morales-Vives, 2005). Indeed, absence of reflection between stimulus and response, as occurs with impulsivity, may prevent maintaining focus during reading; this may occur due to distraction or particularly speedy processing. ...
Article
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Reading comprehension (RC) is a cognitive ability linked with higher-order cognitive functions referred to as executive functions (EFs) and is also associated with educational achievement. To date, there is little research exploring links between reading comprehension, EFs, and personality traits. This study attempts to fill this gap by elucidating the role of EFs, trait impulsivity, and trait anxiety in RC among university students. To achieve a more in-depth examination, RC is divided into its global and local subskills. Ninety university students (83% female) completed self-report questionnaires on EFs, impulsivity, and anxiety, a neuropsychological task for cognitive flexibility, and global/ local RC assessments. Our results indicated distinct associations between poor general EFs and poor global RC, poor cognitive flexibility and poor local RC, and, finally, between high impulsivity and adequate global RC. Individual differences in global and local information processing strategies in the context of attentional processes and personal traits of the university students, is discussed.
... Impulse control problems are reflected in many areas of life, including quality of life, academic achievement, the standard of living. Previous studies (Lozano & Pérez, 2014;Vigil-Coleṭ & Morales-Vives, 2005) showed that impulsivity was negatively related to intelligence and academic performance (especially among bright students). However, both of these studies have shown that impulsivity is a moderator between individuals' resources and their achievements. ...
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p>The primary purpose of this study was to investigate associations between attention impulsivity, motor impulsivity and non-planning impulsivity measured according to the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS) and indicators of subjective well-being (SWB) measured by the Flourishing Scale (FS) and Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI) in students at selected private higher education institutions (N = 514, 52% women, 48% men). The aim of the current study was to explore the impact of gender on the aforementioned associations. Relationships between impulsivity and subjective well-being were examined taking into account the multifactoral structure of impulsiveness. The main findings of the study show that: (a) attention impulsivity predicted low prosperity and low levels of satisfaction with standard of living, health, personal achievements, safety and future security; (b) motor impulsivity showed bivariate but not unique relationships between prosperity and satisfaction with personal health, achievements and personal safety; (c) non-planning impulsivity was found to be uniquely associated with lower subjective prosperity and lower satisfaction with personal achievements and personal relationships; and (d) gender did not moderate the relationship between BIS components and SWB indexes. Impulsivity substrates explained between 4 and 17% of the variance in subjective well-being indexes. In sum, the results showed that the three components of impulsivity are distinct yet partially overlapping. Article visualizations: </p
... To measure cognitive ability, we used the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test standardized score (i.e., PVT score) at Wave I (Dunn & Dunn, 2007). Self-esteem and psychopathy are two genetically influenced traits that are associated with criminal offending and educational outcomes (Beaver et al., 2017;Donnellan et al., 2005;Ross & Broh, 2000;Vigil-Colet & Morales-Vives, 2005;White et al., 1994). To measure self-esteem, we used the sum of responses to five items asking to what degree participants felt they have a lot of good qualities, have a lot to be proud of, like themselves just the way they are, are socially accepted, and are loved and wanted (α = 0.82). ...
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This study integrates developmental and life-course criminology with advances in socio-genomics to investigate the complex relationships among criminal justice (CJ) involvement (e.g., arrest, conviction, and incarceration), educational attainment, and genetic inheritance. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we conduct an analysis based on a whole-genome polygenic score for educational attainment. We find that participants with lower polygenic scores for educational attainment were significantly more likely to report CJ involvement during adolescence. We then show that the association between the education polygenic score and adolescent CJ involvement risk may be attributed to gene-environment correlation mechanisms that operate via both individual factors (e.g., psychopathic personality traits and delinquency) and social factors (e.g., family characteristics and school experiences). Finally, we find evidence that adolescent CJ involvement mediates the association between the education polygenic score and male participants’ actual educational attainment. Results also indicate that the influence of CJ involvement on education was partially confounded by genetic factors. Findings in this paper not only enrich existing criminological theories on the causes and consequences of CJ involvement in the life-course process but also help to improve causal inference in the study of the impact of CJ involvement on later-in-life outcomes.
... We argue that impulsivity and intelligence are unrelated constructs and therefore the observed lack of relationship is essential for the discriminant validity of the ImGo instrument. Even though some studies suggest that impulsivity is related to both general and verbal intelligence, (e.g., Buchmann et al., 2011;Koolhof et al., 2008;Lozano et al., 2014;Lynam et al., 1993;Russo et al., 2008;Schweizer, 2002), other research has not discovered any direct relationship between these constructs or even labeled these associations as spurious (e.g., Lozano, 2015;Vigil-Coleṭ & Morales-Vives, 2005). Our research therefore supports the results of the second group of studies. ...
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This manuscript aims to present a novel behavioral impulsivity test ImGo, which is suitable for impulsivity assessment in the general population. A series of three studies was conducted to validate its psychometric qualities. In Study 1 we describe the principles of ImGo and verify its test-retest and split-half reliability and its convergent validity with an impulsivity self-report scale and Stop Signal test. In Study 2 we re-analyze the convergent validity of ImGo with a Stop Signal test and examine the potential relationship between ImGo and oculomotor inhibition measured by an Anti-Saccades test. In Study 3 we present a robust research with a large sample size and investigate the discriminant validity of ImGo with tests of other related cognitive and executive processes. Backed by our findings from these studies we can safely claim ImGo is a powerful tool with a good level of reliability (both test-retest and split-half) and validity (convergent and discriminant). Its potential lies in its use in diagnostic and research practice of experts from various countries as the test has already been translated to 9 languages so far. The open-source Hypothesis platform, on which the ImGo test is running, provides the option of both individual and group testing in laboratory conditions as well as remotely through an internet browser.
... Systematic reviews of the literature find that even among youth receiving methylphenidate for ADHD (as was the case in this study), significant difficulties remain in the child's classroom performance (35,36); difficulties that may negatively impact acquisition of general knowledge, vocabulary, and graphomotor speed which are assessed by the FSIQ, Verbal Comprehension, and Processing Speed composites. In partial support of such a view, previous studies have found an inverse relationship between impulsivity and measures of intelligence in school children, specifically scales with higher loadings on overall knowledge and vocabulary (i.e., crystallized intelligence) (37). Likewise, there is evidence that children with ADHD have a reduced capacity to improve graphomotor speed and automatization after practice, that may partly explain classroom difficulties (38). ...
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Background Children with ADHD tend to present with poorer cognitive functioning leaving them more vulnerable to a range of negative outcomes. To date, only a handful of longitudinal studies have examined the stability of Wechsler composite scores in children and adolescents with ADHD, and none of them used a more recent version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC), than the WISC-III. Objective The present study investigates the cognitive stability and its longitudinal relationship with the severity of the child's ADHD symptoms and school grades. Method Cognitive functioning was measured with the fourth editions of the WISC-IV or the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales (WAIS-IV) at baseline and at a 3-4-year follow-up in children with ADHD (n = 125, mean age = 11.40 years, SD = 3.24) and a Control group of school children (n = 59, mean age = 11.97 years, SD = 2.15). The stability of cognitive functioning and the relationship between cognitive functioning, ADHD and grades were evaluated using linear mixed models and logistic regression. Results Full scale IQ, Verbal Comprehension, and Processing Speed declined between baseline and follow-up in the ADHD group. ADHD symptom scores were associated with Working Memory scores. Together, the severity of concurrent ADHD symptoms and lower scores for verbal comprehension at baseline and follow-up were associated with an increased risk of not achieving grades at follow-up in youth with ADHD. Conclusions Youth with ADHD often present with cognitive impairments, not improved over time. Together these increase the risk of poorer academic outcomes. Concurrent evaluation of symptom severity, and cognitive functions can add potentially useful information in terms of treatment planning, and school supports to prevent school failure.
... Others have posited their impulsivity as 'field-dependent' (Keogin & McG Donion, 1972). Impulsivity has been linked to intelligence as moderator variable to academic failure by an inverse relationship (Vigil-Colet & Morales-Vives, 2005). ...
Article
Background: It has often asked whether impulsivity is a stable response style of students with specific learning disabilities. There is no straightforward emphatic answer to this question. The available literature on the theme is fraught with issues related to the definition of the terms impulsivity as well as learning disabilities. Method: Notwithstanding all this, this study uses a cross-sectional one-shot exploratory survey design to profile the nature, degree and extent in the presence and patterns of impulsivity by adopting a self-cum-significant other report technique for 134 respondents identified as having academic delays and specific learning disabilities to answer a simple abridged and adapted version of 25-item Barratt Impulsiveness Scale along a four-point Likert scale. Results: The overall impulsivity score is more than the assumed and expected mean values for children on the scale. Further, domain analysis on 1st and 2nd order factors on the scale show significantly different trends for major domains of attention, motor, and non-planning (p: <0.001) with no such differences for sub-domains of non-planning in self-control and cognitive complexity (p: >0.05). There appears to be no influence of the studied demographic variables like age, gender, school curriculum, and grades in the impulsivity scores of these children. Item analysis shows that these students are affected by 'extraneous thoughts,' 'get easily bored when solving thought problems,' 'do not like to think about complex problems,' and, so on. The implications of the study for developing impulsivity reduction strategies and its limitations are presented.
... Narcissists perform well in idea generation (Brunas-Wagstaff et al., 1996;Jones and Paulhus, 2011) and creating and seizing opportunities (Bass, 1990;Campbell et al., 2011). They process information quickly, spontaneously and entrepreneurially (e.g., Dickman and Meyer, 1988;Gerbing et al., 1987;Miller et al., 2004;Vigil-Colet and Morales-Vives, 2005), and make quick decisions (e.g., Dickman, 1990). Accordingly, they show archetypical proactive characteristics, which should favour EO in a firm and relate positively to performance. ...
Article
Numerous studies show that high levels of Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO) in firms positively influence firm performance. Yet, high levels of Dark Triad (DT) traits – narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy – of managers might work detrimental to the EO. Our study empirically tests if top managers who score high on Dark Triad traits have a negative influence on firm performance, reducing the merits of the EO. Results of a survey study on 191 firms show that all three dimensions of the DT, narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy, suppress the positive effects that EO has on firm performance. Accordingly, selfish behaviour, emotional coldness, propensity for duplicity, and top managers’ quest for self-promotion, status, and dominance lead to behaviour that reduces the positive influences around innovativeness, proactiveness, and risk-taking of EO.
... Furthermore, attention is related to academic performance (Latzman et al., 2010;van der Sluis, de Jong, & van der Leij, 2007) and to the most common neurobehavioral disorders among children (Barkley, 2014). Impulsivity has also been widely investigated in relation to attentional function and has been found to be a predictor of adverse behavioral outcomes (Stautz et al., 2016;Sharma et al., 2014) such as addictions (von Polier, Vloet, & Herpertz-Dahlmann, 2012), excess body mass (Delgado-Rico et al., 2012;Van den Berg et al., 2011) and lower intelligence (Russo et al., 2008;Vigil-Colet & Morales-Vives, 2005). ...
Article
The aim of this study was to carry out three intervention programs [i.e. balance intervention program (BIP), game based program (GBP) and drama learning program (DLP)] and to assess their effects on school-age children's cognitive (creativity, attention and impulse control) and motor (balance, aiming and catching) development. These functions were measured in 249 students. With regard to the cognitive functions, students of the GBP significantly improved their creativity and attention (p < .001, Effect size (ES) = 0.6 to 1.0, moderate), and students of the DLP improved their creativity, attention and impulse control (p < .001, ES = 0.4 to 0.9, small to moderate). Regarding the motor skills, both students of the BIP and of the GBP improved balance and catching results (p < .001, ES = 0.2 to 1.6, small to large). The results suggested that PE could be an accurate tool for improving students' cognitive and motor development, but each physical exercise type could have different effects.
... Some researchers propose that traits of conscientiousness are good predictor of academic and occupational performance, and that they can predict job performance independently (Barchard et al., 2003;Higgins et al., 2007;Mount, Barrick, & Strauss, 1999). Additionally, other studies were able to show that impulsivity (the opposite side of conscientiousness) correlates negatively with intelligence (Kuntsi et al., 2004;Lynam et al., 1993;Vigil-Colet & Morales-Vives, 2005). ...
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The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between mental ability and personality traits and to decide whether there are differences in some personality traits between individuals who were classified as having high verses low general mental ability (GMA). 209 individual who achieved high score (percentile 84 or higher) on a general mental ability test were compared with 136 individuals who achieve low score (percentile 16 or less) on the same test. 15 personality characteristics were measured in both groups using the Jackson Personality Inventory. The results indicate that there are significant differences between high and low GMA individuals on the personality traits. Fresh graduates with high GMA have higher levels on the following traits: innovation, traditional values, responsibility, complexity, tolerance, breadth of interest, organization, energy level, social confidence, and risk taking. On the other side, low GMA have higher levels on traits of anxiety and cooperation. Furthermore, gender seems to have impact on personality traits. While the dominant traits of intelligent females are innovation and responsibility, the dominant traits of males are risk taking and innovation. The current results may help in better employee selection and career counseling for fresh university graduates. Some theoretical and empirical implications of the results are further discussed.
... Up to the age of about ten, impulsivity increases and then decreases (Steinberg et al., 2008). As impulsivity is related to academic achievement (Vigil-Colet & Morales-Vives, 2005), it might partly explain the diverging results in elementary and secondary school. Furthermore, older students are more autonomous and independent learners (Eccles & Roeser, 2009), which might further explain the positive relationship between age and student outcomes during the school lockdown in secondary school. ...
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Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, all schools in Germany were locked down for several months in 2020. How schools realized teaching during the school lockdown greatly varied from school to school. N = 2,647 parents participated in an online survey and rated the following activities of teachers in mathematics, language arts (German), English, and science/biology during the school lockdown: frequency of sending task assignments, task solutions and requesting for solutions, giving task-related feedback, grading tasks, providing lessons per videoconference, and communicating via telecommunication tools with students and/or parents. Parents also reported student academic outcomes during the school lockdown (child's learning motivation, competent and independent learning, learning progress). Parents further reported student characteristics and social background variables: child's negative emotionality, school engagement, mathematical and language competencies, and child's social and cultural capital. Data were separately analyzed for elementary and secondary schools. In both samples, frequency of student-teacher communication was associated with all academic outcomes, except for learning progress in elementary school. Frequency of parent-teacher communication was associated with motivation and learning progress, but not with competent and independent learning, in both samples. Other distant teaching activities were differentially related to students' academic outcomes in elementary vs. secondary school. School engagement explained most additional variance in all students' outcomes during the school lockdown. Parent's highest school leaving certificate incrementally predicted students' motivation, and competent and independent learning in secondary school, as well as learning progress in elementary school. The variable “child has own bedroom” additionally explained variance in students' competent and independent learning during the school lockdown in both samples. Thus, both teaching activities during the school lockdown as well as children's characteristics and social background were independently important for students' motivation, competent and independent learning, and learning progress. Results are discussed with regard to their practical implications for realizing distant teaching.
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Bu araştırma 48-72 aylık çocukların bilişsel stillerini ve bilişsel stillerinin çeşitli değişkenlere göre değişip değişmediğini incelemek amacıyla yapılmıştır. Araştırmada, veri toplama aracı olarak çocukların demografik özelliklerini belirlemek amacıyla “Kişisel Bilgi Formu” ve çocukların bilişsel stillerini incelemek amacıyla “Kansas Okul Öncesi Dönemdeki Çocuklar İçin Düşünsellik-İçtepisellik Ölçeği A formu (KRISP-A)” kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu 2018-2019 eğitim-öğretim yılında Ankara ili Keçiören ilçesindeki okul öncesi eğitim kurumlarında öğrenim gören ve normal gelişim gösteren 48-72 aylık 413 çocuk oluşturmaktadır. Elde edilen veriler, Mann Whitney U-testi ve Kruskall Wallis testi ile analiz edilmiştir. Araştırmanın sonucunda, çocukların bilişsel stil puanlarının ortalamanın altında bir yığılma gösterdiği görülmüştür. Tepki süresi puanları değişkenlere göre anlamlı fark göstermemiştir. Hata sayısı puanlarında ise çocukların okul türü, cinsiyet ve anne baba öğrenim düzeyi değişkenlerine göre anlamlı fark bulunmuştur. Çalışmaya katılan çocukların bilişsel stil türlerinin en fazla hızlı doğrucu, en az ise yavaş yanlışçı olduğu belirlenmiştir. / This study was conducted to investigate the cognitive styles of 48-72 month old children and whether their cognitive styles vary by different variables. Data collection tools include Personal Information Form, which was used to determine the demographic characteristics of children, and The Kansas Reflection-Impulsivity Scale Form A (KRISP-A), which was used to examine children's cognitive styles. The study group consisted of 413 children aged 48-72 months who attended pre-school education institutions in Keçiören district of Ankara province during 2018-2019 academic year. The data were analyzed by Mann Whitney U-test and Kruskall Wallis test. As a result of the study, it was observed that the cognitive style scores of the children showed an aggregation below the average. Response time scores did not show significant variation by the variables. On the other hand, a significant difference was found in the number of errors in terms of school type, children’s gender and parental education level. In terms of cognitive style types of the children participating in the study, rapid corrector was the most in number and slow false was the least.
Article
Several studies have shown that the relationships between intelligence and self-reported aggression are low or non-existent. Most have focused on direct forms of aggression, which often have an impulsive component, unlike indirect aggression, which is usually delayed and allows more time to find alternative solutions to the problem. The present study analyses the relationships between different measures of intelligence and an overall estimate of “g” with direct and indirect forms of aggression and impulsivity in a sample of adolescents (N = 532). The results showed that impulsivity and intelligence showed a different pattern of relationships with different forms of aggression. While intelligence measures were more related to indirect aggression, particularly to the g factor estimate, impulsivity was more related to direct forms of aggression. Furthermore, the relationships observed between aggression and intelligence cannot be explained by impulsivity having the same effect on both kinds of measure and are independent of sex effects. Taking everything into account, intelligence should be regarded as a relevant predictor for the prevention of aggressive behaviour in adolescents, particularly indirect aggression.
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In the neuropsychological literature, there is a debate concerning whether neuropsychological tests necessarily are better means for assessing impulsivity than are trait measures. Yet, there is an inherent problem in looking at these test results: Cognitive impulsivity (i.e. impulsive performance on a standard task, assessed looking at the speed-accuracy trade-off in the data) might only sometimes be indicative of trait impulsivity, and trait impulsivity might also only sometimes be indicative of cognitive impulsivity. There is, however, no complete overlap. This is the conclusion drawn from two studies reported in this paper. One option is to first look at those participants scoring high on trait impulsivity, and then to interpret their performance on neuropsychological tests in terms of this. Poor performance for them is most likely indicative of impulsive performance. There is, however, another option: That individuals scoring high on trait impulsivity implement this impulsivity in their performance, sometimes performing impulsively, and sometimes not. A plausible solution is to incorporate both self-report and analysis of performance in both neuropsychological assessment and personality research. © 2016 The Author(s). This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 license.
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La impulsividad ha sido asociada con el abuso de drogas y las adicciones comportamentales. La impulsividad puede modular el desarrollo de la adicción a los videojuegos. El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar la relación entre impulsividad, la frecuencia e intensidad de uso de videojuegos y la adicción a los videojuegos. Un total de 411 adolescentes de 12 a 16 años de edad, cumplimentaron la escala GASA (Gaming Addiction Scale for Adolescents), la Escala de Impulsividad de Plutchik y un cuestionario sobre la conducta de juego. Los análisis descriptivos de la conducta de juego revelaron diferencias de género, por lo tanto se adoptó un enfoque de género. Los resultados indican que la impulsividad está asociada a la adicción a los videojuegos en ambos géneros y mantiene relación únicamente con el tiempo dedicado a los videojuegos en días laborales. La impulsividad es un factor a tener en cuenta en el desarrollo de la conducta problemática de juego y debe ser tenida en cuenta para explicar la conducta problemática de videojuegos y en las intervenciones preventivas y/o terapéuticas.
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Having in mind that student achievement and interest in subject are some of the most important educational goals, and that quality of teaching is the crucial schooling factor influencing them, we examined the contribution of teacher-level variables from the dynamic model of educational effectiveness to student achievement and interest in mathematics and biology. The representative sample included 5,476 students from 125 elementary schools in Serbia and 5,021 parents. Data on student and teacher variables were collected through student and parent questionnaires, while data on prior and current achievement were comprised from students’ Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2011 scores and national examination results, respectively. Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. The results indicate that teacher factors from the dynamic model did not impact student achievement in mathematics and biology but influenced student interest in both subjects. We offer recommendations for educational policy and directions for further research.
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Impulsiveness has been associated with substance abuse disorders and behavioural addictions. Impulsiveness could play a role in the development of video game addictions. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between impulsiveness, amount of video gaming and addiction to video gaming. A total of 411 adolescents aged from 12 to 16 fulfilled GASA (Gaming Addiction Scale for Adolescents), the Plutchik Impulsiveness Scale and a videogame behaviour questionnaire. Descriptive analysis of videogame behaviour found gender differences, therefore we differentiate between gender. Results indicate that impulsiveness is associated with addiction to video games in both genders, and it appears to be related to time spent on video games only in weekdays. According to these results, impulsiveness is a factor to consider for understanding the development of pathological video gaming and it must be tackled in preventive or treatment interventions.
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Adolescence is the stage of development where the reward and emotional regulation systems are yet to be adjusted and where most excessive behaviors start, like smartphone abuse. In addition, in this evolutionary period adolescents are more susceptible to behavioral changes through specific interventions or educational programs. Thus, it is fundamental to analyze the personality profile of those adolescents showing excessive mobile phone usage to properly approach later prevention strategies. Impulsivity is one of the most repeated variables associated with teenage addictions, although it has been observed that not all impulsive behaviors need to be detrimental. The aim of this study is to analyze how impulsivity affects smartphone addiction directly, but also indirectly, by assessing its association with sensation seeking variables (thrill and adventure seeking, experience seeking, disinhibition, and boredom susceptibility) which are in turn decisive when using these technologies improperly. The sample was made up of 614 adolescents aged 13–18 attending secondary education from Burgos, Spain. Dickman Impulsivity Inventory, Sensation Seeking Scale, and Ad-hoc questionnaire on adolescent self-perception as to smartphone use were applied. Results show that 41.4% of participants admit to abusing smartphones sometimes, while 18.3% admit to abusing them more frequently and 24% to, at least ever, having defined themselves as smartphone addicts. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that gender (female), dysfunctional impulsivity and sensation seeking (disinhibition and thrill and adventure seeking) evidence 15.7% of variance in smartphone abuse. In addition, sensation seeking (thrill and adventure seeking, disinhibition, and boredom susceptibility) were found to mediate the relationship between dysfunctional impulsivity and smartphone abuse. Therefore, dysfunctional impulsivity was directly connected with teenage smartphone abuse, but also had an indirect stronger association through thrill and adventure seeking, disinhibition and boredom susceptibility.
Book
Personality and individual differences research is relevant to practically every facet of human existence. For instance, since theories of persons either explicitly or implicitly guide clinical work, the field contributes to discussions of understanding abnormal psychology and provides a guide for conceptualising best treatment. Additionally, the field is relevant to understanding human development across the lifespan, and our understanding of personality and individual differences impacts upon our views of socialisation and interpersonal relations. This book presents research which draws attention to the rich scientific literature that continues to emerge with respect to personality and individual differences psychology.
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The Excitation Transfer paradigm proposes that externally-caused residual arousal may later intensify unrelated feelings of attraction, and thus emphasising the role of situational variables. On the other hand, Emotional Intelligence (EI) involves an individual's internal capacity to interpret and engage with emotionally-relevant information. This study proposed that EI-(as assessed by the Trait-Meta Mood Scale-TMMS)-may moderate the Excitation Transfer effect. A sample of 104 female undergraduates was randomly allocated to complete a cognitive task whilst either seated at a table (control) or riding an exercise bike (aroused condition). Participants then viewed a video recording of a male confederate and rated his attractiveness on a 19-item First Impression Scale. Results indicated no main effects for arousal or EI on any factor of attractiveness. However further analysis demonstrated significant higher-order interactions between EI and arousal upon attractiveness factors. Specifically, individuals with higher EI scores were less likely to be influenced by irrelevant arousal. Results suggest that evaluative judgements of attractiveness are influenced by the interaction of personality and situational variables.
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Impulsivity has been linked to academic performance in the context of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, though its influence on a wider spectrum of students remains largely unexplored, particularly in the context of STEM learning (i.e. science, technology, engineering, and math). STEM learning was hypothesized to be more challenging for impulsive students, since it requires the practice and repetition of tasks as well as concerted attention to task performance. Impulsivity was assessed in a cross-sectional sample of 2,476 students in grades 6-12. Results show impulsivity affects a larger population of students, not limited to students with learning disabilities. Impulsivity was associated with lower sources of science self-efficacy (SSSE) scores, interest in all STEM domains (particularly math), and self-reported STEM skills. The large negative effect observed for impulsivity was opposed by "growth" mindset, which describes a student's belief in the importance of effort when learning is difficult. Mindset had a large positive effect, which was associated with greater SSSE, STEM interest, and STEM skills. When modeled together, results suggest that mindset interventions may benefit impulsive students who struggle with STEM. Together, these data suggest important interconnected roles for impulsivity and mindset that can influence secondary students' STEM trajectories.
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Despite the fact that minors have prohibited access to commercial gambling, and legislation trying to constrain gambling, an important proportion declares that they have bet either online, or by illegally entering gambling venues. This situation highlights the need to implement selective prevention programs that requires assessment tools to identify vulnerable groups. This paper aims to design and validate a scale of evaluation for the psycho-social characteristics that predict onset and maintenance of gambling behavior among adolescents. 2,716 students of Secondary Education, 15.12 years (± 1.03) answered a frequency, intensity and problematic gambling questionnaire and a scale to evaluate risk profiles. The resulting scale is compounded by 26 items classified in 4 sub-scales: Accessibility, Risk Perception, Normative Perception and Parental Attitudes. Internal consistency coefficients were: 0.668, 0.728, 0.746 and 0.818 respectively, and 0.811 for the total scale. Results offer a robust support on the structural validity and internal consistency of the Early Detection of Gambling among At-Risk Adolescents (EDGAR-A) Scale, a useful tool for the design and assessment of effective preventive interventions.
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El presente trabajo analiza las diferencias entre la impulsividad disfuncional, como la tendencia a tomar decisiones irreflexivas y rápidas, con consecuencias negativas para el individuo, y la impulsividad funcional, que se asocia más al entusiasmo, la audacia y la alta actividad, definiendo así a los sujetos en condiciones de asumir riesgos pero cuya mayor productividad permite compensar los errores producidos. Método. Se administra a una muestra de 461 participantes de población general y 292 de población clínica (adictos que solicitan tratamiento en el CAD 4 de San Blas del Ayuntamiento de Madrid) una batería de cuestionarios compuesta por el Inventario de Impulsividad de Dickman, el Inventario de Síntomas Prefrontales de Ruiz et al., el Inventario de Temperamento y Carácter Revisado de Cloninger, el Inventario Clínico Multiaxial de Millon-II, la Escala Multiaxial de Afrontamiento de Hobfoll et al. y la Escala de Impulsividad de Barratt. Resultados. La impulsividad disfuncional se relaciona con mayor sintomatología prefrontal, tanto cognitiva como emocional y comportamental, así como con la presencia de trastornos psicopatológicos de la personalidad, mientras que la impulsividad funcional lo hace en sentido inverso y parece operar como un factor de protección. Discusión: la impulsividad, tenida históricamente por un aspecto disfuncional de la conducta, puede representar en determinadas condiciones una ventaja adaptativa y representar un rasgo funcional de la conducta.
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The dark triad of personality (D3) – consisting of psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and narcissism – is a set of socially aversive personality traits. All three traits encompass disagreeable behavior and a particular disregard for the well-being of others, but also a tendency to strategic and deceptive manipulation of social environments in order to attain one′s goals. To exercise these complex manipulations effectively it seems beneficial to have high cognitive abilities. Therefore, a meta-analysis was conducted to examine possible relationships between intelligence and the dark triad. A total of 143 studies were identified to estimate the strength of relationships between the D3 and general, verbal, and nonverbal intelligence. The results indicate that none of the constructs of the dark triad are meaningfully related to intelligence. However, there was a small negative correlation between intelligence and Factor 2 psychopathy. The substantial heterogeneity regarding the observed effect sizes could not be explained with meta-regression for the most part. There was no evidence for a publication bias. In total, the results challenge the notion that the dark triad is an adaptive set of personality traits that enables individuals to effectively manipulate their social surroundings.
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The purpose of the present study was to revise the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale Version 10 (BIS-10), identify the factor structure of the items among normals, and compare their scores on the revised form (BIS-11) with psychiatric inpatients and prison inmates. The scale was administered to 412 college undergraduates, 248 psychiatric inpatients, and 73 male prison inmates. Exploratory principal components analysis of the items identified six primary factors and three second-order factors. The three second-order factors were labeled Attentional Impulsiveness, Motor Impulsiveness, and Nonplanning Impulsiveness. Two of the three second-order factors identified in the BIS-11 were consistent with those proposed by Barratt (1985), but no cognitive impulsiveness component was identified per se. The results of the present study suggest that the total score of the BIS-11 is an internally consistent measure of impulsiveness and has potential clinical utility for measuring impulsiveness among selected patient and inmate populations.
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An inverse relation between IQ and delinquency has been well established, but the direction of effect remains to be specified. Differing explanatory accounts of the relation were empirically examined in the present study using data on 13-year-old boys involved in a high-risk longitudinal study. Accounts that interpreted the relation as spurious or that posited that delinquency-related factors lead to low IQ scores received no support; findings were most consistent with the hypothesis that the direction of effect runs from low IQ to delinquency. The IQ-delinquency relation was robust after race, class, and observed test motivation were controlled statistically. Additionally, the effect of IQ was mediated by school performance for Black youth but not for White youth.
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The authors review the development of the modern paradigm for intelligence assessment and application and consider the differentiation between intelligence-as-maximal performance and intelligence-as-typical performance. They review theories of intelligence, personality, and interest as a means to establish potential overlap. Consideration of intelligence-as-typical performance provides a basis for evaluation of intelligence-personality and intelligence-interest relations. Evaluation of relations among personality constructs, vocational interests, and intellectual abilities provides evidence for communality across the domains of personality of J. L. Holland's (1959) model of vocational interests. The authors provide an extensive meta-analysis of personality-intellectual ability correlations, and a review of interest-intellectual ability associations. They identify 4 trait complexes: social, clerical/conventional, science/math, and intellectual/cultural.
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The purpose of the present study was to revise the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale Version 10 (BIS-10), identify the factor structure of the items among normals, and compare their scores on the revised form (BIS-11) with psychiatric inpatients and prison inmates. The scale was administered to 412 college undergraduates, 248 psychiatric inpatients, and 73 male prison inmates. Exploratory principal components analysis of the items identified six primary factors and three second-order factors. The three second-order factors were labeled Attentional Impulsiveness, Motor Impulsiveness, and Nonplanning Impulsiveness. Two of the three second-order factors identified in the BIS-11 were consistent with those proposed by Barratt (1985), but no cognitive impulsiveness component was identified per se. The results of the present study suggest that the total score of the BIS-11 is an internally consistent measure of impulsiveness and has potential clinical utility for measuring impulsiveness among selected patient and inmate populations.
Chapter
In recent years it has been widely believed that IQ tests are intrinsically ‘arbitrary’: in so far as IQ tests reflect any real differences between people at all, these differences are said to consist merely in particular types of ‘academic’ ability that should properly interest only narrow minded educational elitists; and if such differences endure through childhood this is merely because they are created and perpetuated by lasting social and educational injustices that are thought to be peculiarly prevalent under Western capitalism. Further testimony to this ‘arbitrariness’ of IQ tests has often been sought in the lack of any ‘theoretical basis’ for IQ tests. Thus the British National Union of Teachers advises its members: “....the definition of ‘intelligence’ seems to rely on criteria which are subjective and social rather than objective and scientific” (Rose 1978).
Article
The Dickman Impulsivity Inventory (DII) is a self report measure that distinguishes two types of impulsivity. Dysfunctional impulsivity is the tendency to act with less forethought than most people of equal ability when this tendency is a source of difficulty. Functional impulsivity, in contrast, is the tendency to act with relatively little forethought when such a style is optimal. The current study presents an exploratory factor analysis of the Dutch DII and describes the psychometric properties of the instrument. It further clarifies the nature of functional and dysfunctional impulsivity by examining the relation between these two traits and another self-report measure of impulsivity, namely the Eysenck Impulsiveness Questionnare (I7). Finally, we also provide data concerning the relationship with demographics.
Article
Impulsivity is the tendency to act with less forethought than do most individuals of equal ability and knowledge. There exists a body of research on the way impulsive individuals carry out such basic cognitive processes as stimulus encoding, visual search, retrieval from short- and long-term memory, problem solving, and motor control. This chapter will review that body of research, assess the degree to which its findings lend support to each of the major theories of impulsivity, and outline an alternate theory of impulsivity that appears to account better for this body of data than do previous theories. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Relations between personality and intelligence were investigated in the context of the distinction between intelligence as typical engagement and intelligence as maximal engagement. The traditional approach to investigating the association between intelligence as maximal performance and personality was reviewed, and suggestions were made, including the suggestion that intelligence as typical engagement results in clearer understanding of personality–intelligence relations. 13 personality/interest constructs hypothesized to surround a core construct of typical intellectual engagement and related to typical intellectual performance were operationalized. Relations found were modest, yet several personality scales differentially related to fluid and crystallized classes of intelligence. Relations between the personality constructs surrounding typical intellectual engagement and the broad personality domain are investigated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Studies of reflection-impulsivity (RI) suggest that the tendency is correlated with performance on a variety of similar tests. They predict the quality of problem solving under conditions of response uncertainty, except in the case of preschoolers who have not yet learned to delay and scrutinize alternative hypotheses. It is noted that the response time component of RI is relatively independent of IQ, whereas the error component is moderately related. Shortcomings of the major test (the Matching Familiar Figures Test) used to measure RI are described, and norms to guide the researcher are presented. Studies of scanning behavior show that reflectives gather more information more carefully and systematically than do impulsives. Attempts to relate this variable to personality and social variables have been only partially successful. RI is related to certain clinical syndromes including hyperactivity, brain damage, epilepsy, and mental retardation. It also affects school performance, as evidenced by the greater impulsivity of children with reading difficulties, learning disabilities, and school failure. Impulsivity has been found to be modifiable: The most consistently successful strategy in this regard is to teach impulsives improved scanning strategies by means of appropriate training materials while having them verbalize such strategies aloud. (3 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
review and assess critically the literature focusing on key personality trait correlates of intelligence / aims at being illustrative rather than comprehensive, concentrating on a select number of personality variables that have been investigated in relation to intelligence and seem to be of some theoretical interest and/or practical importance / [discuss] the relationship between personality and intelligence as assessed by conventional psychometric measures negative affectivity [anxiety and test anxiety, anger and aggression] / coping, adjustment, and intelligence [stress and coping styles, mental health] / extraversion and dealing with novelty in the environment [creativity, curiosity] / motivation [achievement motivation, attributions and perceived control] / belief systems of self and others [self-concept and efficacy, authoritarianism, paranormal belief and superstitiousness, social desirability] (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
discuss the relationship between intelligence and personality from a purely psychometric approach, reviewing key papers and results from recently conducted experiments / examine 3 recent correlates of intelligence and ask whether these measures are theoretically or empirically related to personality / investigate theories and measures of intelligence and personality that involve more planned, creative, and cognitive strategies the relationship between psychometric intelligence and personality / intelligence, personality, and temperament test measures / low-level theories of intelligence and personality [EEG, reaction time, inspection time] high-level theories of intelligence and personality (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The current study evaluated the relationship between self-report and behavioral measures of impulsivity in 98 young adult male subjects. Principal components analysis of the self-report measures revealed four primary factors: the first demonstrated significant loadings with Eysenck's Impulsivity and Nonplanning scales and all subscales of the Barratt Impulsivity Scale, the second with Eysenck's Venturesome, Thrill and Adventure Seeking and Experience Seeking Scales, the third with the Boredom Susceptibility and Disinhibition subscales of Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale, and the fourth with Zuckerman's State Sensation Seeking and the Kipnis Scale. The relationship between scores on these primary factors and performance on four behavioral measures of impulsivity, the Draw a line Slowly, Matching Familiar Figures, the Porteus Maze, and Go/No Go Discrimination tasks, was investigated. Only the fourth primary factor demonstrated a positive relationship, with errors of commission on the Go/No Go Task, and with the Q score in the Porteous Maze. The fourth factor was the only one that was independent of educational level, age and IQ. Of the behavioral tasks, the Go/No Go task is an operationalization of impulsivity as defined by Gray, Owen, Davis & Tsaltas (Biological Bases of Sensation Seeking, Impulsivity, and Anxiety, 1983) and may not be subject to demand characteristics found in the other behavioral and paper and pencil measures of impulsivity. Increased understanding of impulsivity is needed, and the fourth factor we defined, and the Go/No Go task, may hold promise for future research on one type of impulsivity.
Article
The five-factor model personality domain of openness (O) is theoretically independent of intelligence and thus should not correlate with information-processing speed markers of general ability (g). Simultaneously, if information-processing speed is basic to g, then computational speed should correlate not only with g but also with subsidiary facets of intelligence, such as crystallized intelligence (GC). These important relationships were explored using the inspection time (IT) measure of information-processing speed together with the O scale of the NEO-PI R (Costa & McCrae, 1995) and separate psychometric tests of g (Raven's Matrices) and GC (vocabulary and comprehension). Raven's and the Gc measure correlated .598, while IT correlated with both Ravens (r=−.558) and GC (r=−.401) supporting a basic role of computational speed in g. O correlated significantly with GC (r=.338), but not with Raven's nor with IT. Structural equation modeling supported two models in which O was independent of g, with IT being basic to g, and with GC reflecting the joint action of g and O. Paths from O to IT or to Raven's were not significant, suggesting that any apparent relationship of O to intelligence is due not to effects of O on ability, but rather to the effects of O on interest in knowledge, a joint final path with ability.
Article
This study compared the utility of four theories of impulsivity that differ in whether they attribute impulsivity-related differences in performance to differences in arousal, differences in attentional processes or differences in nonattentional processes. Based on self-report, subjects were categorized as high or low in two forms of impulsivity, dysfunctional and functional, and two forms of arousal, tense and energetic. The four theories made differing predictions about the relationship between dysfunctional impulsivity, energetic arousal, and subjects' performance on a visual search task whose attentional demands were manipulated. It was found that higher levels of energetic arousal were associated with faster performance for high dysfunctional impulsives and slower performance for low dysfunctional impulsives only when the task was attention-demanding, supporting the theory that impulsivity-related differences in performance are due to differences in the mechanisms that allocate attention. Functional impulsivity showed complex interactions with both tense and energetic arousal; these were explained in terms of the effects of tense arousal on functional impulsives' levels of cautiousness, and the effects of energetic arousal on their ability to shift attention rapidly.
Article
According to Dickman (1990), functional impulsivity (measured by the Dickman Impulsivity Inventory) is associated with rapid error-prone processing on a cognitive matching task, whereas dysfunctional impulsives (classified according to responses on the same inventory) are not distinguishable from non-impulsives in terms of information processing style. The present study tested the hypotheses that whereas functional impulsivity is associated with a rapid information processing style, dysfunctional impulsivity may be associated with an inability to inhibit competing responses, as measured by the Stroop colour-word interference task. The results of step-wise multiple regression analyses supported the hypotheses. Functional impulsivity was the only significant predictor of reaction times on both a Stroop task and a control colour-word matching task, whereas dysfunctional impulsivity was the only significant predictor of errors on a Stroop task. Dysfunctional impulsivity did not predict errors on the control task. The results suggest that functional and dysfunctional impulsivity may have different underlying cognitive concomitants.
Article
The influence of impulsivity on reasoning was investigated in a sample of 108 high school and university students. Impulsivity was represented by the PRF Impulsivity Scale [Jackson, D. N. (1974). Manual for the Personality Research Form (2nd ed.). Goshen: Research Psychologists Press.], the MMPI Impulsivity Scale [Gough, H. G. (1957). California psychological inventory manual. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press.] and the FPI Impulsiveness Scale [Fahrenberg, J., Hampel, R., & Selg, H. (1994). Das Freiburger Persönlichkeitsinventar FPI. 6. Aufl. Göttingen: Hogrefe.]. Reasoning was measured by the Figural Reasoning Scale (Horn, W., 1983) and the Numeric/Alphabetical Reasoning Scale [Horn, W. (1983). Leistungs-Prüf-System. Göttingen: Hogrefe.]. Furthermore, measures of neuroticism, extraversion, achievement orientation and surgency were applied. Substantial negative correlations of reasoning with impulsivity and neuroticism were observed. Structural equation modeling was applied to predict reasoning by means of an impulsivity composite. A path coefficient of −0.33 was observed. This result suggests the interpretation that a high degree of impulsivity impairs performance in completing reasoning tasks.
Article
A total of 233 subjects completed the Eysenck Personality Profiler (EPP), which measures the three primary (superfactor) traits, as well as 21 second-order factors; the Wonderlic Personnel Test, which is a brief measure of general cognitive ability/intelligence, and the Baddeley Reasoning Test (sentence verification intelligence test). Correlational and regressional analysis showed that scores on these highly inter-correlated intelligence measures (r = 0.62) were associated with stability (rather than neuroticism), introversion (rather than extraversion) and low psychoticism. The time taken to complete the computer administration EPP (response latency) was, along with stability, the most powerful predictor of intelligence test scores, suggesting that test-taking style is an important factor in terms of intelligence test scores.
Article
In order to determine the effects of impulsivity on the perceptual and response selection stages of information processing, 42 subjects were divided into high and low impulsivity groups according to their scores on the EPI subscale. The two groups performed a choice reaction time task in which stimulus complexity and stimulus-response compatibility were manipulated, following Sternberg's Additive Factor Method (AFM, Sternberg, Acta Psychologica, 30, 276–315, 1969). Impulsivity affected the response selection stage but not the perceptual stages.
Article
Impulsiveness is frequently discussed in the context of alcoholism and self-rating questionnaires are widely used to measure it. While probes of behavior are utilized very rarely in alcoholics they may be especially suitable for measuring impulsivity within a clinical context. In this study we used the Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT), a behavioral test to investigate the reflection–impulsivity dimension. Examined were 161 detoxified patients who were suffering from alcohol dependence but who otherwise had no other comorbid psychiatric disorders. The patients were assigned numerous performance tests and personality questionnaires to investigate the relationship between the reflection–impulsivity-classification in the MFFT, clinical data as related to alcoholism, and self-rated personality and performance measures. We found no evidence for a relationship between clinical data as related to alcoholism and reflection–impulsivity. MFFT-reflective alcoholics were more intelligent, their concentration ability was higher, and they reacted faster in reaction time tasks than MFFT-impulsives. These results support authors who consider the MFFT to be primarily an ability test. However, the traditional classification depends more strongly on individual variability in performance than the item-based classification proposed here. The most interesting personality difference between MFFT-reflectives and MFFT-impulsives was the difference in Novelty Seeking (NS). NS scores were significantly higher among MFFT-impulsives compared to MFFT-reflectives. Additionally, a logistic regression analysis identified the NS-subscore “Impulsiveness vs. Reflection” as a significant predictor of the MFFT-classification. These results confirm the hypothesis that the MFFT is useful as an objective behavioral measurement tool for a certain cognitive aspect of impulsivity (quick, intuitive decision vs. carefully considered decision). However, our analysis also affirms that this aspect of impulsivity is closely linked to intelligence.
Article
This study investigated the relationships between performance on tasks representing five cognitive domains (quantitative, categorical, spatial, causal, and propositional reasoning), self-attribution of ability in regard to them and also in regard to three general cognitive functions (processing speed, working memory, and self-monitoring and self-regulation), and the Big Five factors of personality (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience). The participants (n=629) were about equally drawn from each of the age years 12–17. Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted to examine the construct validity of scores on the three research instruments. Moreover, structural equations modeling showed that self-attribution of ability is, to some extent, dependent on cognitive performance. Cognitive performance is weakly related only to two of the Big Five (openness and conscientiousness). Self-attribution of ability is substantially related to all but the neuroticism factor. Apart from openness to experience, the dependence of personality dimensions on the dimensions of cognitive self-representation tends to weaken with age. It is concluded that the influence of cognitive abilities on personality is mediated by self-awareness about them and implications are discussed.
Article
This paper describes some studies of the interrelationship of personality and intelligence using data from a survey of Scottish farmers. (N = 210). Subjects completed the NEO Five Factor Inventory, Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices and the National Adult Reading test (NART). We address three hypotheses from the recent literature: that personality is more differentiated at high than at low levels of ability; that mental abilities are more differentiated at low than at high levels of neuroticism, and that intelligence affects the correlation between certain pairs of personality dimensions. Evidence is found for increased differentiation of neuroticism (N) and Openness (O) at higher levels of ability. It is also found that the level of N moderates the association between different types of mental ability. The Raven-NART correlation is depressed in low-N compared to high-N subjects; evidences is also found of a nonlinear relationship between ability and trait variables for N and O. No significant effects of ablity on correlations between pairs of personality dimensions are found; in particular there is no support for the hypothesis that intelligence affects the correlation between extraversion and conscientiousness. We also examine the effects of ability on reliability of the NEO dimensions. It is found that Cronbach α values are lower for lower ability subjects, particularly for the I dimension. The consequences of this in counfounding effects due to personality differentiation and differential reliability and the resulting difficulty in interpreting experimental observations in this area are discussed. Some possible experimental approaches to this problem are proposed.
Article
A number of authors have expressed concern about our lack of knowledge of speed- accuracy strategies in intelligence tests. This study examines whether relations between intelligence-test performance and information-processing measures depend on individual differences in speed-accuracy preferences rather than on capacity limitations and whether the impact of strategic variables changes with increasing age or extraversion. Eighty-three volunteers from 50 to 79 years old were compared on 4 tests of intelligence and 3 tests of information-processing rate. Impulsivity indices were computed from intelligence-test performance parameters in order to quantify speed-accuracy preferences. Impulsivity measures from different tests correlated positively, showing that stable strategic preferences exist independently of test ability. There was no evidence that impulsivity was related to extraversion or increasing age. Strategic preferences did not underpin relations between intelligence-test total scores and measures of processing rate. More complete predictions of cognitive task performance could be obtained in future work if both total scores and impulsivity indices are taken from intelligence tests.
Article
We used exploratory factor analysis to determine the factorial structure of the Spanish adaptation of Dickman's impulsivity inventory in a sample of 355 university students. Our results showed the two impulsivity factors, functional and dysfunctional, described by Dickman (1990). We applied consensus direct oblimin rotation to the Spanish, American and Dutch versions of the inventory and obtained a high congruence between the three factorial solutions which seems to suggest that they are quite stable across languages and populations. Both kinds of impulsivity showed relationships to the extraversion and psychoticism dimensions of the EPQ-R although extraversion was more related to functional impulsivity and psychoticism was more related to dysfunctional impulsivity.
Article
According to the mental speed approach, measures of speed of information processing represent cognitive ability in a comparatively ‘pure’ form, i.e. less influenced by cultural and learning factors than psychometric intelligence tests. In contrast school performance is assumed to be strongly influenced by cultural and personality factors like motivation, diligence, relationship to teachers etc. Former research has shown, that the speed-intelligence relationship cannot be explained by higher cognitive processes like motivation. But no research has simultaneously investigated the impact of personality on processing speed measures, psychometric intelligence test scores and school performance in comparison. The more ‘culture fair’ processing speed tests should be less influenced by personality. To test this hypothesis, stepwise regressions between personality scales and different processing speed measures (Zahlen-Verbindungs-Test, Coding Test), psychometric intelligence tests (Kognitiver Fähigkeits-Test, Advanced Progressive Matrices) and school performance (grades) were calculated. In a sample of 280 students from German gymnasiums (class-levels 9 and 10) results show a weak multiple correlation of personality with processing speed (R=0.32), a medium correlation with intelligence (R=0.51) and a high correlation with grades (R=0.69). Processing speed tests allows one to measure cognitive abilities in a less biased form than intelligence tests, whereas school performance could be influenced in a positive or negative way by personality factors like self-concept, anxiety or motivation.
Article
Raven's matrices and inspection time (IT) were recorded from 56 subjects under five arousal levels. Raven's and IT correlated strongly (r=−.7) as predicted by processing-speed theories of g. In line with Eysenck's [Eysenck, H. J. (1967). The biological basis of personality. Springfield, IL: Thomas] arousal theory of extraversion, there was a significant inverted U relationship between Raven's scores and arousal. No support was found for predictions that the IT–Raven's correlation was affected by personality. Likewise, the prediction of Gardner [Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books] that ability measures correlate only because they share linguistic mediation was not supported. Instead, the data are compatible with a model in which processing speed and personality jointly influence performance on intelligence tests via predictable additive effects of processing speed and quadratic interaction effects of arousal and personality.
Article
We investigated the relations of the Big Five personality factor of Intellect or Openness to Experience with the crystallized and fluid aspects of measured intelligence. Approximately 500 participants completed the Personality Research Form (PRF) and the Multidimensional Aptitude Battery (MAB). An Openness/Intellect scale, defined as the sum of four PRF scales known to be markers of the Openness/Intellect factor (Understanding, Sentience, Change, and Autonomy), was substantially correlated with MAB subtests that assess crystallized knowledge (the Verbal Scale subtests except Arithmetic), but only weakly correlated with MAB subtests that assess fluid ability (the Performance Scale subtests and Arithmetic). Among the fluid ability subtests, those containing pictures or meaningful visual stimuli were somewhat correlated with Openness/Intellect, whereas those containing numbers or abstract shapes were virtually uncorrelated with Openness/Intellect.
Article
Compared the psychometric properties of the I.7 Impulsiveness Questionnaire by S. B. Eysenck et al (see record 1986-20991-001) and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-10) developed by E. S. Barratt (1985). 467 female and 104 male university students served as Ss, with 132 Ss taking the measures again at a 1-yr follow-up. Data reveal a high correlation between the I.7 and BIS-10 impulsiveness scales and confirm the factor structure of the former but not the latter. Two self-reported impulsiveness components emerged: One component was defined by a lack of thoughtfulness, the other by a lack of planning and foresight. Between-sex differences were noted for the I.7 Venturesomeness and Empathy scales but not for impulsiveness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Impulsivity has been shown to predict aggression and heavy drinking in males, and poor social problem-solving has been identified as a potential mediating variable in this relationship. We set out to investigate the inter-relationships among impulsiveness, social problem-solving, aggression, and alcohol use in a non-offender sample of British males (N=70). Of our proposed relationships, only two were significant: higher impulsivity was related to poorer social problem-solving, and poorer social problem-solving was related to greater aggression. Combining impulsivity and social problem-solving indicated that poor social problem-solving, not impulsivity, was what exerted the influence over aggression in this sample. Impulsivity perhaps presents an obstacle to learning in the early developmental years, and the legacy of poor problem-solving is what later contributes to aggression. Aggr. Behav. 28:439–445, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article
The 3 studies reported here were designed to clarify the nature of the personality trait of impulsivity. Two types of impulsivity were distinguished. Dysfunctional impulsivity is the tendency to act with less forethought than most people of equal ability when this tendency is a source of difficulty; most previous work on impulsivity appears to have focused on this trait. Functional impulsivity, in contrast, is the tendency to act with relatively little forethought when such a style is optimal. The present work indicates that these two tendencies are not highly correlated and that they bear different relations both to other personality traits and to the manner in which certain basic cognitive processes are executed.
Intelligence and inspection time: An ontogenetic relationship The biology of human intelligence
  • C R Brand
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