Application of satellite infrared data for mapping of thermal plume contamination in coastal ecosystem of Korea
Pukyong National University, Busan, Busan, South KoreaMarine Environmental Research (Impact Factor: 2.76). 04/2006; 61(2):186-201. DOI: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2005.09.001
The 5900 MW Younggwang nuclear power station on the west coast of Korea discharges warm water affecting coastal ecology [KORDI report (2003). Wide area observation of the impact of the operation of Younggwang nuclear power plant 5 and 6, No. BSPI 319-00-1426-3, KORDI, Seoul, Korea]. Here the spatial and temporal characteristics of the thermal plume signature of warm water are reported from a time series (1985-2003) of space-borne, thermal infrared data from Landsat and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellites. Sea surface temperature (SST) were characterized using advanced very high resolution radiometer data from the NOAA satellites. These data demonstrated the general pattern and extension of the thermal plume signature in the Younggwang coastal areas. In contrast, the analysis of SST from thematic mapper data using the Landsat-5 and 7 satellites provided enhanced information about the plume shape, dimension and direction of dispersion in these waters. The thermal plume signature was detected from 70 to 100 km to the south of the discharge during the summer monsoon and 50 to 70 km to the northwest during the winter monsoon. The mean detected plume temperature was 28°C in summer and 12°C in winter. The ΔT varied from 2 to 4°C in winter and 2°C in summer. These values are lower than the re-circulating water temperature (6-9°C). In addition the temperature difference between tidal flats and offshore (SSTtidal flats - SSToffsore) was found to vary from 5.4 to 8.5°C during the flood tides and 3.5°C during the ebb tide. The data also suggest that water heated by direct solar radiation on the tidal flats during the flood tides might have been transported offshore during the ebb tide. Based on these results we suggest that there is an urgent need to protect the health of Younggwang coastal marine ecosystem from the severe thermal impact by the large quantity of warm water discharged from the Younggwang nuclear power plant.
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- "Moreover, remote sensing obtains information in digital format which can be easily integrated with the other geographic information or merely utilized for quantitative modeling (Lamaro et al., 2013). Studies were performed regarding the application of remote sensing and satellite imagery in the calculation of the WST (Mustard et al., 1999; Cherkauer et al., 2005; Zoran et al., 2005; Ahn et al., 2006; Alcantara et al., 2010; Gibbons and Wukelic 1989), in which researchers employed different sensors such as AASTR (Schneider et al., 2009), MODIS (Wan 2008; Chavula et al., 2009), AVHRR (Bussières and Granger 2007), Landsat (Oesch et al., 2008) ASTER )Steissberg et al., 2005( and SEVIRI (Nehorai et al., 2009) to estimate this parameter. To recapitulate these studies, we can state that more researches are required for spatial-temporal variation modeling of WST which facilitates the management and conservation of these ecosystems. "
ABSTRACT: Wetland Surface Temperature (WST) maps are an increasingly important parameter to understand the extensive range of existing processes in wetlands. The Wetlands placed in neighborhoods of agricultural and industrial lands are exposed to more chemical pollutants and pesticides that can lead to spatial and temporal variations of their surface temperature. Therefore, more studies are required for temperature modeling and the management and conservation of these variations in their ecosystem. Landsat 8 time series data of Sulduz region, Western Azerbaijan province, Iran were used in this study. The WST was derived using a mono-window algorithm after implementation of atmospheric correction. The NDVI (Normalized Differential Vegetation Index) threshold method was also employed to determine the surface emissivity (ελ). Our findings show that the WST experienced extensive spatial and temporal variations. It reached its maximum value in June and also experienced the highest mean in the same month. In this research, August (12.08.2013) had a lowest spatial standard deviation regarding surface temperature and June (28.06.2013) had the highest one. Wetlands' watersides adjacent to industrial zones have a higher surface temperature than the middle lands of these places. The map obtained from the WST variance over time can be exploited to reveal thermal stable and unstable zones. The outcome demonstrates that land use, land cover effectively contribute to wetland ecosystem health. The results are useful in the water management, preventive efforts against drying of wetland and evapotranspiration modeling. The approach employed in this research indicates that remote sensing is a valuable, low-cost and stable tool for thermal monitoring of wetlands health.
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- "El seguimiento de la pluma térmica de plantas de generación de energía eléctrica se ha llevado a cabo mediante diferentes técnicas, entre las que destacan: mediciones en sitio con boyas oceanográficas, mediciones en cruceros oceanográficos, satélites radiométricos y la modelación numérica. El uso de satélites radiométricos es una técnica utilizada en el seguimiento y registro de la temperatura superficial del agua, y proporcionan una visión sinóptica de la temperatura en grandes extensiones de agua (Sanford et al, 1993; Donlon et al, 2002; Yu-Hwan et al, 2006). La modelación numérica se utiliza cada vez más en estudios de calidad del agua. "
ABSTRACT: RESUMEN: Algunos sistemas costeros de México han visto alteradas sus actividades económicas en los últimos años por los impactos que causa la industria. Estas alteraciones son atribuidas en ocasiones, a la operación de plantas de generación de energía eléctrica como las Centrales Termoeléctricas, de la Comisión Federal de Electricidad. En particular, el sobre-incremento de la temperatura del mar, a causa de las descargas térmicas de estas plantas, ha sido un fenómeno al que se le imputan afectaciones, esencialmente en cuanto a la pesca se refiere. ABSTRACT: Some coastal systems of México have suffered many alterations of the economic activities in recent years because of the impacts caused by the industry. These alterations are sometimes attributed to the operation of power plants, such as the thermal power stations of the Federal Electricity Commission (CFE). In particular, negative impacts essentially on fishing activities have been related to the over-increase of sea temperature due to thermal discharges from these plants. Thus, the present work shows a methodology to analyze hydrodynamics and thermal plume dispersion caused by power plants. The case of study is the thermal plume of the Presidente Adolfo Lopez Mateos Thermal Plant, located in Tuxpan, Veracruz, Mexico. The main objective is to determine flow patterns and the physical influence of the thermal plume in the surrounding aquatic systems through field measurement and numerical simulation, by applying thermal dispersion models coupled with hydrodynamic models.
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- "Studies were performed using these data for mapping water surface temperature, especially in places with marked variations – e.g. cooling channels of nuclear power plants, hot springs, etc. (Gibbons and Wukelic, 1989; Mustard et al., 1999; Cherkauer et al., 2005; Zoran et al., 2005; Ahn et al., 2006; Alcântara et al., 2010). All the energy exchanges between water mass and atmosphere take place within the very thin surface skin layer that can be remotely sensed. "
ABSTRACT: Monitoring of warm distribution in water is fundamental to understand the performance and functioning of reservoirs and lakes. Surface water temperature is a key parameter in the physics of aquatic systems processes since it is closely related to the energy fluxes through the water–atmosphere interface. Remote sensing applied to water quality studies in inland waterbodies is a powerful tool that can provide additional information difficult to achieve by other means. The combination of good real-time coverage, spatial resolution and free availability of data makes Landsat system a proper alternative. Many papers have developed algorithms to retrieve surface temperature (principally, land surface temperature) from at-sensor and surface emissivity data. The aim of this study is to apply the single-channel generalized method (SCGM) developed by Jiménez-Muñoz and Sobrino (2003) for the estimation of water surface temperature from Landsat 7 ETM+ thermal bands. We consider a constant water emissivity value (0.9885) and we compare the results with radiative transfer classic method (RTM).
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