Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS among Asians and Pacific Islanders in the United States

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Global AIDS Program, Surveillance and Infrastructure Development Branch, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.
AIDS Education and Prevention (Impact Factor: 1.59). 11/2005; 17(5):405-17. DOI: 10.1521/aeap.2005.17.5.405
Source: PubMed


Although the percentage of overall AIDS diagnoses remains low among Asian and Pacific Islanders (APIs) in the United States compared with other racial/ethnic groups, research on API risk behaviors and health status suggest that the low number of AIDS cases may not provide a full picture of the epidemic and issues faced by this understudied and underserved population. Data from national HIV/AIDS surveillance systems and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were examined to delineate the magnitude and course of the HIV/AIDS epidemic among APIs in the United States. Same-sex sexual activity is the main HIV risk for API men, whereas heterosexual contact is for API women. APIs are significantly less likely to report being tested for HIV despite the fact that a similar proportion of APIs and other racial/ethnic groups reported having HIV risk in the past 12 months. Given the enormous diversity among APIs in the United States it is important to collect detailed demographic information to improve race/ethnicity and HIV risk classification, conduct better behavioral and disease monitoring for informing prevention planning, and addressing cultural, linguistic, economic and legal barriers to HIV prevention among APIs.

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Available from: Nicole Crepaz, Jul 25, 2014
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    • "In Western countries, Asian/Pacific Islander (API) men who have sex with men (MSM) have a lower incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection relative to their other MSM counterparts (…i.e., Blacks Latinos, and Whites) (Zaidi et al., 2005). However, the lower incidence of HIV rates among this population is still concerning given that it is only 2 percentage points lower than White MSM (Sy, Chng, Choi, & Wong, 1998). "
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    ABSTRACT: Over the past two decades, there has emerged a body of literature documenting a number of risk factors associated with Asian/Pacific Islander men who have sex with men's unsafe sexual behaviors. This study aims to systematically review existing empirical studies and synthesize research results into a social-ecological framework using a mixed research synthesis. Empirical research articles published in peer-reviewed journals between January 1990 and June 2013 were identified in six databases, including PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Social Work Abstract, CINAL, and Web of Knowledge. Both quantitative and qualitative studies were included. Two analysts independently reviewed the articles, and findings were organized on a social-ecological framework. Twenty-two articles were included in the analysis; among these 13 were quantitative, 8 were qualitative, and 1 was mixed-methods research. Results indicated that demographic characteristics, psychological resources, behavioral patterns, relationships with family and friends, dynamics with romantic or sexual partners, community involvement, culture, discrimination, and institutional factors were related to unprotected anal intercourse. This article presents a critique of this literature and discusses implications for future research with this population. It concludes with prevention/intervention initiatives based on review findings. © The Author(s) 2015.
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    • "l abuse , these results resonate with other studies that have found signifi - cant associations between these variables and HIV testing ( Chabot et al . , 2011 ; Crosby et al . , 2005 ; Desai et al . , 2007 ; Do et al . , 2006 ; Miller et al . , 1999 ; Mimiaga et al . , 2011 ; Potdar & Mmari , 2011 ; Straub et al . , 2011 ; Tucker et al . , 2003 ; Zaidi et al . , 2005 ) , and add to existing knowledge by showing that these relationships exist specifically among undergraduates fairly early in adult life . It would be imprudent for interventionists to ignore these findings completely , despite their lack of significance in models adjusted for all covariates . We also aimed to gauge the appropriateness "
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    ABSTRACT: Associations linking HIV infection to violence and abuse are well documented; however, little is known about how violence/abuse is related to HIV testing behavior, particularly among undergraduate university students, who test at lower rates compared to non-student peers in the United States. We assessed history of HIV testing in an ethnically diverse sample of undergraduates in California (n = 1,210); and examined potential associations between testing and various forms of violence/abuse, while controlling for covariates. Whereas 73.4 % of students were sexually active in the past year, only 26.3 % had ever tested for HIV. At the bivariate level, testing was associated with experiencing verbal abuse and sexual violence/coercion, and perpetrating verbal abuse. Experiencing verbal abuse remained significant in multivariate analysis. We discuss findings in a syndemics framework, considered in combination with social psychology-based health behavior theories. Enhanced HIV testing scale-up initiatives for undergraduates are needed and should consider integration with violence prevention programs.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Journal of Behavioral Medicine
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    • "Previous studies have indicated that Asian immigrants were less likely to use health care services due to cultural and language barriers [17,18]. This is similar to studies in the United States where lower HIV testing rates are found amongst Asians and Pacific Islanders as a group [19,20]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Individuals of Asian heritage represent the largest ethnic minority in Canada. Approximately 10% of the new HIV diagnoses in men in British Columbia occur among Asian-Canadians. However, the HIV risk patterns of Asian men who have sex with men (MSM) have not been extensively studied. Participants aged >= 19 years were enrolled in a venue-based HIV serobehavioural survey of MSM in Vancouver, Canada. We compared the demographic characteristics, risk behaviours, and prevalence of HIV and other sexual and blood borne infections between Asian and non-Asian MSM using bivariate analysis and logistic regression confounder modelling. Amongst 1132 participants, 110 (9.7%) self-identified as Asian. Asian participants were younger than non-Asian participants (median age 29 vs. 32 years; p < 0.001), but otherwise did not differ from other study participants. HIV prevalence was lower among Asian MSM compared to Non-Asian MSM (3.7% vs 19.0%, p <0.001). Among men who self-reported as HIV negative or unknown we found no differences in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with a discordant or unknown serostatus partner in the previous six months (11 vs. 13%; p = 0.503). However, Asian MSM were less likely to report ever using injection drugs (10.8% vs. 19.2%; p = 0.043) or using alcohol before having sex (52% vs. 64.4%; p = 0.017). Asian MSM in our study reported similar rates of UAI as non-Asian MSM, but had a lower prevalence of HIV infection. Other factors, such as the use of drugs and alcohol, in relation to sex, may partly explain these differences. However this requires further investigation.
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