Randomized Trial of Prevention of Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection by Continuous Infusion of Low-Dose Unfractionated Heparin in Patients With Hematologic and Oncologic Disease

Centre National de Greffe de Moelle Osseuse, Bab Saadoun, Tunis, Tunisie.
Journal of Clinical Oncology (Impact Factor: 18.43). 12/2005; 23(31):7864-70. DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2004.00.9787
Source: PubMed


Infection is a serious complication of central venous catheters in immunocompromised patients. Catheter-related infection may be caused by fibrin deposition associated with catheters. Interventions designed to decrease fibrin deposition have the potential to reduce catheter-related infections. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of low-dose unfractionated heparin in preventing catheter-related bloodstream infection in patients with hemato-oncological disease.
This study was a randomized, controlled trial in which patients with nontunneled catheters were randomly assigned to receive either intravenous unfractionated heparin (continuous infusion of 100 U/kg per day) or 50 mL/day of normal saline solution as a continuous infusion (control group). Heparin was continued until the day of discharge. Catheter-related bloodstream infection was defined according to Infectious Disease Society of America guidelines.
Two hundred and eight patients were randomly assigned. Four patients were excluded after assignment. Ultimately, 204 patients were analyzed. Catheter-related bloodstream infection occurred in 6.8% (7 of 102 catheters) of those in the heparin group (2.5 events per 1,000 days) and in 16.6% (17 of 102 catheters) of those in the control group (6.4 events per 1,000 days) (P = .03). No other risk factors were found for the development of catheter-related bloodstream infection. Four and five patients experienced severe bleeding in the heparin and control groups, respectively (P = .2). We did not observe heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.
The use of continuous infusion of low-dose unfractionated heparin (100 U/kg per day) can be a practical and economical approach to the prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infection in patients with hemato-oncological disease.

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    • "The clinical symptoms of CRT vary widely and consist of swelling or pain, numbness, erythema of the extremity, phlegmasia, and venous distension. Symptomatic CRT occurs in 1.2–13 % of hematological patients [2, 3, 16–21]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Catheter-related thrombosis (CRT) is a serious complication in hematological patients, but the risk factors for its occurrence are not well established. The study objectives were to estimate the incidence of CRT and to identify the risk factors for developing CRT in hematological patients. In a prospective setting, 104 consecutive patients with 200 insertions of central venous catheters were enrolled into the study. The patients were screened for CRT by compression Doppler ultrasound every 10-14 days. Additionally, ultrasonography was performed in the case of clinical symptoms suggesting CRT. Over the course of 6,098 catheter days of follow-up, the incidence of CRT was 13.5 %. In 18/27 cases (66.6 %), radiological evidence of CRT was preceded by clinical symptoms. However, in 9/27 (33.3 %), CRT was clinically asymptomatic. The median times to symptomatic and asymptomatic CRT were 17 (range 1-49) and 8 (range 1-16) catheter days, respectively. In univariate analysis, the risk factors for CRT were exit-site infection (ESI) (P < 0.001), two or more prior chemotherapy lines (P = 0.015), catheter-related blood stream infection (P < 0.001), and Coagulase-negative staphylococci infection (P = 0.002). In multivariate analysis, ESI (OR 5.0; 95 % CI 1.6-6.3; P = 0.006) and two or more prior chemotherapy lines (OR 3.57; 95 % CI 1.27-10.11; P = 0.015) remained significantly associated with the risk of CRT. The results of our study provide information regarding the characteristic features of the patients who are at high risk of thrombosis, for whom Doppler ultrasound screening should be considered.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Medical Oncology
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    • "Therefore we have hypothesized that LMWH prophylaxis during CVC insertion and removal could be a reasonable option to prevent CRT. In randomized studies , the use of a continuous infusion of low-dose unfractionated heparin (100 U/Kg per day) was able to decrease the rate of CVC bloodstream infection and CRT in patients with hematological malignancies [37]. In our experience the adjunct of an unconventional dose of LMWH for 7 days after CVC insertion and removal did not reduce the risk of CRT. "
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    ABSTRACT: Central venous catheters (CVC) related thrombosis (CRT) represents a well known complication in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) receiving intensive chemotherapy but the efficacy of antithrombotic prophylaxis still remains controversial. We analyzed 71 consecutive AML patients whose CVC was inserted before each chemotherapy cycle for an overall number of 106 CVC placements. In 47/106 insertions, a prophylaxis with 100IU/kg/day low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) was administered for 7days after CVC insertion and additional 7 after CVC removal. This unconventional dose of LMWH, although higher than usual, appeared adequate for a short-course approach. LMWH was delivered regardless of the platelet (PLT) count once provided that it should have been maintained above 20x10(9)/L by transfusions. Of 106 insertions, we observed 19 (18%) episodes of CRT, 58 (54%) of sepsis and 50 (47%) infections of CVC-exit site with no difference between LMWH and no-LMWH group. Occurrence of CRT was significantly associated with CVC-exit site infections (14/19, p=0.01) and sepsis (16/19, p=0.005) with no difference between LMWH and no-LMWH group. In multivariate analysis, both CVC-exit site infections and sepsis were confirmed to be independent risk factors for CRT development. Our retrospective study, although based on a small sample size, suggests that the occurrence of CVC-exit site infections and neutropenic sepsis following chemotherapy significantly increases the risk of CRT in AML, independently from the use of LMWH prophylaxis.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Thrombosis Research
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    • "In a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial in neonates, heparin (0.5 IU/mL) added to the total parenteral nutrition preparation decreased all episodes (relative risk [RR] = 0.57, P = 0.04) and definite episodes (RR = 0.32, P = 0.06) of catheter-related sepsis [74]. Bone marrow transplant patients were randomly assigned to 100 U/kg per day of heparin or saline [75]. They found a significant decrease in the CR-BSI rate in the heparin-treated group (2.5/1,000 CVC-days vs. 6.4/1,000 "
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    ABSTRACT: Catheters are the leading source of bloodstream infections for patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Comprehensive unit-based programs have proven to be effective in decreasing catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSIs). ICU rates of CR-BSI higher than 2 per 1,000 catheter-days are no longer acceptable. The locally adapted list of preventive measures should include skin antisepsis with an alcoholic preparation, maximal barrier precautions, a strict catheter maintenance policy, and removal of unnecessary catheters. The development of new technologies capable of further decreasing the now low CR-BSI rate is a major challenge. Recently, new materials that decrease the risk of skin-to-vein bacterial migration, such as new antiseptic dressings, were extensively tested. Antimicrobial-coated catheters can prevent CR-BSI but have a theoretical risk of selecting resistant bacteria. An antimicrobial or antiseptic lock may prevent bacterial migration from the hub to the bloodstream. This review discusses the available knowledge about these new technologies.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Annals of Intensive Care
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