Suchodolski JS, Ruaux CG, Steiner JM, Fetz K, Williams DA.. Assessment of the qualitative variation in bacterial microflora among compartments of the intestinal tract of dogs by use of a molecular fingerprinting technique. Am J Vet Res 66: 1556-1562

Gastrointestinal Laboratory, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4474, USA.
American Journal of Veterinary Research (Impact Factor: 1.34). 10/2005; 66(9):1556-62. DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.2005.66.1556
Source: PubMed


To evaluate the qualitative variation in bacterial microflora among compartments of the intestinal tract of dogs by use of a molecular fingerprinting technique.
14 dogs (similarly housed and fed identical diets).
Samples of intestinal contents were collected from the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon, and rectum of each dog. Bacterial DNA was extracted from the samples, and the variable V6 to V8 region of 16S ribosomal DNA (gene coding for 16S ribosomal RNA) was amplified by use of universal bacterial primers; polymerase chain reaction amplicons were separated via denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Similarity indices of DGGE banding patterns were used to assess variation in the bacterial microflora among different compartments of the intestine within and among dogs. Bacterial diversity was assessed by calculating the Simpson diversity index, the Shannon-Weaver diversity index, and evenness.
DGGE profiles indicated marked differences in bacterial composition of intestinal compartments among dogs (range of similarity, 25.6% to 36.6%) and considerable variation among compartments within individual dogs (range of similarity, 36.7% to 579%). Similarities between neighboring intestinal compartments were significantly greater than those between non-neighboring compartments. Diversity indices for the colon and rectum were significantly higher than those of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.
Results indicated that the different intestinal compartments of individual dogs appear to host different bacterial populations, and these compartmental populations vary among dogs. In dogs, fecal sample analysis may not yield accurate information regarding the composition of bacterial populations in compartments of the gastrointestinal tract.

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    • "Results from the dendrogram presented here indicate a certain intra-individual similarity, especially of the distal gut microbiota. As expected, bacterial compositions of consecutive intestinal compartments were more closely related to each other, as has been previously shown in dogs (Suchodolski et al., 2005) and humans (Andersson et al., 2008). Bacterial communities from feces were not significantly different from the ones found in the large colon, which agrees with the findings ofDougal et al. (2012)who reported similar TRFLP profiles from feces and large colon content of horses, but not from the cecum. "
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    ABSTRACT: The advance of new sequencing technologies has allowed more comprehensive characterization of complex microbial communities, including the ones inhabiting the intestinal tract. The presence of extreme environmental filters, such as low pH, digestive enzymes and anaerobic conditions along the tract, acts on the selection of unique bacteria in each compartment. The intestinal microbiota has an enormous impact on the maintenance of health. However, data about the bacteria present in the different intestinal compartments of horses are sparse. In this study, high throughput sequencing was used to characterize and compare bacterial profiles from different intestinal compartments of 11 horses scheduled for euthanasia for reasons other than gastrointestinal problems. Marked differences among compartments even at high taxonomic levels were found, with Firmicutes comprising the main bacterial phylum in all compartments. Lactobacillus spp. and Sarcina spp. predominated in the stomach and a marked increase of Streptococcus spp. occurred in the duodenum. Actinobacillus and Clostridium sensu stricto were the most abundant genera in the ileum and '5 genus incertae sedis', a genus from the Subdivision 5 class of the Verrucomicrobia, was the most abundant from the large colon through feces. There was a significant increase in diversity towards the distal gut with similar profiles observed from the cecum through feces at the class level. The bacterial population comprising the equine intestinal tract varies greatly among compartments and fecal samples may be useful as representative of changes occurring in the distal compartments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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    • "With respect to the variability of the composition of canine intestinal microbiota, considerable intraspecies differences have been observed in dogs housed under identical conditions and receiving the same diet, with very marked variations in the microbial species residing in the large intestine compared to those found in the small intestine. Moreover, there are large differences between the bacterial species that inhabit the different sections of the intestine and faecal microbiota (Suchodolski et al., 2005). The animal's age is one of the factors influ[page 170] [Ital J Anim Sci vol.13:2014] encing the composition of faecal microbiota: in older animals, lecithinase-positive clostridia and bacteria belonging to the class bacilli are found in higher concentrations than lactobacilli , pepto-streptococci and bifidobacteria (Benno and Mitsuoka, 1989; Benno et al., 1992; Mitsuoka, 1992); furthermore, faecal microbiota seems to be influenced not only by age, but also by the dog breed (Simpson et al., 2002). "
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    ABSTRACT: The microbiota of the large intestine plays a fundamental role in maintaining the state of health of the gastrointestinal tract and the host. The use of specific dietary supplements such as prebiotics and synbiotics might positively influence the composition and metabolism of the intestinal microbial population. Several studies have been conducted on the use of prebiotics in dogs. Most studies have aimed to assess whether using prebiotics brings about an improvement in the canine intestinal ecosystem. Moreover, the effect of prebiotics on canine immune system has also been investigated. Among the prebiotics used in the studies present in the literature, short-chain fructooligosaccharides and oligofructose seem to be the most effective in modulating the canine intestinal ecosystem and improving intestinal absorption of minerals but with little or no effect on canine immune system. Conversely, mannanoligosaccharides may have a positive influence on the immune system of dogs. Some positive effects of prebiotics on canine intestinal microbiota might be enhanced when these are used in combination with one or more probiotic strains (synbiotic). Clinical effects of prebiotics have been investigated in humans and animal models but little evidence exists that prebiotics may be helpful in canine diseases. Finally, most studies on canine intestinal microbiota were conducted using traditional culture methods, so that more research remains to be done with modern molecular identification methods to investigate the effects of prebiotic substances. This paper presents an overview of the scientific literature dealing with the use of prebiotics and synbiotics in the canine species.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Italian Journal of Animal Science
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    • "This is also consistent with results from other animal species; one study in cattle reported significant differences in the microbial community as ingesta travelled along the gastrointestinal tract [11]. Likewise in dogs, marked variation between compartments within dogs and within compartments between dogs was noted [10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The composition of the microbiota of the equine intestinal tract is complex. Determining whether the microbial composition of fecal samples is representative of proximal compartments of the digestive tract could greatly simplify future studies. The objectives of this study were to compare the microbial populations of the duodenum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum (feces) within and between healthy horses, and to determine whether rectal (fecal) samples are representative of proximal segments of the gastrointestinal tract. Intestinal samples were collected from ten euthanized horses. 16S rRNA gene PCR-based TRFLP was used to investigate microbiota richness in various segments of the gastrointestinal tract, and dice similarity indices were calculated to compare the samples. Results Within horses large variations of microbial populations along the gastrointestinal tract were seen. The microbiota in rectal samples was only partially representative of other intestinal compartments. The highest similarity was obtained when feces were compared to the cecum. Large compartmental variations were also seen when microbial populations were compared between six horses with similar dietary and housing management. Conclusion Rectal samples were not entirely representative of intestinal compartments in the small or large intestine. This should be taken into account when designing studies using fecal sampling to assess other intestinal compartments. Similarity between horses with similar dietary and husbandry management was also limited, suggesting that parts of the intestinal microbiota were unique to each animal in this study.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · BMC Research Notes
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