Protein Transduction of Dendritic Cells for NY-ESO-1-Based Immunotherapy of Myeloma

ArticleinCancer Research 65(21):10041-9 · December 2005with6 Reads
DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-1383 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Myeloma vaccines, based on dendritic cells pulsed with idiotype or tumor lysate, have been met with limited success, probably in part due to insufficient cross-priming of myeloma antigens. A powerful method to introduce myeloma-associated antigens into the cytosol of dendritic cells is protein transduction, a process by which proteins fused with a protein transduction domain (PTD) freely traverse membrane barriers. NY-ESO-1, an immunogenic antigen by itself highly expressed in 60% of high-risk myeloma patients, was purified to near homogeneity both alone and as a recombinant fusion protein with a PTD, derived from HIV-Tat. Efficient entry of PTD-NY-ESO-1 into dendritic cells, confirmed by microscopy, Western blotting, and intracellular flow cytometry, was achieved without affecting dendritic cell phenotype. Experiments with amiloride, which inhibits endocytosis, and N-acetyl-l-leucinyl-l-norleucinal, a proteasome inhibitor, confirmed that PTD-NY-ESO-1 entered dendritic cells by protein transduction and was degraded by the proteasome. Tetramer analysis indicated superior generation of HLA-A2.1, CD8+ T lymphocytes specific for NY-ESO-1(157-165) with PTD-NY-ESO-1 compared with NY-ESO-1 control protein (44% versus 2%, respectively). NY-ESO-1-specific T lymphocytes generated with PTD-NY-ESO-1 secreted IFN-gamma indicative of a Tc1-type cytokine response. Thus, PTD-NY-ESO-1 accesses the cytoplasm by protein transduction, is processed by the proteasome, and NY-ESO-1 peptides presented by HLA class I elicit NY-ESO-1-specific T lymphocytes.
    • "cancer testis antigens (CTA). In multiple myeloma, several CTAs have been described by others and us, including MAGE-A3 (melanomaassociated antigen 3) [20][21][22][23], NY-ESO-1 (New York esophageal-1) [24][25][26][27], WT-1 (Wilms' tumor gene 1) [28][29][30], and RHAMM/HMMR (receptor of hyaluronic acid mediated motility) [31][32][33]. Of these, MAGE-A3, NY-ESO-1/2, and WT-1 are not expressed in normal bone marrow plasma cells but aberrantly in malignant plasma cells [34, 35]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Raising T-cell response against antigens either expressed on normal and malignant plasma cells (e.g. HM1.24) or aberrantly on myeloma cells only (e.g. cancer testis antigens, CTA) by vaccination is a potential treatment approach for multiple myeloma. Results: Expression by GEP is found for HM1.24 in all, HMMR in 318/458 (69.4%), MAGE-A3 in 209/458 (45.6%), NY-ESO-1/2 in 40/458 (8.7%), and WT-1 in 4/458 (0.8%) of samples with the pattern being confirmed by RNA-sequencing. T-cell-activation is found in 9/26 (34.6%) of patient samples, i.e. against HM1.24 (4/24), RHAMM-R3 (3/26), RHAMM1-8 (2/14), WT-1 (1/11), NY-ESO-1/2 (1/9), and MAGE-A3 (2/8). In 7/19 T-cell activation responses, myeloma cells lack respective antigen-expression. Expression of MAGE-A3, HMMR and NY-ESO-1/2 is associated with adverse survival. Experimental design: We assessed expression of HM1.24 and the CTAs MAGE-A3, NY-ESO-1/2, WT-1 and HMMR in CD138-purified myeloma cell samples of previously untreated myeloma patients in the GMMG-MM5 multicenter-trial by gene expression profiling (GEP; n = 458) and RNA-sequencing (n = 152) as potential population regarding vaccination trials. We then validated the feasibility to generate T-cell responses (n = 72) against these antigens by IFN-γ EliSpot-assay (n = 26) related to antigen expression (n = 22). Lastly, we assessed survival impact of antigen expression in an independent cohort of 247 patients treated by high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation. Conclusions: As T-cell responses can only be raised in a subfraction of patients despite antigen expression, and the number of responses increases with more antigens used, vaccination strategies should assess patients' antigen expression and use a "cocktail" of peptide vaccines.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014
    • "Allogeneic T lymphocytes from mismatched donors were cocultured with either control or rAAV-transduced DCs in triplicate, flat-bottom 96-well microplates according to our established pro- tocol [20]. The plates were incubated at 37 @BULLET C in a humidified chamber with 5% CO 2 , and cell proliferation was measured using the CCK-8 Cell Proliferation Kit (Dojindo, Gaithersburg, MD) according to manufacturer's instructions. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MAGE-A3 is highly expressed in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), making it a promising candidate for immunotherapy. We investigated whether dendritic cells (DCs) transduced with a rAAV-6 capsid mutant vector Y445F could elicit effective MAGE-A3-specific anti-tumor cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses in vitro. MAGE-A3 was cloned and rAAV-6-MAGE-A3 purified, followed by proviral genome detection using real-time PCR. Immunofluorescence detection of rAAV-6-Y445F-MAGE-A3-transduced DCs demonstrated 60% transduction efficiency. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis confirmed chromosomal integration of rAAV vectors. Flow cytometric analysis of transduced DCs showed unaltered expression of critical monocyte-derived surface molecules with retention of allo-stimulatory activity. Co-culture of autologous T lymphocytes with MAGE-A3-expressing DCs produced CTLs that secreted IFN-γ, and efficiently killed MAGE-A3+ EOC cells. This form of rAAV-based DC immunotherapy, either alone or more likely in combination with other immune-enhancing protocols, may prove useful in the clinical setting for management of EOC.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014
    • "T cells from myeloma patients can recognize a variety of TAAs, which suggesting that the T cell has the capacity to kill myeloma cells selectively if these clonal populations can be activated and expanded effectively by a potent TAA. Many potential TAAs in MM have been investigated including polymorphic epithelial mucin (MUC1), human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), PRAME, HM1.24, SP17, Wilms' tumor I (WTI), Dickkopf-1 (DKK1), or member of cancer germ-like family (MAGE, GAGE, BAGE, LAGE, NY-ESO-1) [30–35]. Among the various TAAs, some have been tested as peptide vaccines and only a few of them has been tested in vitro to induce TAA-specific CTLs response via loading the potent TAA to DCs in MM. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a good target disease in which one can apply cellular immunotherapy, which is based on the graft-versus-myeloma effect. This role of immune effector cells provides the framework for the development of immune-based therapeutic options that use antigen-presenting cells (APCs) with increased potency, such as dendritic cells (DCs), in MM. Current isolated idiotype (Id), myeloma cell lysates, myeloma dying cells, DC-myeloma hybrids, or DC transfected with tumor-derived RNA has been used for immunotherapy with DCs. Immunological inhibitory cytokines, such as TGF-β, IL-10, IL-6 and VEGF, which are produced from myeloma cells, can modulate antitumor host immune response, including the abrogation of DC function, by constitutive activation of STAT3. Therefore, even the immune responses have been observed in clinical trials, the clinical response was rarely improved following DC vaccinations in MM patients. We are going to discuss how to improve the efficacy of DC vaccination in MM.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012
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