Hyperstimulation and a Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist Modulate Ovarian Vascular Permeability by Altering Expression of the Tight Junction Protein Claudin-5
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Japan. Endocrinology
(Impact Factor: 4.5).
03/2006; 147(2):694-9. DOI: 10.1210/en.2005-0700
We investigated the mechanism by which a GnRH agonist (GnRHa) affects ovarian vascularity, vascular permeability, and expression of the tight junction protein claudin-5 in a rat model of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Hyperstimulated rats received excessive doses of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG; 50 IU/d) for 4 consecutive days, from d 25 to 28 of life, followed by 25 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on d 29. Control rats received 10 IU PMSG on d 27 of life, followed by 10 IU hCG on d 29. GnRHa (leuprolide 100 microg/kg.d) was administered to some hyperstimulated rats either on d 29 and 30 (short-term GnRHa treatment) or from d 25 to 30 (long-term GnRHa treatment). Ovarian vascular density (vessels per 10 mm(2)) and vessel endothelial area (percent) were assessed by immunohistochemical analysis of the distribution of von Willebrand factor, whereas vascular permeability was evaluated based on leakage of Evans blue. High doses of PMSG and hCG significantly increased ovarian weight, vascular permeability, vascular density, and the vessel endothelial area and significantly reduced expression of claudin-5 protein and mRNA. All of these effects were significantly and dose-dependently inhibited by administration of GnRHa. This suggests that reduced expression of claudin-5 plays a crucial role in the increased ovarian vascular permeability seen in OHSS and that its expression can be modulated by GnRHa treatment. Indeed, preventing redistribution of tight junction proteins in endothelial cells and the resultant loss of endothelial barrier architecture might be the key to protecting patients against massive extravascular fluid accumulation in cases of OHSS.
Available from: Dante Agustin Paz
- "Vascular permeability was measured by monitoring the release of intravenously injected Evans Blue dye (EB) into the peritoneal fluid and ovarian tissue as previously described
[24,27]. Briefly, 48 hours after hCG administration, 5 mM EB dye was diluted in distilled water and 0.2 ml was intravenously (i.v.) injected with an insulin injector through the tail vein. "
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ABSTRACT: In assisted reproduction cycles, gonadotropins are administered to obtain a greater number of oocytes. A majority of patients do not have an adverse response; however, approximately 3-6% develop ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Metformin reduces the risk of OHSS but little is known about the possible effects and mechanisms of action involved.
To evaluate whether metformin attenuates some of the ovarian adverse effects caused by OHSS and to study the mechanisms involved.
A rat OHSS model was used to investigate the effects of metformin administration. Ovarian histology and follicle counting were performed in ovarian sections stained with Masson trichrome. Vascular permeability was measured by the release of intravenously injected Evans Blue dye (EB). VEGF levels were measured by commercially immunosorbent assay kit. COX-2 protein expression was evaluated by western blot and NOS levels were analyses by immunohistochemistry.
Animals of the OHSS group showed similar physiopathology characteristics to the human syndrome: increased body weight, elevated progesterone and estradiol levels (P<0.001), increased number of corpora lutea (P<0.001), higher ovarian VEGF levels and vascular permeability (P<0.001 and P<0.01); and treatment with metformin prevented this effect (OHSS+M group; P<0.05). The vasoactive factors: COX-2 and NOS were increased in the ovaries of the OHSS group (P<0.05 and P<0.01) and metformin normalized their expression (P<0.05); suggesting that metformin has a role preventing the increased in vascular permeability caused by the syndrome.
Metformin has a beneficial effect preventing OHSS by reducing the increase in: body weight, circulating progesterone and estradiol and vascular permeability. These effects of metformin are mediated by inhibiting the increased of the vasoactive molecules: VEGF, COX-2 and partially NOS. Molecules that are increased in OHSS and are responsible for a variety of the symptoms related to OHSS.
Available from: Tsuyoshi Baba
- "Western blot analysis was carried out as described previously . Ovaries were homogenized (100 mg wet weight/ml) in ice cold PBS (10 mM sodium phosphate and 150 mM sodium chloride, pH 7.8) containing 0.2% Triton X-100 using a Teflon glass tissue grinder (15 strokes), after which the homogenates were centrifuged (12,000 × g at 4°C for 20 min), and the supernatant fractions were collected for protein assay. "
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ABSTRACT: Zucker fatty (fa/fa) rats are a well-understood model of obesity and hyperinsulinemia. It is now thought that obesity/hyperinsulinemia is an important cause of endocrinological abnormality, but to date there have been no reports on the changes in ovarian morphology or the ovarian androgen profile in rat models of obesity and insulin resistance.
In this study we investigated the effects of obesity and hyperinsulinemia on ovarian morphology and the hormone profile in insulin-resistant Zucker fatty rats (5, 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age, n = 6-7).
Ovaries from 5-week-old fatty rats had significantly greater total and atretic follicle numbers, and higher atretic-to-total follicle ratios than those from lean rats. Ovaries from 12- and 16-week-old fatty rats showed interstitial cell hyperplasia and numerous cysts with features of advanced follicular atresia. In addition, serum testosterone and androstenedione levels significantly declined in fatty rats from age 8 to 16 weeks, so that fatty rats showed significantly lower levels of serum testosterone (12 and 16 weeks) and androstenedione (all weeks) than lean rats. This may reflect a reduction of androgen synthesis during follicular atresia. Serum adiponectin levels were high in immature fatty rats, and although the levels declined significantly as they matured, it remained significantly higher in fatty rats than in lean rats. On the other hand, levels of ovarian adiponectin and its receptors were significantly lower in mature fatty rats than in lean mature rats or immature fatty rats.
Our findings indicate that ovarian morphology and hormone profiles are significantly altered by the continuous insulin resistance in Zucker fatty rats. Simultaneously, abrupt reductions in serum and ovarian adiponectin also likely contribute to the infertility seen in fatty rats.
Available from: Hamish M Fraser
- "It may be hypothesized that LGCs synthesize different factors which act synergistically on endothelial adhesion proteins. It is likely that these observations inform us about the important features of the molecular pathophysiology of OHSS (Albert et al., 2002;Kitajima et al., 2006;Villasante et al., 2007) as well as other pathological conditions associated with increased vascular permeability (Karmpaliotis et al., 2002;Kosmidou et al., 2007). With regard to OHSS, the current strategies for prevention involve withholding hCG in women at risk to prevent ovulation and luteal formation (Mathur et al., 2007). "
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ABSTRACT: Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a potentially life-threatening complication of ovarian stimulation associated with severe vascular hyperpermeability. Primary co-cultures of human luteinized granulosa cells (LGCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used as a model of steroidgenic/endothelial cell interaction in OHSS.
hCG and the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor, Flt-1Fc, were added to co-cultures of LGCs and HUVECs separated by a micropore membrane. Endothelial permeability to labeled bovine serum albumin was measured and the expression of the endothelial cell-specific adhesion protein claudin 5 was investigated using immunocytochemistry and western blotting.
The addition of hCG increased HUVEC permeability in the presence of LGCs (P < 0.05). hCG increased VEGF concentrations in both chambers of the co-culture system (P < 0.05). The increased permeability in the presence of LGCs and hCG was inhibited when VEGF was blocked by Flt-1Fc (P < 0.05). Endothelial membrane claudin 5 protein was reduced in the presence of hCG and LGCs, as measured by immunocytochemistry (P < 0.05) and western blotting (P < 0.05) and this reduction was inhibited by Flt-1Fc. hCG had no direct effects on endothelial cell claudin 5.
For OHSS, this novel paradigm suggests that hCG can increase endothelial permeability by up-regulating VEGF in LGCs which causes reduction in endothelial claudin 5 expression.
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