Distinct Contributions of T1R2 and T1R3 Taste Receptor Subunits to the Detection of Sweet Stimuli

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA.
Current Biology (Impact Factor: 9.57). 12/2005; 15(21):1948-52. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2005.09.037
Source: PubMed


Animals utilize hundreds of distinct G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-type chemosensory receptors to detect a diverse array of chemical signals in their environment, including odors, pheromones, and tastants. However, the molecular mechanisms by which these receptors selectively interact with their cognate ligands remain poorly understood. There is growing evidence that many chemosensory receptors exist in multimeric complexes, though little is known about the relative contributions of individual subunits to receptor functions. Here, we report that each of the two subunits in the heteromeric T1R2:T1R3 sweet taste receptor binds sweet stimuli though with distinct affinities and conformational changes. Furthermore, ligand affinities for T1R3 are drastically reduced by the introduction of a single amino acid change associated with decreased sweet taste sensitivity in behaving mice. Thus, individual T1R subunits increase the receptive range of the sweet taste receptor, offering a functional mechanism for phenotypic variations in sweet taste.

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Available from: Jeanette R Hobbs, Feb 25, 2014
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    • "Current working concept suggests, increase in secondary structure content for the extracellular domain upon ligand binding, similar to mGluR. However, circular dichroism studies by independent groups show, decrease in secondary structure content on ligand binding [26] [27] "
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    ABSTRACT: Validation of research methodology is critical in research design. Correlation between experimental observables must be established before undertaking extensive experiments or propose mechanisms. This article shows that, observables in the popular calcium flux strength assay used in the characterization of sweetener-sweet taste receptor (STR) interaction are uncorrelated. In pursuit to find potential sweeteners and enhancers, calcium flux generated via G-protein coupling for wildtype and mutant receptors expressed on cell surface is measured to identify and localize sweetener binding sites. Results are channeled for sweetener development with direct impact on public health. We show that flux strength is independent of EC50 and sweet potency. Sweet potency-EC50 relation is non-linear and anti-correlated. Single point mutants affecting receptor efficiency, without significant shift in EC50 have been published, indicating flux strength is independent of ligand binding. G-protein coupling step is likely observed in the assay. Thus, years have been spent generating uncorrelated data. Data from uncorrelated observables does not give meaningful results. Still, majority of research in the field, uses change in calcium flux strength to study the receptor. Methodology away from flux strength monitor is required for sweetener development, reestablish binding localization of sweeteners established by flux strength method. This article serves to remind researchers to validate methodology before plunging into long term projects. Ignoring validation test on methodology, have been a costly mistake in the field. Concepts discussed here is applicable, whenever observable in biological systems are many steps moved from the event of interest.
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    • "While both T1R2 and T1R3 KO animals have significantly impaired sweet taste sensitivity, there has been some suggestion that T1R2 and T1R3 may be capable of functioning independently as homodimers [14], [15], [29]. Work from the Munger group has suggested that T1R3, in particular, may be the primary mediator of T1R2/T1R3 signaling [14], [30]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Functional expression of sweet taste receptors (T1R2 and T1R3) has been reported in numerous metabolic tissues, including the gut, pancreas, and, more recently, in adipose tissue. It has been suggested that sweet taste receptors in these non-gustatory tissues may play a role in systemic energy balance and metabolism. Smaller adipose depots have been reported in T1R3 knockout mice on a high carbohydrate diet, and sweet taste receptors have been reported to regulate adipogenesis in vitro. To assess the potential contribution of sweet taste receptors to adipose tissue biology, we investigated the adipose tissue phenotypes of T1R2 and T1R3 knockout mice. Here we provide data to demonstrate that when fed an obesogenic diet, both T1R2 and T1R3 knockout mice have reduced adiposity and smaller adipocytes. Although a mild glucose intolerance was observed with T1R3 deficiency, other metabolic variables analyzed were similar between genotypes. In addition, food intake, respiratory quotient, oxygen consumption, and physical activity were unchanged in T1R2 knockout mice. Although T1R2 deficiency did not affect adipocyte number in peripheral adipose depots, the number of bone marrow adipocytes is significantly reduced in these knockout animals. Finally, we present data demonstrating that T1R2 and T1R3 knockout mice have increased cortical bone mass and trabecular remodeling. This report identifies novel functions for sweet taste receptors in the regulation of adipose and bone biology, and suggests that in these contexts, T1R2 and T1R3 are either dependent on each other for activity or have common independent effects in vivo.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Analyses of the Tas1r3 sequence variants across multiple inbred strains identified a missense polymorphism (I60T) in the extracellular N-terminus of the T1R3 protein as a candidate causative variant for ligand binding and phenotypical variation in sweet taste [94]. The effect of this polymorphism on T1R3 ligand binding was confirmed in vitro [113]. Tas1r3 polymorphisms affect behavioral and neural taste responses to many different sweeteners [114] [115], indicating that these sweeteners activate a taste receptor involving T1R3. "
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    ABSTRACT: Taste receptors function as one of the interfaces between internal and external milieus. Taste receptors for sweet and umami (T1R [taste receptor, type 1]), bitter (T2R [taste receptor, type 2]), and salty (ENaC [epithelial sodium channel]) have been discovered in the recent years, but transduction mechanisms of sour taste and ENaC-independent salt taste are still poorly understood. In addition to these five main taste qualities, the taste system detects such noncanonical "tastes" as water, fat, and complex carbohydrates, but their reception mechanisms require further research. Variations in taste receptor genes between and within vertebrate species contribute to individual and species differences in taste-related behaviors. These variations are shaped by evolutionary forces and reflect species adaptations to their chemical environments and feeding ecology. Principles of drug discovery can be applied to taste receptors as targets in order to develop novel taste compounds to satisfy demand in better artificial sweeteners, enhancers of sugar and sodium taste, and blockers of bitterness of food ingredients and oral medications.
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