The Children in the Community Study of Developmental Course of Personality Disorder

ArticleinJournal of Personality Disorders 19(5):466-86 · November 2005with92 Reads
Impact Factor: 2.31 · DOI: 10.1521/pedi.2005.19.5.466 · Source: PubMed

The Children in the Community (CIC) Study is an ongoing investigation of the course of psychiatric disorders including personality disorders (PDs) in an epidemiological sample of about 800 youths. In addition to tracking developmental trajectories over 20 years from adolescence into adulthood, the CIC Study has used prospective data to investigate early risks for Axis II disorders and symptoms (including both environmental factors and early characteristics), implications of comorbidity with Axis I disorders, and associated negative prognostic risk of adolescent PDs into adulthood. The substantial independent impact of PD on subsequent Axis I disorders, suicide attempts, violent and criminal behavior, interpersonal conflict, and other problematic adult outcomes confirms the importance of attention to these problems when they manifest in early adolescence. The implications of study findings for potential changes in the DSM are discussed.

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    • "Because studies measuring BPD using community data have revealed that BPD affects both genders equally (Lenzenweger, Lane, Loranger, & Kessler, 2007; Zimmerman & Coryell, 1989), future studies should sample and test similar hypotheses with male adolescents. Our finding that BPD was stable across these years is somewhat inconsistent with prior findings (e.g., Cohen, Crawford, Johnson, & Kasen, 2005) and may reflect the strong representation of disadvantaged girls in the study. It is conceivable that different samples may lead to different results for the associations found here. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent years, major gains toward understanding the emergence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) pathology, which is typically first noted during adolescence, have been made. Simultaneously, a profound shift has occurred in the adult personality pathology literature, in which empirical evidence rebuts the idea that personality disorders (PDs) are intractable disorders that do not develop or otherwise change over time, and therefore cannot be treated. The present study addresses a gap in our understanding of within-person change in BPD symptoms across adolescence and contributes to the limited literature on outcomes associated with adolescent BPD. Using an at-risk community sample of girls (N = 2,450), the authors used bivariate latent growth curve models to analyze the codevelopment of BPD symptoms with eight domains of psychosocial functioning (e.g., academic achievement, social skills, sexual behavior) across ages 14-17. Findings revealed moderate to strong effect sizes for the associations between BPD symptoms and every domain of psychosocial functioning, suggesting that the development of BPD was coupled with poorer outcomes across development. Controlling for depression and conduct disorder features revealed unique associations between BPD and self-perception, social skills, and sexual behavior. These results highlight the increased need for extending advancements in the adult PD literature to research on PDs in adolescence, and for greater recognition of adolescent BPD in clinical settings.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of personality disorders
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    • "Finally, developmental issues may be responsible for the less differentiated pattern of personality pathology in younger age groups. Previous research (Cohen et al., 2005; De Clercq, De Fruyt, & Van Leeuwen, 2004) has already shown a high degree of overlap among personality symptomatology in youth, suggesting that personality pathology is less crystallized at younger ages. Across informants, internal consistencies of the English DIPSI dimensions and facets were good to excellent, and were similar to those found for the original version (De Clercq et al., 2006). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study addresses the psychometric properties of the English version of the Dimensional Personality Symptom Item Pool (DIPSI), a comprehensive taxonomy of trait-related symptoms in childhood. The structural invariance of the English DIPSI and the original Flemish version was investigated in a large sample of Canadian (n = 341) and Flemish (n = 509) adolescents, using both self- and maternal ratings. The original 4-factor structure of the DIPSI, including the dimensions Emotional Instability, Disagreeableness, Introversion, and Compulsivity, was replicated in the Canadian sample across informants. Results provided support for metric invariance across the English and Flemish DIPSI version, indicating that associations between variables across samples can be confidently made, although the meaning of specific items may slightly differ across the different DIPSI versions. Across raters, the Flemish and English DIPSI dimensions showed a similar covariation pattern with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. High intercorrelations between the DIPSI dimensions in both the Flemish and English version suggest low discriminant validity, potentially resulting from lower variance on personality pathology in general populations, from a general pathology factor, or from developmental issues. To conclude, the English version of the DIPSI can be considered a promising tool for assessing maladaptive traits in younger age groups in internationally oriented research designs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment
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    • "These two domains overlap and personality traits predict common mental disorder accurately (Kotov et al., 2010). Longitudinally early personality disorder is related to both later personality disorder (Johnson et al., 2000) and common mental state disorder in epidemiological samples (Cohen et al., 2005). Common mental state disorders have also been reported to fit a two factor model of psychopathology in a longitudinal sample (Krueger et al., 1998), reflecting an internalizing and externalizing factor. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Personality has been associated with a variety of outcomes in adulthood. Most of the literature related to mental state disorder and personality is cross sectional. Data from more than 900 participants of the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS) were examined. Extroversion and neuroticism were measured at 14 years old and social outcomes at age 30. The presence of mental state disorder between 18-30 years old was identified. Multiple potential confounders in childhood were included in the analysis. Neuroticism at fourteen was significantly correlated with multiple environmental exposures whereas extroversion had relatively few associations. Regression analysis found that neuroticism at 14 predicted depression, anxiety, suicidality and overall mental health problems at 30 as well as poor self-esteem but not relationship quality or wellbeing. Extroversion at 14 predicted alcohol and drug dependence and overall mental health problems, but also predicted improved social wellbeing, self-esteem and relationship quality at 30. In this analysis extroversion interacts with significantly fewer environmental factors than neuroticism in predicting adult outcomes. Neuroticism at 14 years predicts poorer mental health outcomes in adulthood. Extroversion in childhood may be a protective factor in the development of mental disorder other than alcohol use disorders. Extroverted adolescents have more positive social outcomes at 30 years. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
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