Predictors for nonsentinel node involvement in breast cancer patients with micrometastases in the sentinel lymph node

Department of Surgery, Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA.
Proceedings (Baylor University. Medical Center) 02/2003; 16(1):3-6.
Source: PubMed


Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy in breast cancer allows for a more thorough pathologic assessment with serial sectioning and cytokeratin staining. This has resulted in increased detection of micrometastatic disease (tumor size < 2 mm) in the SLN. Unfortunately, the value of completion axillary dissection after finding micrometastatic disease in the SLN remains poorly defined. Over a 2-year period, a prospective database of 305 patients who underwent SLN biopsy for breast cancer at Baylor University Medical Center was reviewed. Eighty-four (27.5%) of the patients had evidence of metastatic disease in the SLN. Twenty-four of the 41 patients identified as having micrometastatic disease in the SLN underwent completion axillary lymph node dissection. In these patients, all nonsentinel nodes were further studied by serial sectioning and immunohistochemistry. The median age of these 24 patients was 52 years (range, 34-83). Their primary tumor stages were T1a and T1b (n = 5), T1c (n = 15), and T2 (n = 4). A total of 328 nonsentinel lymph nodes were examined, including 225 from patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma (n = 17) and 103 from patients with infiltrating lobular carcinoma (n = 7). In the patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma, no additional nodal metastases were identified, while in those with infiltrating lobular carcinoma, additional nodal disease was found in 5 lymph nodes (2 of 12 patients, 17%). Primary tumor characteristics were not predictive of additional nodal disease. These data suggest that patients with micro-metastasis in the SLN from infiltrating lobular carcinoma have a significant risk of harboring additional nodal disease and should undergo completion axillary dissection. However, those with micrometastatic disease from infiltrating ductal carcinoma have a very low incidence of additional metastasis and may not need completion axillary dissection.

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    • "The median age was 58 years (range 53–67 years), most patients had undergone BCT (44–100 %) and had received some form of adjuvant systemic therapy (36–100 %). Nine studies reported on radiotherapy of the axilla in 2–63 % of patients.14,16,19,25–27,29,35,39 "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become standard of care as a staging procedure in patients with invasive breast cancer. A positive SLNB allows completion axillary lymph node dissection (cALND) to be performed. The axillary recurrence rate (ARR) after cALND in patients with positive SLNB is low. Recently, several studies have reported a similar low ARR when cALND is not performed. This review aims to determine the ARR when cALND is omitted in SLNB-positive patients. Methods A literature search was performed in the PubMed database with the search terms “breast cancer,” “sentinel lymph node biopsy,” “axillary” and “recurrence.” Articles with data regarding follow-up of patients with SLNB-positive breast cancer were identified. To be eligible, patients should not have received cALND and ARR should be reported. Results Thirty articles were analyzed. This resulted in 7,151 patients with SLNB-positive breast cancer in whom a cALND was omitted (median follow-up of 45 months, range 1–142 months). Overall, 41 patients developed an axillary recurrence. 27 studies described 3,468 patients with micrometastases in the SLNB, of whom 10 (0.3 %) developed an axillary recurrence. ARR varied between 0 and 3.7 %. Sixteen studies described 3,268 patients with macrometastases, 24 (0.7 %) axillary recurrences were seen. ARR varied between 0 and 7.1 %. Details regarding type of surgery and adjuvant treatment were lacking in the majority of studies. Conclusions ARR appears to be low in SLNB-positive patients even when a cALND is not performed. Withholding cALND may be safe in breast cancer selected patients such as those with isolated tumor cells or micrometastatic disease.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Annals of Surgical Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: This retrospective study was designed to provide a preliminary outcome analysis in patients with positive sentinel nodes who declined axillary dissection. A review was conducted of patients who underwent lumpectomy and sentinel lymph node excision for invasive disease between January 1998 and July 2000. Those who were found to have sentinel lymph node metastasis without completion axillary dissection were selected for evaluation. Follow-up included physical examination and mammography. Thirty-one patients were identified who met inclusion criteria. Primary invasive cell types included infiltrating ductal carcinoma, infiltrating lobular carcinoma, and mixed cellularity. Most primary tumors were T1. Nodal metastases were identified by hematoxylin and eosin stain and immunohistochemistry. Twenty-seven of the metastases were microscopic (<2 mm), and the remaining four were macroscopic. All patients received adjuvant systemic therapy. With a mean follow-up of 30 months, there have been no patients with axillary recurrence on physical examination or mammographic evaluation. We have presented patients with sentinel lymph nodes involved by cancer who did not undergo further axillary resection and remain free of disease at least 1 year later. This preliminary analysis supports the inclusion of patients with subclinical axillary disease in trials that randomize to observation alone.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2003 · Annals of Surgical Oncology
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    Preview · Article · May 2004 · Proceedings (Baylor University. Medical Center)
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