Phenotypic variability in human prion diseases
Human prion diseases are rare neurodegenerative disorders that can occur as sporadic, familial or acquired disorders. Within each of these categories there is a wide range of phenotypic variation that is not encountered in other neurodegenerative disorders. The identification of the prion protein and its key role in the pathogenesis of this diverse group of diseases has allowed a fuller understanding of factors that influence disease phenotype. In particular, the naturally occurring polymorphism at codon 129 in the prion protein gene has a major influence on the disease phenotype in sporadic, familial and acquired prion diseases, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recent technical advances have improved our ability to study the isoforms of the abnormal prion protein in the brain and in other tissues. This has lead to the concept of molecular strain typing, in which different isoforms of the prion protein are proposed to correspond to individual strains of the transmissible agent, each with specific biological properties. In sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease there are at least six major combinations of codon 129 genotype and prion protein isotype, which appear to relate to distinctive clinical subgroups of this disease. However, these relationships are proving to be more complex than first considered, particularly in cases with more than a single prion protein isotype in the brain. Further work is required to clarify these relationships and to explain the mechanism of neuropathological targeting of specific brain regions, which accounts for the diversity of clinical features within human prion diseases.