Update on Rotavirus Vaccines

Respiratory and Enteric Virus Branch, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal (Impact Factor: 2.72). 12/2005; 24(11):947-52. DOI: 10.1097/01.inf.0000186295.18969.e6
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Rotavirus was discovered in 1973, and 10 years later the first report of a rotavirus vaccine clinical trial appeared. This update reviews the epidemiology of rotavirus infections, assesses past and current vaccines and presents ideas for implementation of vaccination programs in developed and developing countries.

    • "Discovered in 1973, rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea in small children. It is estimated that globally 5% of all deaths in children less than 5 years of age are due to rotavirus, of which 80% occur in the developing world [5]. At present, two new rotavirus vaccines are licensed and recommended for universal immunization by the World Health Organization [6]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We aimed to estimate the societal costs of rotavirus cases among children less than 5 years in Kazakhstan, an upper-middle income country in Central Asia. Data on medical, non-medical and indirect costs were collected for 190 patients less than 5 years, hospitalized with severe diarrhea in 2009 in two pediatric hospitals. Data on resource use for moderate and mild diarrhea cases were obtained from published sources. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed to explore uncertainty in cost estimates. Approximately 4,000 severe, 30,700 moderate, and 122,900 mild rotavirus cases were estimated annually in children <5 years old. The mean societal cost of a severe, moderate and mild rotavirus case was estimated at US$ 454, 82, and 21, respectively. The total annual cost of rotavirus disease was $37.53 million or on average $107.36 for a child under 5 years old in Kazakhstan. Ninety-four percent of total costs (35.13 million) are indirect costs (productivity losses) from fatal cases and parents' job absenteeism, while direct medical costs account for 2.04 million (5.4%), and direct non-medical for 0.46 million (1.2%). Rotavirus-associated diarrhea represents a significant economic burden in Kazakhstan, largely due to indirect costs. The costs of rotavirus infections should be considered when planning further preventive actions, including the introduction of rotavirus vaccination.
    No preview · Article · May 2011 · Vaccine
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: RESUMEN Desde el descubrimiento del virus Norwalk como causa de gastroenteritis, los virus son reconocidos como una importante causa de enfermedad diarreica en humanos en todo el mundo, y ha aumentado de forma consistente el número de agentes virales asociados con esta enfermedad. Rotavirus es la principal causa de diarrea grave en niños menores de 5 años y se estima que hasta uno de cada 58 niños precisará hospitalización por diarrea por rotavirus del grupo A durante los primeros 5 años de vida. Norovirus (antiguo virus Norwalk-like) y Sapovirus (antiguo virus Sapporo-like) pertenecen a la familia Caliciviridae y están emergiendo como causa de gastroenteritis esporádica en la infancia; esta infec-ción se ha encontrado en diversos países en 3.5% a 20% de casos esporádicos. Astrovirus se ha asociado con 4% a 12% de episodios de diarrea en niños y estudios recientes utilizando técnicas de diagnósti-co molecular han descrito que en algunos medios los astrovirus es la segunda causa de diarrea en niños. Finalmente, los datos sobre la incidencia de adenovirus entéricos en la diarrea infantil son varia-dos y en países industrializados oscila entre 1% y 8%. La gravedad de la enfermedad, así como la necesidad de hospitalización, han sido descritas como mayores en la gastroenteritis asociada con rotavirus del grupo A. El objeto de esta revisión es actualizar los conocimientos sobre la taxonomía, morbilidad y epidemiología molecular de estos virus, incluyendo la vacunación frente a rotavirus. Palabras clave: Gastroenteritis infecciosa; Diarrea viral; Vacuna frente a rotavirus. SUMMARY Since the Norwalk virus was identified as a cause of gastroenteritis, viruses are recognized as an important cause of diarrheal disease in humans worldwide and the number of viral agents associated with gastroenteritis has steadily increased. Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea in children under 5 years of age and it has been estimated that up to one in every 58 children will have been hospitalised because of diarrhea due to group A rotavirus during the first 5 years of life. Norovirus (former Norwalk-like virus) and sapovirus (former Sapporo-like virus) are members of the family Caliciviridae and are emerging as a cause of sporadic gastroenteritis in young children and in several countries this infection has been detected in 3.5-20% of sporadic cases. Astroviruses have been associated with 4% to 12% of diarrheal episodes in children and recent studies using immune and molecular diagnostics have established that in some settings astrovirus is the second most common cause of diarrhea in children. Finally, data on the incidence of enteric adenoviruses in childhood diarrhea are variable and in industrialized countries this incidence varies from 1% to 8%. The severity of disease, together with the need for hospitalisation, has been described greater with gastroenteritis caused by group A rotavirus. This review will focus on the epidemiology of these viruses, their taxonomy, morbidity, molecular epidemiology data and it will include an update on rotavirus vaccines.
    Preview · Article ·
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nota: Para evitar posibles conflic- tos de interés, en la elaboración de este documento no participaron los miembros del CCI que han estado involucrados en algunos de los estudios clínicos de vacuna Rotarix®.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2006 · Revista chilena de infectologia: organo oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectologia
Show more