Pediatric phase I trial and pharmacokinetic study of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor pathway inhibitor SU101
Pediatric Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA. Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
(Impact Factor: 2.77).
07/2004; 53(6):482-8. DOI: 10.1007/s00280-004-0769-2
To determine the maximum tolerated dose and the toxicity profile of the PDGF receptor pathway inhibitor SU101 in pediatric patients with refractory solid tumors, and to define the plasma pharmacokinetics of SU101 and its active metabolite SU0020 in children.
Patients between 3 and 21 years of age with CNS malignancy, neuroblastoma, or sarcoma refractory to standard therapy were eligible. The starting dose of SU101 was 230 mg/m(2) per day administered as a 96-h continuous infusion every 21 days. Blood for pharmacokinetic analysis was obtained during the first cycle.
Entered into the trial were 27 patients, and 24 were fully evaluable for toxicity. Dose-limiting central nervous system toxicity was observed in two patients at the 440 mg/m(2) per day dose level. Non-dose-limiting toxicities included nausea, vomiting, headache, fatigue, abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, pruritus, anorexia, constipation, and paresthesias. There were no complete or partial responses. One patient with rapidly progressive desmoplastic small round-cell tumor experienced symptomatic improvement and prolonged stable disease. Steady-state concentrations of SU101 were rapidly achieved and proportional to dose. The concentration of SU0020 was 100- to 1000-fold greater than that of SU101. The median clearance of SU0020 was 0.19 l/day per m(2) and its terminal elimination half-life was 14 days.
SU101 administered on this schedule was generally well tolerated. The maximum tolerated dose of SU101 is 390 mg/m(2) per day for 4 days repeated every 3 weeks. The neurotoxicity observed at the 440 mg/m(2) per day dose level suggests that patients receiving repetitive cycles must be monitored closely, as SU0020 may accumulate over time.
Available from: dsrct.com
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ABSTRACT: Desmoplastic small round cell tumors (DSRCTs) are rare aggressive neoplasms that frequently present with large symptomatic intraabdominal masses. We examined the effects of multimodal therapy including induction chemotherapy, aggressive surgical debulking, and external beam radiotherapy on patients with DSRCT.
Institutional Review Board permission was obtained. Sixty-six patients were diagnosed by histology, immunohistochemistry, and or cytogenetics as having DSRCT at our institution from July 1, 1972, to July 1, 2003. Data were collected on patient demographics, presenting symptoms, tumor location and extent, treatment regimen, and overall survival.
A majority of patients were male (91%), Caucasian (85%), and with a median age of 19 (7-58) years old at diagnosis. The most common presenting complaint was an intraabdominal mass (64%). In 63 patients (96%), the primary tumor was located in the abdomen or pelvis. Thirty-three (50%) had positive lymph nodes and 27 (41%) had distant parenchymal metastases at diagnosis. Overall, 3- and 5-year survivals were 44% and 15%, respectively. Twenty-nine of these patients (44%) underwent induction chemotherapy (P6), surgical debulking, and radiotherapy. Three-year survival was 55% in those receiving chemotherapy, surgery, and radiotherapy vs 27% when all 3 modalities were not used (P < .02). Gross tumor resection was highly significant in prolonging overall survival; 3-year survival was 58% in patients treated with gross tumor resection compared to no survivors past 3 years in the nonresection cohort (P < .00001). Ten patients (15%) have no evidence of disease with a median follow-up of 2.4 years (range, 0.4-11.2 years).
Multimodal therapy results in improved survival in patients with DSRCT. Aggressive surgical resection of these extensive intraabdominal neoplasms correlates with improved patient outcome.
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ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth and metastasis. This is firmly established in solid tumors, but accumulating evidence suggests that this is also an important event in hematological neoplasias. Angiogenesis is therefore a putative target for therapy. The potential application of different angiogenesis inhibitors is currently under intense clinical investigation, and we will here review a number of these trials. The association between cancer and thromboembolic disease is even better documented, and again, this is not limited to solid tumors. It appears that many patients with hematological malignancies have a dysfunctional hemostatic system, with increased risk of thromboembolism. Furthermore, effective antithrombotic therapy seems to reduce the risk of cancer progression and even prolongs overall survival. In this review we will thus discuss the mechanisms involved in the regulation of angiogenesis and hemostasis and present evidence for a shared biology. A number of factors regulating the hemostatic system also have pro- or anti-angiogenic properties. Tissue factor (TF) and TF pathway inhibitor (TFPI) seem to play a central role, and there are several lines of evidence suggesting a close cooperation between TF/TFPI and pro-angiogenic factors like members of the vascular endothelial growth factor family. A better understanding of this shared biology may reveal new targets, and will probably increase the safety of targeting the blood supply.
Available from: jco.ascopubs.org
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ABSTRACT: To determine the efficacy and safety of pediatric phase I oncology trials in the era of dose-intensive chemotherapy and to analyze how efficiently these trials are conducted.
Phase I pediatric oncology trials published from 1990 to 2004 and their corresponding adult phase I trials were reviewed. Dose escalation schemes using fixed 30% dose increments were studied to theoretically determine whether trials could be completed utilizing fewer patients and dose levels.
Sixty-nine pediatric phase I oncology trials enrolling 1,973 patients were identified. The pediatric maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) was strongly correlated with the adult MTD (r = 0.97). For three-fourths of the trials, the pediatric and adult MTD differed by no more than 30%, and for more than 85% of the trials, the pediatric MTD was less than or equal to 1.6 times the adult MTD. The median number of dose levels studied was four (range, two to 13). The overall objective response rate was 9.6%, the likelihood of experiencing a dose-limiting toxicity was 24%, and toxic death rate was 0.5%.
Despite the strong correlation between the adult and pediatric MTDs, more than four dose levels were studied in 40% of trials. There appeared to be little value in exploring dose levels greater than 1.6 times the adult MTD. Limiting pediatric phase I trials to a maximum of four doses levels would significantly shorten the timeline for study conduct without compromising safety.
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